Neighbourhood

A neighbourhood (British English and Canadian English), or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members. Researchers have not agreed on an exact definition, but the following may serve as a starting point: "Neighbourhood is generally defined spatially as a specific geographic area and functionally as a set of social networks. Neighbourhoods, then, are the spatial units in which face-to-face social interactions occur—the personal settings and situations where residents seek to realise common values, socialise youth, and maintain effective social control."[1]

Preindustrial cities

In the words of the urban scholar Lewis Mumford, “Neighbourhoods, in some annoying, inchoate fashion exist wherever human beings congregate, in permanent family dwellings; and many of the functions of the city tend to be distributed naturally—that is, without any theoretical preoccupation or political direction—into neighbourhoods.”[2] Most of the earliest cities around the world as excavated by archaeologists have evidence for the presence of social neighbourhoods.[3] Historical documents shed light on neighbourhood life in numerous historical preindustrial or nonwestern cities.[4]

Neighbourhoods are typically generated by social interaction among people living near one another. In this sense they are local social units larger than households not directly under the control of city or state officials. In some preindustrial urban traditions, basic municipal functions such as protection, social regulation of births and marriages, cleaning and upkeep are handled informally by neighbourhoods and not by urban governments; this pattern is well documented for historical Islamic cities.[5]

In addition to social neighbourhoods, most ancient and historical cities also had administrative districts used by officials for taxation, record-keeping, and social control.[6] Administrative districts are typically larger than neighbourhoods and their boundaries may cut across neighbourhood divisions. In some cases, however, administrative districts coincided with neighbourhoods, leading to a high level of regulation of social life by officials. For example, in the T’ang period Chinese capital city Chang’an, neighbourhoods were districts and there were state officials who carefully controlled life and activity at the neighbourhood level.[7]

Neighbourhoods in preindustrial cities often had some degree of social specialisation or differentiation. Ethnic neighbourhoods were important in many past cities and remain common in cities today. Economic specialists, including craft producers, merchants, and others, could be concentrated in neighbourhoods, and in societies with religious pluralism neighbourhoods were often specialised by religion. One factor contributing to neighbourhood distinctiveness and social cohesion in past cities was the role of rural to urban migration. This was a continual process in preindustrial cities, and migrants tended to move in with relatives and acquaintances from their rural past.[8]

Sociology

Neighbourhood sociology is a subfield of urban sociology which studies local communities[9][10] Neighbourhoods are also used in research studies from postal codes and health disparities, to correlations with school drop out rates or use of drugs.[11]

Improvement

Neighbourhoods have been the site of service delivery or "service interventions" in part as efforts to provide local, quality services, and to increase the degree of local control and ownership.[12] Alfred Kahn, as early as the mid-1970s, described the "experience, theory and fads" of neighbourhood service delivery over the prior decade, including discussion of income transfers and poverty.[13] Neighbourhoods, as a core aspect of community, also are the site of services for youth, including children with disabilities[14] and coordinated approaches to low-income populations.[15] While the term neighbourhood organisation[16] is not as common in 2015, these organisations often are non-profit, sometimes grassroots or even core funded community development centres or branches.

Community and economic development activists have pressured for reinvestment in local communities and neighbourhoods. In the early 2000s, Community Development Corporations, Rehabilitation Networks, Neighbourhood Development Corporations, and Economic Development organisations would work together to address the housing stock and the infrastructures of communities and neighbourhoods (e.g., community centres).[17] Community and Economic Development may be understood in different ways, and may involve "faith-based" groups and congregations in cities.[18]

As a unit in urban design

In the 1900s, Clarence Perry described the idea of a neighborhood unit as a self-contained residential area within a city. The concept is still influential in New Urbanism. Practitioners seek to revive traditional sociability in planned suburban housing based on a set of principles. At the same time, the neighborhood is a site of interventions to create Age-Friendly Cities and Communities (AFCC) as many older adults tend to have narrower life space. Urban design studies thus use neighborhood as a unit of analysis[19].

Neighborhoods around the world

Asia

Ammansuburb
A suburban street in Amman, Jordan.

China

In mainland China, the term is generally used for the urban administrative division found immediately below the district level, although an intermediate, subdistrict level exists in some cities. They are also called streets (administrative terminology may vary from city to city). Neighbourhoods encompass 2,000 to 10,000 families. Within neighbourhoods, families are grouped into smaller residential units or quarters of 100 to 600 families and supervised by a residents' committee; these are subdivided into residents' small groups of fifteen to forty families. In most urban areas of China, neighbourhood', community, residential community, residential unit, residential quarter' have the same meaning: 社区 or 小区 or 居民区 or 居住区, and is the direct sublevel of a subdistrict (街道办事处), which is the direct sublevel of a district (), which is the direct sublevel of a city (). (See Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China)

Europe

Typical cypriot Neighbourhood in Aglandjia Nicosia Republic of Cyprus
Typical Cypriot neighbourhood in Aglandjia, Nicosia, Cyprus

United Kingdom

The term has no general official or statistical purpose in the United Kingdom, but is often used by local boroughs for self-chosen sub-divisions of their area for the delivery of various services and functions, as for example in Kingston-upon-Thames[20] or is used as an informal term to refer to a small area within a town or city. The label is commonly used to refer to organisations which relate to such a very local structure, such as neighbourhood policing[21] or Neighbourhood watch schemes. In addition, government statistics for local areas are often referred to as neighbourhood statistics, although the data themselves are broken down usually into districts and wards for local purposes. In many parts of the UK wards are roughly equivalent to neighbourhoods or a combination of them.

North America

In Canada and the United States, neighbourhoods are often given official or semi-official status through neighbourhood associations, neighbourhood watches or block watches. These may regulate such matters as lawn care and fence height, and they may provide such services as block parties, neighbourhood parks and community security. In some other places the equivalent organisation is the parish, though a parish may have several neighbourhoods within it depending on the area.

In localities where neighbourhoods do not have an official status, questions can arise as to where one neighbourhood begins and another ends. Many cities use districts and wards as official divisions of the city, rather than traditional neighbourhood boundaries. ZIP code boundaries and post office names also sometimes reflect neighborhood identities.

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Schuck, Amie and Dennis Rosenbuam 2006 "Promoting Safe and Healthy Neighborhoods: What Research Tells Us about Intervention." The Aspen Institute.
  2. ^ Mumford, Lewis (1954). The Neighborhood and the Neighborhood Unit. Town Planning Review 24:256–270, p. 258.
  3. ^ For example, Spence, Michael W. (1992) Tlailotlacan, a Zapotec Enclave in Teotihuacan. In Art, Ideology, and the City of Teotihuacan, edited by Janet C. Berlo, pp. 59–88. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. Stone, Elizabeth C. (1987) Nippur Neighbourhoods. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization vol. 44. Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago
  4. ^ Some examples: Heng, Chye Kiang (1999) Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes. University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu. Marcus, Abraham (1989) The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century. Columbia University Press, New York. Smail, Daniel Lord (2000). Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in Late Medieval Marseille. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  5. ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1987) The Islamic City: Historic Myth, Islamic Essence, and Contemporary Relevance. International Journal of Middle East Studies 19:155–176.
  6. ^ Dickinson, Robert E. (1961) The West European City: A Geographical Interpretation. Routledge & Paul, London, p. 529. See also: Jacobs, Jane (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House, New York, p. 117.
  7. ^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2000) Sui-Tang Chang'an: A Study in the Urban History of Medieval China. Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
  8. ^ Kemper, Robert V. (1977) Migration and Adaptation: Tzintzuntzan Peasants in Mexico City. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills. Greenshields, T. H. (1980) "Quarters" and Ethnicity. In The Changing Middle Eastern City, edited by G. H. Blake and R. I. Lawless, pp. 120–140. Croom Helm, London.
  9. ^ Wellman, B. & Leighton, B. (1979, March). Networks, neighbourhoods and communities: Approaches to the study of the community question. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 14(3): 363-390.
  10. ^ Warren, D. (1977). The functional diversity of urban neighborhoods. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 13(2): 151-180.
  11. ^ Overman, H.G. (2002). Neighborhood effects in large and small neighborhoods. Urban Studies, 39(1): 117-130.
  12. ^ King, B. & Meyers, J. (1996). The Annie E. Casey Foundation's mental health initiative for urban children. (pp. 249-261). In: B. Stroul & R.M. Friedman, Children's Mental Health. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  13. ^ Kahn, A.J. (1976). Service delivery at the neighborhood level: Experience, theory and fads. Social Service Review, 50(1): 23-56.
  14. ^ Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A.J., Meyers, J. & King, B. (1997). Ch. 3: Community and neighborhood-based services for youth. In: S. Henggeler & A. B. Santor, Innovative Approaches to Difficult to Treat Populations. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
  15. ^ Riessman, F. (1967). A neighborhood-based mental health approach. (pp.1620184). In: E. Cowen, E. Gardier, & M. Zak, Emergent Approaches to Mental Health Problems. NY, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  16. ^ Cunningham, J V. & Kotler, M. (1983). Building Neighborhood Organizations. Notre Dame & London: Notre Dame Press.
  17. ^ Rubin, H.J. (2000). Renewing Hope Within Neighborhoods of Despair: The Community-Based Development Model. Albany, NY: State University of New York.
  18. ^ Mc Roberts, O.M. (2001, January/February). Black Churches, community and development. Shelterforce Online. Washington, DC: Author. at nhi.org
  19. ^ Gan, Daniel R. Y.; Fung, John Chye; Cho, Im Sik (2019). "Neighborhood Experiences of People Over Age 50: Factor Structure and Validity of a Scale". The Gerontologist: gnz111. doi:10.1093/geront/gnz111.
  20. ^ [1] Archived May 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "NHP". www.neighbourhoodpolicing.co.uk.

External links

Brander Gardens, Edmonton

Brander Gardens is a residential neighbourhood located in south west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada overlooking the North Saskatchewan River valley. In the river valley, immediately below the neighbourhood, is Fort Edmonton Park.

The neighbourhood is bounded on the east by Whitemud Drive and to the south by 51 Avenue. To the north and west the neighbourhood overlooks the river valley.

Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood

Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood (known as Daniel Tiger's Neighbourhood in Canada, abbreviated to DTN) is an American-Canadian animated children's television series produced by Fred Rogers Productions, 9 Story Media Group, and Out of the Blue Enterprises. It debuted on September 3, 2012 on PBS Kids. The program, which is targeted at preschool-aged children, is based on the Neighborhood of Make-Believe from Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, the long-running family-oriented television series created and hosted by Fred Rogers.

On July 29, 2019, the series was renewed for a fifth season.

Dong (administrative division)

A dong or neighborhood is a submunicipal level administrative unit of a city and of those cities which are not divided into wards throughout Korea. The unit is often translated as neighborhood and has been used in both administrative divisions of North Korea and South Korea.

European Neighbourhood Policy

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union, or more closely integrated with the European Union. The ENP does not apply to neighbours of the EU's outermost regions, specifically France's territories in South America, but only to those countries close to EU member states' territories in mainland Europe.

The countries covered include Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia in the South and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine in the East. Russia has a special status with the EU-Russia Common Spaces instead of ENP participation.

The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation. This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. The ENP does not cover countries which are in the current EU enlargement agenda, the European Free Trade Association or the western European microstates.

The EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in a country. In exchange, the country may be offered tariff-free access to some or all EU markets (industrial goods, agricultural products, etc.), and financial or technical assistance.

Holomorphic function

In mathematics, a holomorphic function is a complex-valued function of one or more complex variables that is, at every point of its domain, complex differentiable in a neighbourhood of the point. The existence of a complex derivative in a neighbourhood is a very strong condition, for it implies that any holomorphic function is actually infinitely differentiable and equal, locally, to its own Taylor series (analytic). Holomorphic functions are the central objects of study in complex analysis.

Though the term analytic function is often used interchangeably with "holomorphic function", the word "analytic" is defined in a broader sense to denote any function (real, complex, or of more general type) that can be written as a convergent power series in a neighbourhood of each point in its domain. The fact that all holomorphic functions are complex analytic functions, and vice versa, is a major theorem in complex analysis.Holomorphic functions are also sometimes referred to as regular functions. A holomorphic function whose domain is the whole complex plane is called an entire function. The phrase "holomorphic at a point z0" means not just differentiable at z0, but differentiable everywhere within some neighbourhood of z0 in the complex plane.

Mendip District

Mendip is a local government district of Somerset in England. The district covers a largely rural area of 285 square miles (738 km2) with a population of approximately 112,500, ranging from the Wiltshire border in the east to part of the Somerset Levels in the west. The district takes its name from the Mendip Hills which lie in its northwest. The administrative centre of the district is Shepton Mallet but the largest town (three times larger than Shepton Mallet) is Frome.

The district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal boroughs of Glastonbury and Wells, along with Frome, Shepton Mallet, Street urban districts, and Frome Rural District, Shepton Mallet Rural District, Wells Rural District, part of Axbridge Rural District and part of Clutton Rural District.

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (sometimes shortened to Mister Rogers) is an American half-hour educational children's television series that was created and hosted by Fred Rogers. The series Misterogers debuted on October 15, 1962, on CBC Television. In 1966, Rogers moved back to the United States creating Misterogers' Neighborhood, later called Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, on the regional Eastern Educational Network (EEN, a forerunner of today's American Public Television). The US national debut of the show occurred on February 19, 1968. It aired on NET and its successor, PBS, until August 31, 2001.

The series is aimed primarily at preschool ages 2 to 5, but it was labelled by PBS as "appropriate for all ages". Mister Rogers' Neighborhood was produced by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania public broadcaster WQED and Rogers' non-profit production company Family Communications, Inc., previously known as Small World Enterprises prior to 1971; the company was renamed The Fred Rogers Company after Rogers' death. In May 1997, the series surpassed Captain Kangaroo as the longest-running children's television series, a record the series held until June 2003, when Sesame Street beat Mister Rogers' record. The series could be seen in reruns on most PBS stations until August 31, 2007, when it began to be removed by various PBS stations, and was then permanently removed from the daily syndicated schedule by PBS after August 29, 2008.

Eleven years after Mister Rogers' Neighborhood concluded, PBS debuted an animated spin-off, Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood. A 50th-anniversary tribute show, hosted by actor Michael Keaton (who got his start on the show), titled Mister Rogers: It's You I Like, premiered on PBS stations nationwide on March 6, 2018.

Neighbourhood (mathematics)

In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space. It is closely related to the concepts of open set and interior. Intuitively speaking, a neighbourhood of a point is a set of points containing that point where one can move some amount in any direction away from that point without leaving the set.

Neighbourhood Watch (United Kingdom)

The Neighbourhood Watch scheme in the United Kingdom is a partnership intended to bring people together to make their communities safer. It involves the police, Community Safety departments of local authorities, other voluntary organisations and individuals and families who ostensibly want to make their neighbourhoods better places to live. It aims to help people protect themselves and their properties and to reduce the fear of crime by means of improved home security, greater vigilance, accurate reporting of suspicious incidents to the police and by fostering a community spirit.

Ozerna, Edmonton

Ozerna is a neighbourhood in northeast Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Subdivision and development of the neighbourhood is guided by the Ozerna Neighbourhood Structure Plan (NSP).It is located within Edmonton's Lake District and was originally considered Neighbourhood 6 within the Edmonton North Area Structure Plan (ASP).Ozerna is bounded by the Mayliewan neighbourhood to the west, the Schonsee neighbourhood across 167 Avenue to the north, the Matt Berry neighbourhood across 66 Street to the east, and the Kilkenny neighbourhood across 153 Avenue to the south.

Parish councils in England

A parish council is a civil local authority found in England and is the first tier of local government. They are elected corporate bodies, have variable tax raising powers, and are responsible for areas known as civil parishes, serving in total 16 million people. A parish council serving a town may be called a town council, and a parish council serving a city is styled a city council; these bodies have the same powers, duties and status as a parish council.

Civil parish councils were formed in England under the reforming Local Government Act 1894 to take over local oversight of civic duties in rural towns and villages from the Vestry committee.

Parish and town councils vary enormously in size, activities and circumstances, representing populations ranging from less than 100 (small rural hamlets) to up to 100,000 (Sutton Coldfield Town Council). Most of them are small: around 80% represent populations of less than 2,500. ; and two thirds spend under £25,000 per year.

Residential area

A residential area is a land used in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas.

Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally exclude business and industry. It may permit high density land use or only permit low density uses. Residential zoning usually includes a smaller FAR (floor area ratio) than business, commercial or industrial/manufacturing zoning. The area may be large or small.

Riverdale, Edmonton

Riverdale is a river valley neighbourhood located just east of the downtown core in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Its boundaries on the east and south are the North Saskatchewan River from which the name of the community is associated with. Immediately across the river to the south is another Edmonton river valley neighbourhood--Cloverdale. Riverdale shares the approaches to the Low Level Bridge with a third river valley neighbourhood, Rossdale. To the north, is the neighbourhood of Boyle Street. Riverdale's boundary with the downtown core runs approximately along Grierson Hill Road.

The community is represented by the Riverdale Community League, established in 1920, which maintains a community hall and outdoor rink located at 92 Street and 100 Avenue.

Sandwell

Sandwell is a metropolitan borough of the West Midlands county in England. The borough is named after the Sandwell Priory, and spans a densely populated part of the West Midlands conurbation. According to Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council, the borough comprises the six amalgamated towns of Oldbury, Rowley Regis, Smethwick, Tipton, Wednesbury, and West Bromwich, although these places consist of numerous smaller settlements and localities. Though West Bromwich is the largest town in the borough and its designated Strategic Town Centre, Sandwell Council House (the headquarters of the local authority) is situated in Oldbury.

Bordering Sandwell is the City of Birmingham to the east, the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley to the south and west, the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall to the north, and the City of Wolverhampton to the north-west. Spanning the borough are the parliamentary constituencies of West Bromwich West, West Bromwich East, Warley, and part of Halesowen and Rowley Regis, which crosses into the Dudley borough.

At the 2011 census, the borough had a population of 309,000 and an area of 86 square kilometres (33 sq mi).

Staffordshire

Staffordshire (; postal abbreviation Staffs.) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It borders with Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the southeast, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west.

The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority. Lichfield also has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford (the county town), Burton upon Trent, Cannock, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Leek, and Tamworth.

Smaller towns include Stone, Cheadle, Uttoxeter, Rugeley, Burntwood/Chasetown, Eccleshall, Penkridge and the large villages of Wombourne, Kinver, Tutbury, Alrewas, Barton-under-Needwood, Stretton and Abbots Bromley. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest and the Peak District national park.

Wolverhampton, Walsall, West Bromwich and Smethwick are within the historic county boundaries of Staffordshire, but since 1974 have been part of the West Midlands county.

Apart from Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire is divided into the districts of Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands, and Tamworth.

The Neighbourhood

The Neighbourhood (sometimes rendered as "THE NBHD") is an American rock band formed in Newbury Park, California, in 2011. The band is composed of vocalist Jesse Rutherford, guitarists Jeremy Freedman and Zach Abels, bassist Mikey Margott, and drummer Brandon Alexander Fried. After releasing two EPs, I'm Sorry... and Thank You, The Neighbourhood released its first full-length album I Love You. on April 23, 2013, via Columbia Records. The same year, the EP "The Love Collection" was released; and in November 2014, a mixtape titled #000000 & #FFFFFF. A second album, Wiped Out! was released on October 30, 2015. On March 9, 2018 a self-titled third studio album came out, preceded by the release of two EPs: Hard on September 22, 2017, which briefly charted on the Billboard 200, and To Imagine on January 12, 2018. After the release of the album, the tracks from the extended plays not included on the final tracklisting were collected in another EP, Hard to Imagine.

Troye Sivan

Troye Sivan Mellet ( TROY sih-VAHN; born 5 June 1995) is an Australian-South African singer, songwriter, actor, and YouTuber. After gaining popularity as a singer on YouTube and in Australian talent competitions, Sivan signed with EMI Australia in 2013 and released his debut extended play, TRXYE (2014), which peaked at number five on the U.S. Billboard 200. Its lead single, "Happy Little Pill", reached number 10 on Australian music charts. In 2015, he released his second extended play Wild followed by his debut studio album Blue Neighbourhood, whose lead single "Youth" became Sivan's first single to enter the top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100 chart, peaking at number 23. His second studio album Bloom (2018) reached number three in Australia and number four on the Billboard 200 chart. Its lead single "My My My!" became Sivan's second number-one single on the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart.As an actor, Sivan portrayed the younger version of Wolverine in the 2009 X-Men film X-Men Origins: Wolverine and starred as the title character in the Spud film trilogy. As a YouTube personality, Sivan used to upload video blogs regularly and, as of 2016, has over 4 million subscribers and over 241 million total views. His video, "The 'Boyfriend' Tag", with fellow vlogger Tyler Oakley earned them a Teen Choice Award in the "Choice Web Collaboration" category. In October 2014, Time named Sivan as one of the "25 Most Influential Teens of 2014". In 2018, he received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Original Song for "Revelation", from the film Boy Erased, in which he also had a supporting acting role.

University of Toronto

The University of Toronto (U of T, or UToronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Scarborough and Mississauga.

Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School. The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, and was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, and the development of the theory of NP-completeness. It receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university, and is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University.The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the early 1860s. The university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre, simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex.

The University of Toronto has educated three Governors-General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, and fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court. As of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.

Wild Rose, Edmonton

Wild Rose is a residential neighbourhood located in The Meadows area of southeast Edmonton, Alberta. The neighbourhood is located just south of the RioCan Meadows .

It is a relatively newer neighbourhood with 86% of the residences being built after 1990 according to the 2001 federal census.

The neighbourhood has one school, Father Michael Troy Catholic Junior High School, operated by the Edmonton Catholic School District.

The neighbourhood is bounded on the east by 17 Street, on the west by 34 Street and on the north by 38 Avenue. The southern boundary with Silver Berry follows an irregular east-west line that follows the Mill Creek Ravine.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

Languages

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