Neelum River

The Neelum River (Hindi: नीलम नदी, Urdu: دریائے نیلم‎), or Kishanganga (Hindi: कृष्णगंगा नदी, Urdu: کرشن گنگا ندی‎), is a river in the Kashmir region of India and Pakistan; it starts in the Indian city of Gurais and then merges with the Jhelum River near the Pakistani city of Muzaffarabad.[1]

Neelum River
دریائے نیلم
Kishanganga River
कृष्णगंगा नदी
Divisions in one sight
CountryPakistan, India
Physical characteristics
Source34°23′23″N 75°07′19″E / 34.389629°N 75.121806°ECoordinates: 34°23′23″N 75°07′19″E / 34.389629°N 75.121806°E
 ⁃ locationKrishansar Lake at Sonamarg, India
 ⁃ elevation3,710 m (12,170 ft)
Mouth34°21′18″N 73°28′07″E / 34.354869°N 73.468537°E
 ⁃ location
Jhelum River at Muzaffarabad, Pakistan
 ⁃ elevation
750 m (2,460 ft)
Length245 km (152 mi)
 ⁃ average465 m3/s (16,400 cu ft/s)
Basin features
 ⁃ leftSind River, Lidder River


The Neelam River originates from Krishansar Lake[2] in the vicinity of Sonamarg in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir, and runs northwards to Badoab village in Tulail Valley where it meets a tributary from the Dras side. Then it runs westwards, parallel to the Kashmir Line of Control. It is fed by many glacial tributary streams on its way. It enters Pakistan-administered Azad Kashmir in the Gurez sector of the Line of Control. Then it again runs west, parallel to the Line of Control, passing by Sharada. After Sharda, it bends to a southwesterly direction and runs along the Line of Control near Tithwal. Then it bends northwest again, making a wide arc to join the Jhelum River in Muzaffarabad.[3][4]

The Neelum River is 245 kilometres long, it covers 50 kilometers in the Indian-administered Kashmir and the remaining 195 kilometres in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.

Variety of fish

There are different kinds of fish found in abundance in the Neelum River. As the river almost entirely runs across the Line of Control, being the main cause for Kashmir conflict there is a feeling of uncertainty among the inhabitants, many of them have emigrated[5] to safer places, which has left the river banks scarcely populous and kept the river in perfect conditions for growth of fish. The most famous among the different variety of fish found in Neelum River are:[6]

Neelum Valley

Neelum Valley Azad kashmir
Neelum Valley

The Neelum Valley is a Himalayan gorge in the Kashmir region, along which the Neelum River flows. This green and fertile valley is 250 km in length and stretches its way from Muzaffarabad all the way to Athmuqam and beyond to Taobutt. It is one of the most attractive tourists places, like Swat and Chitral, but due to poor road system is yet veiled to the outside world. This area was badly affected by the 2005 earthquake and was cut off from the outside world as the roads and paths were filled with rubble. Now construction of an international standard road is in progress.

There are two entrances for Neelum valley, one Neelum Road by Muzaffarabad and the other by Kaghan the Jalkhad Road. Generally Neelum valley starts just after Muzaffarabad but in political division the area from Muzaffarabad to Chelhana is named Kotla valley in election division. District Neelum starts from Chelhana and goes to Taobutt.

Shardadesh is a name for the drainage basin of the Neelum River.


In the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, the construction work on the 330 MW Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant project has started, after being defunct for eighteen years.[7][8] Recently, the project was awarded to Hindustan Construction Company (HCC) with a timeline of seven years. The 330 MW Kishanganga hydro-electric power project involves damming of Kishanganga or Neelam River and the proposed 37 metre reservoir will submerge some parts of the Gurez valley of Kashmir.[9] The water of Kishen Ganga River will be diverted through a 24 kilometre tunnel dug through the mountains to Bandipore where it will join the Wular Lake and then Jhelum River.[9]

Similarly, Pakistan is constructing the 969 MW Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant; the country has placed the project in the hands of a Chinese consortium.[7] Pakistan claims that the Indian dam project will violate the Indus Waters Treaty and has pursued formal arbitration proceedings against India over the matter.[10][11]

See also


  1. ^ Banerji, Arindam (20 June 2003). "The Neelam Plan". Rediff. Retrieved 15 August 2016. The Neelam River enters Pakistan from India in the Gurais sector of the Line of Control, and then runs west till it meets the Jhelum north of Muzzafarabad.
  2. ^ Majid Hussain (1998). Geography of Jammu and Kashmir. Rajesh Publications, 1998. p. 13–. ISBN 9788185891163. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  3. ^ "The Neelam Plan". Rediff. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  4. ^ "Basic Facts about the Kishenganga Dam ProjectK". Kashmir Environmental Watch Association. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  5. ^ "Kashmiri refugees: facts issues and the future ahead". Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  6. ^ "Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network-Gain". Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Kishen Ganga power project to be revived". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  8. ^ "Welcome to Kishenganga valley Project". NHPC Limited. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  9. ^ a b "Kishen Ganga project to begin soon". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  10. ^ Pakistan Seeks Resolution of India Water Dispute. By TOM WRIGHT in Lahore, Pakistan, and AMOL SHARMA in New Delhi. Wall Street Journal. 20 May 2010.
  11. ^ "Hague Court asks India to stop Kishanganga project". The International News. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.

External links


Dowarian (Urdu: دواریان‎) is a village in Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is located 106 kilometers (66 mi) from Muzaffarabad and 22 kilometers (14 mi) from Athmuqam on the bank of Neelum River at the altitude of 1,615 meters (5,299 ft).Dowarian is accessible by Neelum road from Muzaffarabad. A rest house of AJK Tourism and Archeology Department located here for tourists stay. It is the base camp to Ratti Gali Lake. Dowarian locates at the merger of river Neelam and Ratti Gali water stream. There are tourism and forest rest houses. The village is full of spring waters, high green mountains and plants. Cherries and apples are produced in the village. A secondary school was established in 1972 and there are multiple other schools engaged in the provision of education to the masses.

Gadsar Lake

The Gadsar Lake or the Yemsar Lake also called as the valley of flowers is a picturesque, alpine high altitude oligotrophic lake in Ganderbal district of Kashmir valley at an elevation of 3600 metres. It has a max. length of 0.85 kilometres and max. width of 0.76 kilometres.


Harmukh (also known as Mount Haramukh or Harmukh mountain) is a mountain with a peak elevation of 5,142 metres (16,870 ft), in Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir in India. Harmukh is part of the Himalaya Range, and is located between Nallah Sindh in the south and Kishanganga Neelum River in the north, rising above Gangabal Lake in the vicinity of Kashmir valley. It is mostly climbed from the northwestern side of Arin Bandipore.

Jhelum River

The Jhelum River (Urdu: جہلم‎, Punjabi: ਜਿਹਲਮ/جہلم, Kashmiri: Vyeth (ویتھ/व्यथा)) is a river in northern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab region, and passes through the Kashmir Valley. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about 725 kilometres (450 mi).

Keran, Azad Kashmir

Keran (Urdu: کیرن ‎) is a village and tourist resort in Neelam Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is located 95 kilometers (59 mi) from Muzaffarabad on the bank of Neelam River at the altitude of 1,524 meters (5,000 ft). Neelam village is 2.5 kilometers (1.6 mi) away from here. The adjacent village on the other side of the Neelum river in Indian Kashmir is also known as Keran.

Keran is accessible by Neelam valley road, and is located 93 km from Muzaffarabad.

Keran, Jammu and Kashmir

Keran is a village in Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is in the Neelum Valley on the bank of the Neelum (Kishanganga) river. The village lies on the Indo-Pakistan border. The Keran block includes three villages: Keran, Mundiyan and Pathran.The adjacent habitation on the Pakistani side is also called Keran. The Neelum river flowing through village acts as the natural border between the two habitations. While both sides have the same predominant religion, social and cultural practices differ greatly. The people are not allowed by Indian and Pakistani officials to intermingle. Karen village is surrounded by dense forests. Shalabhatu, a village in Keran sector is divided between Jammu and Kashmir and Azad Kashmir. It was one of the famous infiltration routes in early 1990s. The village has three border posts — Khokhri, Kulari and Mangerta

Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant

The Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant is an $864 million run-of-the-river hydroelectric scheme that is designed to divert water from the Kishanganga River (Neelum River) to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin. It is located 5 km (3 mi) north of Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir, India and will have an installed capacity of 330 MW. Construction on the project began in 2007 and was expected to be complete in 2016. Construction on the dam was temporarily halted by the Hague's Permanent Court of Arbitration (CoA) in October 2011 due to Pakistan's protest of its effect on the flow of the Kishanganga River (called the Neelum River in Pakistan). In February 2013, the CoA ruled that India could divert all the water leaving a minimum amount of water to the downstream of the dam on Kishanganga River for the purpose of environmental flows. The CoA also ruled that India shall not lower/draw down the water level below the dead storage level for sediment flushing purpose. CoA also stipulated in its verdict that India shall maintain minimum environmental flows in the Kihanganga river at the line of control point not be less than 9 cumecs continuously. However, the minor differences between India and Pakistan over the project are still not settled. All the three units (3 x 110 MW) were commissioned and synchronized with the electricity grid by 30 March 2018. On 19 May 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated Kishanganga hydropower project.

Krishansar Lake

The Krishansar Lake is an alpine high altitude oligotrophic lake situated in the vicinity of Sonamarg, less than one kilometer from Vishansar Lake north westwards at an elevation of 3710 meters. It has a maximum length of 0.95 kilometers and maximum width of 0.6 kilometers.

Kundal Shahi bridge collapse

On Sunday, 13th May, 2018, an erected feet long Steel bridge known as Kundal Shahi (locally "Jagran Bridge") in Kutton Jagran, over Jagran Nullah (Nala Jagran) stream of Neelum River in Kundal Shahi collapsed due to an excessive weight levied on it, when groups of 25 (some reported 34-40) tourists mainly of whom were university students from Lahore, Faisalabad, Multan and Sahiwal taking pictures on it. Research operation was launched immediately and it was confirmed that six people died during the incident, while eight were rescued and six went missing.

List of rivers of Pakistan

This is a list of rivers wholly or partly in Pakistan, organised geographically by river basin, from west to east. Tributaries are listed from the mouth to the source. The longest and the largest river in Pakistan is the Indus River. Around two-thirds of water supplied for irrigation and in homes come from the Indus and its associated rivers.


Minimarg (Urdu: منی مارگ‎) is a village in the Astore District of the Pakistani region of Gilgit-Baltistan. It is situated on the right bank of the Neelum River to the north of Taobat, approximately 190 km from the city of Gilgit. The average elevation is 2,844.6 metres above sea level.

Neelum District

Neelum District (also spelt as Neelam; Urdu: ضلع نیلم‎), is the northernmost district of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Taking up the larger part of the Neelam Valley, the district has a population of 191,000 (as of 2017). It was badly affected by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant

The Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant is part of a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power scheme in Pakistan, designed to divert water from the Neelum River to a power station on the Jhelum River. The power station is located in (Independent)Azad Kashmir, 42 km (26 mi) south of Muzaffarabad, and has an installed capacity of 969 MW. Construction on the project began in 2008 after a Chinese consortium was awarded the construction contract in July 2007. After delay of many years, the first generator was commissioned in April 2018 and the entire project is completed in August 2018 when the fourth and last unit was synchronized with the national grid on 13 August and attained its maximum generation capacity of 969 MW on August 14, 2018. It will generate 5,150 gigawatt per year at the levelised tariff of Rs 13.50 per unit for 30 years.


Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (Persian: ابو منصور سبکتگین‎) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 367 A.H/977 A.D to 387 A.H/997A.D. In Turkic the name means beloved prince.Sabuktigin lived as a slave during his youth and later married the daughter of his master Alptigin, the man who seized the region of Ghazna (modern Ghazni Province in Afghanistan) in a political fallout for the throne of the Samanids of Bukhara. Although the latter and Sabuktigin still recognized Samanid authority, and it was not until the reign of Sabuktigin's son Mahmud that the rulers of Ghazni became independent.When his father-in-law Alptigin died, Sebuktigin became the new ruler and expanded the kingdom after defeating Jayapala to cover the territory as far as the Neelum River in Kashmir and the Indus River in what is now Pakistan.

Sharda, Azad Kashmir

Sharda (Urdu: شاردا ‎) (Also known as Shardi ) is a small town in Neelam District in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is one of the two tehsils of Neelum district. It is located on the banks of the Neelum river at an altitude of 1981m, about 136 kilometres northeast of Muzaffarabad.

Sharda Fort

Sharda Fort, also known as Sharda Peeth, is an ancient fort and a national heritage monument in Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Situated at an altitude of 1981m near the Neelum River, it is a major tourist attraction in Neelum Valley. The heritage site is not just a fort but is a combination of ancient Buddhist and Hindu temples as well as a ruined Buddhist University.

Tulail Valley

The Tulail Valley is a Himalayan sub-valley of Gurez in the State of Jammu and Kashmir in India. The Valley lies 120 kilometres (75 mi) northeast of Bandipore and 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Srinagar the capital of Jammu and Kashmir.

Vishansar Lake

The Vishansar Lake is an alpine high altitude oligotrophic lake situated in the vicinity of Sonamarg at an elevation of 3710 meters. It has a maximum length of 1 kilometer and maximum width of 0.6 kilometers.

Hill stations
Mughal gardens
See also
Dams, Barrages
Hydrography of surrounding areas


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