Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism. Neo-fascism usually includes ultranationalism, racial supremacy, populism, authoritarianism, nativism, xenophobia and opposition to immigration, as well as opposition to liberal democracy, parliamentarianism, capitalism, Marxism, communism and socialism. Allegations that a group is neo-fascist may be hotly contested, especially if the term is used as a political epithet. Some post–World War II regimes have been described as neo-fascist due to their authoritarian nature, and sometimes due to their fascination with and sympathy towards fascist ideology and rituals.

Post-fascism is a label that has been applied to several European political parties that espouse a modified form of fascism and which partake in constitutional politics.[1][2]

International networks

In 1951, the New European Order (NEO) neo-fascist Europe-wide alliance was set up to promote Pan-European nationalism. It was a more radical splinter group of the European Social Movement. The NEO had its origins in the 1951 Malmö conference when a group of rebels led by René Binet and Maurice Bardèche refused to join the European Social Movement as they felt that it did not go far enough in terms of racialism and anti-communism. As a result, Binet joined with Gaston-Armand Amaudruz in a second meeting that same year in Zurich to set up a second group pledged to wage war on communists and non-white people.[3]

Fascist shop Toledo
Francoist/Falangist and Nazi memorabilia in a shop in Toledo, Spain

Several Cold War regimes and international neo-fascist movements collaborated in operations such as assassinations and false flag bombings. Stefano Delle Chiaie, who was involved in Italy's Years of Lead, took part in Operation Condor; organizing the 1976 assassination attempt on Chilean Christian Democrat Bernardo Leighton.[4] Vincenzo Vinciguerra escaped to Franquist Spain with the help of the SISMI, following the 1972 Peteano attack, for which he was sentenced to life.[5][6] Along with Delle Chiaie, Vinciguerra testified in Rome in December 1995 before judge María Servini de Cubría, stating that Enrique Arancibia Clavel (a former Chilean secret police agent prosecuted for crimes against humanity in 2004) and US expatriate DINA agent Michael Townley were directly involved in General Carlos Prats' assassination. Michael Townley was sentenced in Italy to 15 years of prison for having served as intermediary between the DINA and the Italian neo-fascists.[7]

The regimes of Francoist Spain, Augusto Pinochet's Chile and Alfredo Stroessner's Paraguay participated together in Operation Condor, which targeted political opponents worldwide. During the Cold War, these international operations gave rise to some cooperation between various neo-fascist elements engaged in a "Crusade against Communism".[8] Anti-Fidel Castro terrorist Luis Posada Carriles was condemned for the Cubana Flight 455 bombing on 6 October 1976. According to the Miami Herald, this bombing was decided on at the same meeting during which it was decided to target Chilean former minister Orlando Letelier, who was assassinated on 21 September 1976. Carriles wrote in his autobiography: "... we the Cubans didn't oppose ourselves to an isolated tyranny, nor to a particular system of our fatherland, but that we had in front of us a colossal enemy, whose main head was in Moscow, with its tentacles dangerously extended on all the planet."[9]



Italy was broadly divided into two political blocs following World War II, the Christian Democrats, who remained in power until the 1980s, and the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which was very strong immediately after the war.

With the beginning of the Cold War, the British government feared that the requested extradition of Italian war criminals to Yugoslavia would benefit the PCI. Preventing anything like the Nuremberg trials for Italian war crimes, the collective memory of the crimes committed by Italians was excluded from public media, from textbooks in Italian schools, and even from the academic discourse on the Western side of the Iron curtain throughout the Cold War.[10][11] The PCI was expelled from power in May 1947, a month before the Paris Conference on the Marshall Plan, along with the French Communist Party (PCF).

In 1946 a group of Fascist soldiers founded the Italian Social Movement to continue advocating the ideas of Benito Mussolini. The leader of the MSI was Giorgio Almirante, who remained at the head of the party until his death in 1988.

Despite attempts in the 1970s towards a "historic compromise" between the PCI and the DC, the PCI did not have a role in executive power until the 1980s. In December 1970, Junio Valerio Borghese attempted, along with Stefano Delle Chiaie, the Borghese Coup which was supposed to install a neo-fascist regime. Neo-fascist groups took part in various false flag terrorist attacks, starting with the December 1969 Piazza Fontana massacre, for which Vincenzo Vinciguerra was convicted, and they are usually considered to have stopped with the 1980 Bologna railway bombing. A 2000 parliamentary report from the center-left Olive Tree coalition concluded that "the strategy of tension had been supported by the United States in order to impede the PCI, and, in a lesser measure, the PSI from reaching executive power".

Since the 1990s, the National Alliance, led by Gianfranco Fini, a former member of the Italian Social Movement, has distanced itself from Mussolini and fascism and it has also made efforts to improve its relations with Jewish groups, with most die-hards leaving it; it now seeks to present itself as a respectable right-wing party. Fini joined Silvio Berlusconi's government. Neo-fascist parties in Italy include the Tricolour Flame ("Fiamma Tricolore"), the New Force ("Forza Nuova"), the National Social Front ("Fronte Sociale Nazionale"), and CasaPound.


After the fall of authoritarianism in Portugal after the Carnation Revolution of 1974, several neo-fascist Salazarist groups arose such as the New Order (Portugal) which was created in 1978. A report by the European Parliament defined the ideology of the New Order as revolutionary fascist and hyper-nationalist.[12] The group also had connections to Fuerza Nueva in Spain. The New Order was disbanded in 1982, however its activities continued to as late as 1985.


Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia is a far-right political party with views that are considered extremist and fascist. The Party's leader, Marian Kotleba, is a former neo-Nazi,[13] who once wore a uniform modelled on that of the Hlinka Guard, the militia of the 1939-45 Nazi-sponsored Slovak State. He opposes Romani people,[14] immigrants,[15] the Slovak National Uprising,[16] NATO, the United States, and the European Union.[17] The party also endorses clerical fascist war criminal Slovak President Jozef Tiso.[18]

In 2003, Kotleba founded the far-right political party Slovak Togetherness (Slovak: Slovenská Pospolitosť). In 2007, the Slovak interior ministry banned the party from running and campaigning in elections. In spite of this ban, Kotleba's party got 8.04%[19] of votes in the Slovak 2016 parliamentary elections, and voter opinion towards the party continues to increase.


Grey Wolves is a Turkish ultra-nationalist[20][21][22] and neo-fascist[23][24][25][26][27][28][29] youth organization. It is the "unofficial militant arm" of the Nationalist Movement Party.[30] The Grey Wolves have been accused of terrorism.[23][25][26] According to Turkish authorities, the organization carried out 694 murders during the late-1970s political violence in Turkey, between 1974 and 1980.[31]

The nationalist political party MHP founded by Alparslan Türkeş is also sometimes described as neo-fascist.[32]

United Kingdom

The British National Party (BNP) is a nationalist party in the United Kingdom which espoused the ideology of fascism[33][34][35][36] and anti-immigration.[37] In the 2009 European elections, it gained two members of the European Parliament (MEPs), including former party leader Nick Griffin.[38] Other British organisations described as fascist or neo-fascist include the National Front,[39][40] Combat 18,[41] the English Defence League,[42] and Britain First.[43][44]

The UK Independence Party (UKIP) has been accused by political opponents of holding to elements of fascism e.g. populist nationalist and anti-immigration policies. However, UKIP has denied this, stating that its policies are not anti-immigration but pro-controlled immigration, patriotic not nationalist, in support of British democracy, and for all British citizens without regard to ethnicity or country of birth.[45] Furthermore, it supports a small state and economic freedom, which are not typically found within Fascism.[46] A London School of Economics blog examined both UKIP and the BNP and, while it did find similarities in demographic support and a few policies, it failed to conclude any strong ideological links between them. However, it did remark on a coinciding increase in support of UKIP and a decrease in support for the BNP, speculating a possible relationship between them.[47] Some leftist literature, critical of UKIP, also denies that they are fascist.[48][49][50]


United States

Groups identified as neo-fascist in the United States generally include neo-Nazi organizations and movements such as the National Alliance, and the American Nazi Party. The Institute for Historical Review publishes negationist historical papers often of an anti-semitic nature. The alt-right—which covers a broad range of groups, from authoritarian right-wing technocrats and neo-monarchists to neoreactionaries and white nationalists—is also often included under the umbrella term "neo-fascist", as many adhere to a radical authoritarian ultranationalism.[51][52]


The Bolivian Socialist Falange party founded in 1937 played a crucial role in mid-century Bolivian politics. Luis García Meza Tejada's regime took power during the 1980 Cocaine Coup in Bolivia with the help of Italian neo-fascist Stefano Delle Chiaie, Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie and the Buenos Aires junta. That regime has been accused of neo-fascist tendencies and of admiration for Nazi paraphernalia and rituals. Hugo Banzer Suárez, who preceded Tejada, also displayed admiration for Nazism and fascism.


Australia and New Zealand

Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the Australia-born perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand was an admitted fascist who followed eco-fascism and admired Oswald Mosley, the leader of the British fascist organization British Union of Fascists (BUF), who is also quoted in the shooter's manifesto The Great Replacement (named after the French far-right theory of the same name).[53][54]



With Mongolia located between the larger nations Russia and China, ethnic insecurities have driven many Mongolians to neo-fascism,[55] expressing nationalism centered around Genghis Khan and Adolf Hitler. Groups advocating these ideologies include Blue Mongolia, Dayar Mongol, and Mongolian National Union.[56]


The National Socialism Association (NSA) is a neo-fascist political organization founded in Taiwan in September 2006 by Hsu Na-chi (許娜琦), a 22-year-old female political science graduate of Soochow University. The NSA views Adolf Hitler as its leader and often uses the slogan "Long live Hitler". This has brought them condemnation from the Simon Wiesenthal Center, an international Jewish human rights center.[57]


Adolf Hitler's propaganda which advocated the hegemony of "Greater Germany" inspired similar ideas of "Indonesia Mulia" (esteemed Indonesia) and "Indonesia Raya" (great Indonesia) in the former Dutch colony. The first fascist party was the Partai Fasis Indonesia (PFI). Sukarno admired Hitler's Third Reich and its vision of happiness for all: "It's in the Third Reich that the Germans will see Germany at the apex above other nations in this world," he said in 1963.[58] He stated that Hitler was 'extraordinarily clever' in 'depicting his ideals': he spoke about Hitler's rhetorical skills, but denied any association with Nazism as an ideology, saying that Indonesian nationalism was not as narrow as Nazi nationalism.[59]

See also



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  2. ^ Griffin, R. (2007) The 'post‐Fascism' of the Alleanza Nazionale: A case study in ideological morphology, Journal of Political Ideologies, 1/2: 123-145
  3. ^ Tauber, Kurt P. (1959). "German Nationalists and European Union". Political Science Quarterly. 74 (4): 564–89. doi:10.2307/2146424. ISSN 0032-3195. JSTOR 2146424.
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  7. ^ "mun6". 22 May 2000. Archived from the original on 22 April 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  8. ^ "During this period we have systematically established close contacts with like-minded groups emerging in Italy, Belgium, Germany, Spain or Portugal, for the purpose of forming the kernel of a truly Western League of Struggle against Marxism." (Yves Guérin-Sérac, quoted by Stuart Christie, in Stefano Delle Chiaie: Portrait of a Black Terrorist, London: Anarchy Magazine/Refract Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-946222-09-6, p. 27)
  9. ^ Preface Archived 6 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine to Los Caminos del Guerrero, 1994.
  10. ^ Alessandra Kersevan2008: (Editor) Foibe - Revisionismo di stato e amnesie della repubblica. Kappa Vu. Udine.
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  12. ^ Committee of Inquiry Into the Rise of Fascism and Racism in Europe: Report on the findings of the inquiry Archived 2 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, European Parliament, Dec 1985, p. 58
  13. ^ Cameron, Rob (6 March 2016). "Marian Kotleba and the rise of Slovakia's extreme right - BBC News". Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  14. ^ "Marián Kotleba: Štát chráni cigánskych parazitov". Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
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  20. ^ Harry Anastasiou, The Broken Olive Branch: Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and the Quest for Peace in Cyprus, Vol. 2, (Syracuse University Press, 2008), 152.
  21. ^ Martin van Bruinessen, Transnational aspects of the Kurdish question, (European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre, 2000), 27.[1]
  22. ^ Alexander, edited by Yonah; Brenner, Edgar H.; Krause, Serhat Tutuncuoglu (2008). Turkey : terrorism, civil rights, and the European Union (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 9780415441636.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  23. ^ a b Political Terrorism, by Alex Peter Schmid, A. J. Jongman, Michael Stohl, Transaction Publishers, 2005p. 674
  24. ^ Annual of Power and Conflict, by Institute for the Study of Conflict, National Strategy Information Center, 1982, p. 148
  25. ^ a b The Nature of Fascism, by Roger Griffin, Routledge, 1993, p. 171
  26. ^ a b Political Parties and Terrorist Groups, by Leonard Weinberg, Ami Pedahzur, Arie Perliger, Routledge, 2003, p. 45
  27. ^ The Inner Sea: The Mediterranean and Its People, by Robert Fox, 1991, p. 260
  28. ^ Martin A. Lee (1997). "On the Trail of Turkey's Terrorist Grey Wolves". The Consortium. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  29. ^ Thomas Joscelyn (6 April 2005). "Crime of the Century". Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  30. ^ Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin (2007). Encyclopedia of terrorism. New York: Facts On File. p. 110. ISBN 9781438110196. In 1992, when it emerged again as the MHO, it supported the government's military approach regarding the insurgency by the Kurdistan Worker's Parry (PPK) in southeast Turkey and opposed any concessions to Kurdish separatists. .... The Grey Wolves, the unofficial militant arm of the MHP, has been involved in street killings and gunbattles.
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Further reading

  • Cento Bull, Anna (2007). Italian Neofascism: The strategy of tension and the politics of nonreconciliation. Berghahn Books.
  • The Beast Reawakens by Martin A. Lee, (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1997, ISBN 0-316-51959-6)
  • Fascism (Oxford Readers) by Roger Griffin, 1995, ISBN 0-19-289249-5
  • Fascism in Britain: A History, 1918-1985 by Richard C. Thurlow (Olympic Marketing Corp, 1987, ISBN 0-631-13618-5)
  • Fascism Today: A World Survey by Angelo Del Boca (Pantheon Books, 1st American edition, 1969)
  • Free to Hate: The Rise of the Right in Post-Communist Eastern Europe by Paul Hockenos (Routledge; Reprint edition, 1994, ISBN 0-415-91058-7)
  • The Dark Side of Europe: The Extreme Right Today by Geoff Harris, (Edinburgh University Press; New edition, 1994, ISBN 0-7486-0466-9)
  • The Far Right in Western and Eastern Europe by Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson, and Michalina Vaughan (Longman Publishing Group; 2nd edition, 1995, ISBN 0-582-23881-1)
  • The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis by Herbert Kitschelt (University of Michigan Press; Reprint edition, 1997, ISBN 0-472-08441-0)
  • Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe edited by Martin Schain, Aristide Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay (Palgrave Macmillan; 1st edition, 2002, ISBN 0-312-29593-6)

External links

Acca Larentia killings

The Acca Larentia killings were a series of fatal incidents that occurred in Rome on January 7, 1978. Three members of the Youth Front of the Italian Social Movement (MSI), an Italian far right party, were killed. Two were killed while they were leaving local party headquarters to distribute pamphlets. A third was executed hours later by a shot to the head.

Battle of Valle Giulia

The Battle of Valle Giulia (battaglia di Valle Giulia) is the conventional name for a clash between Italian militants (left-wing as well as right-wing) and the Italian police in Valle Giulia, Rome, on 1 March 1968. It is still frequently remembered as one of the first violent clashes in Italy's student unrest during the protests of 1968 or "Sessantotto".

Black Order (Satanist group)

The Black Order or The Black Order of Pan Europa are a Satanist group formerly based in New Zealand. Political scientists Jeffrey Kaplan and Leonard Weinberg characterised the Black Order as a "National Socialist-oriented Satanist mail order ministry". However, in 1995, the anti-fascist Searchlight organization, following an investigation, described it as part of a functioning international Occult-Fascist Axis.

Blanke Bevrydingsbeweging

The White Liberation Movement (Afrikaans: Blanke Bevrydingsbeweging; abbreviated BBB) was a small but notorious South African neo-Nazi organisation which became infamous after being banned under the Apartheid regime, the first right-wing organisation to be so banned. It regarded itself as the most far-right organisation in South Africa.


Crypto-fascism is the secret support for, or admiration of, fascism. The term is used to imply that an individual or group keeps this support or admiration hidden to avoid political persecution or political suicide. The common usage is "crypto-fascist", one who practices this support.

European National Front

European National Front was a coordinating structure of European ultranationalist parties. There had been one elected MEP from ENF in the past. He was the leader of the Italian New Force, Roberto Fiore.

Three parties of the European National Front are today included at the Alliance for Peace and Freedom.

European Right (1984–89)

The Group of the European Right (French: Groupe des Droites Européennes) was a political group of rightist orientation that operated in the European Parliament between 1984 and 1989.

Far-right politics in Croatia

Far-right politics in Croatia refers to any manifestation of far-right politics in the Republic of Croatia. Individuals and groups in Croatia that employ far-right politics are most often associated with the historical Ustaše movement, hence they have connections to Neo-Nazism and neo-fascism. That World War II political movement was an extremist organization at the time supported by the German Nazis and the Italian Fascists. The association with the Ustaše has been called "Neo-Ustashism" by Slavko Goldstein.The common perception is that the far right includes people who were either involved with the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II; sympathizers; and people who utilise their symbolism. The far right mainly arose from a combination of the residual hatred from the Yugoslav wars and Croatian nationalism.

Pro-Ustaša symbols and actions have been restricted by law in Croatia since 2003. The most common venue for expressing these beliefs is graffiti.

Gods of the Blood

Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism is a book by Swedish scholar Mattias Gardell discussing neopaganism (in particular Asatru) and white separatism, neo-fascism, and antisemitism.

It was published by Duke University Press in June 2003.

Jeune Europe

Jeune Europe (French; "Young Europe") was a Europeanist movement formed by Jean Thiriart in Belgium. Emile Lecerf, a later editor of the Nouvel Europe Magazine, was one of Thiriart's associates.

Following the Algerian War of Independence Thiriart decided to look to a more Europe-wide vision and founded Jeune Europe as a result, calling for a united Europe that would be "neither Moscow nor Washington" but rather a third superpower in order that the individual states could stop being squeezed in the Cold War. Jeune Europe quickly grew in influence, with major branches opening in France, Italy and Spain as well as minor groups in nine other countries. Its strongest following was amongst students although it attracted wider attention in part due to the strength of Thiriart's personality and his unusually syncretist message. They also participated in 1962 Conference at Venice, where they agreed to participate in the National Party of Europe, along with Oswald Mosley's Union Movement, Otto Strasser and others. Jeune Europe as a movement, and Thiriart in particular, also foresaw a future rapprochement with the Soviet Union and hoped that Europe could ally itself with China in order to force this to happen sooner.Although Thiriart publicly disavowed fascism and branded Nazism obsolete the movement was still accused of having a fascist basis, be it through adopting the Celtic cross, a symbol widely used in neo-fascism, as its emblem or advertising the activities of neo-Nazi leader Hans-Ulrich Rudel in its eponymous weekly magazine. The group also maintained links with the network of former SS officers that organised through the magazine Nation Europa. However Thiriart's flirtation with China and the Soviet Union alienated some rank and file members for whom links with fascism were not to be eschewed and when he began to follow a more national communist path and seek contact with Nicolae Ceauşescu membership fell. Other members went in the other direction, notably Renato Curcio, an early member of Giovane Europa (as the group was called in Italy), who eventually switched allegiance to the communist Red Brigades.In 1964, the movement took part in the municipal elections of Brussels. It was dissolved in the 1970s.

Lads Society

The Lads Society is an far-right White nationalist extremist group founded by several former members of the United Patriots Front in late 2017, with club houses in Sydney and Melbourne. The Lads Society came to national prominence after it staged a rally in St Kilda, Victoria, targeting the local African Australian community. Attendees were seen making the Nazi salute and one was photographed brandishing an SS helmet. In 2017, the group’s leader Thomas Sewell approached the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings, Brenton Harrison Tarrant, asking him to join the Lads Society, but Tarrant refused. The group’s members and allies attempted to infiltrate the Young Nationals in NSW, and engaged in branch stacking at the May 2018 conference. Lads Society member Clifford Jennings attained a leadership position in the Young Nationals, but was later forced out of the party.

League of Saint George

The League of St George is a neo-Fascist organization based in the United Kingdom. It has defined itself as a "non-party, non-sectarian political club" and, whilst forging alliances with different groups, has eschewed close links with other extremist political parties.

List of neo-Nazi bands

This is a list of notable neo-Nazi bands.


Aggrivated Assault

Arische Kämpfer

Blue Eyed Devils

Die Faschistischen 4



Grand Belial's Key





Macht und Ehre

Nordic Thunder

No Remorse

Peste Noire

Prussian Blue





Zillertaler Türkenjäger


National-anarchism is a radical, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist and anti-statist ideology. National-anarchists advocate a post-capitalist stateless society in which communities of different ethnic or racial groups would be free to develop separately in their own autonomous tribal communes. These national autonomous zones would be directly democratic, mutualistic and self-sufficient.

The term national-anarchism dates back as far as the 1920s. The few scholars who have studied national-anarchism conclude that it represents a further evolution in the thinking of the radical right rather than an entirely new dimension. National-anarchism has elicited skepticism and outright hostility from both left- and right-wing critics. Some accuse national-anarchists of being white nationalists who promote ethnic and racial separatism while others argue they want the militant chic of calling themselves anarchists without the historical and philosophical baggage that accompanies such a claim.The National-Anarchist Movement was propounded since the late 1990s by Troy Southgate.

National Bolshevism

National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as the Nazbols (Russian: Нацболы, German: Nationalbolschewisten), is a political movement that combines elements of radical nationalism (especially Russian nationalism) and Bolshevism.Leading proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889-1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872-1932) and Karl Otto Paetel (1906-1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890-1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.

In modern times leading practitioners and theorists of National Bolshevism include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov , who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.

Neo-völkisch movements

Neo-völkisch movements, as defined by the historian, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged especially in the English-speaking world since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th- and early 20th-century Germany in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism and multiculturalism. Some identify as neo-fascist, alt-right, neo-Nazi, or Third Positionist while others are politicised around some form of white ethnic nationalism or identity politics and may show neo-tribalist paganism tendencies such as the one promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship. Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes so that neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements.

Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right and Evolian traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity, pantheism and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity Movement, Cosmotheism and Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism and National Socialist black metal). According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, only pagan-type groups are recognized as neo-völkisch, excluding Christian Identity.

Radical right (Europe)

In political science, the terms radical right and populist right have been used to refer to the range of European far-right parties that have grown in support since the late 1970s. Populist right wing groups have shared a number of causes, which typically include opposition to globalization, criticism of immigration and multiculturalism, and opposition to the European Union.The ideological spectrum of the radical right extends from right-wing populism to white nationalism and neo-fascism.


Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

Strategy of tension

A strategy of tension (Italian: strategia della tensione) is a policy wherein violent struggle is encouraged rather than suppressed. It is usually associated when governments, or security apparatuses within a government, allow or even encourage extremist groups to perform attacks, bombings, murders, and the like. In extreme circumstances, it can even involve agent provocateurs and false flag operations where a terrorist threat is outright invented or created. The goal in such strategies is that such a struggle will rally support behind the military or police forces opposing the radicals, to radicalize opposing movements so that they can be better marginalized, or to permit loosely allied extremist groups to attack enemies of the government. As few organizations would openly say that they are pursuing a strategy of tension, accusations generally come from opponents that such a strategy is being pursued.

The strategy of tension is most closely identified with the Years of Lead in Italy from 1968–1982, wherein both far-left Marxist extremists and far-right neo-fascist groups performed bombings, kidnappings, arsons, and murders. Activists have accused NATO of allowing and sanctioning such terrorism, although this conclusion is hotly disputed. Other cases where writers have alleged a strategy of tension include the Turkish military against Islamists from the 1970s–1990s ("Ergenekon"), the war veterans and ZANU–PF in Zimbabwe which coordinated the farm invasions of 2000, the DRS security agency in Algeria from 1991-1999, and Belgium's state security service from 1982–1986.

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