Nazism in Brazil began even before World War II, when the National Socialist German Workers' Party made political propaganda in the country to attract militants among the members of the German community. Germans began immigrating to Brazil around 1824, when even the country named as Germany didn't exist yet. That's why the first generations of German immigrants didn't identify themselves as "Germans". In the 1920s and 1930s, almost a hundred years after the first wave of immigrants had arrived, another major wave of German immigrants began arriving in Brazil again. It was tens of thousands of Germans immigrating to Brazil, due to the socioeconomic problems faced by Weimar Republic Germany and the post World War I. It was this new wave of German immigration that originated most of the Nazis in Brazil, since these new immigrants had stronger ties with Germany than the immigrants who arrived in Brazil in the 19th century.
It can not be said that the majority of the German community in Brazil adhered to the Nazi ideology, but important segments of this community were infiltrated by Nazis. The Nazis in Brazil were concentrated mainly between the business and urban strata of the German community, and not in the German colonies. Not all affiliates to the Nazi party in Brazil engaged in ideology; many did so in pursuit of economic benefits that such membership could provide.
In 1939, 87,024 German immigrants lived in Brazil, of which 33,397 were in São Paulo, 15,279 in Rio Grande do Sul, 12,343 in Paraná and 11,293 in Santa Catarina. Of the total number of Germans, only 2,822 were affiliated with the Nazi party, less than 5% of the German community. The Nazis were spread across 17 Brazilian states, from north to south. The largest number of Nazis was in São Paulo (785), followed by Santa Catarina (528) and Rio de Janeiro (447). At that time, there were also 900,000 Brazilians--descendants of Germans, but these could not join the party; that was reserved to the born Germans.
It was not in the interest of the Nazis to participate in the elections in Brazil, and the party was never registered in the Brazilian Electoral Court. According to the then German ambassador to Brazil, Karl Ritter, there were explicit guidelines that the party should not interfere in Brazil's internal affairs. The party operated in Brazil from 1928 to 1938, without being bothered by the Brazilian government, then led by Getúlio Vargas. In the last year, after the establishment of the Estado Novo dictatorship, the Nazi party and all other foreign political associations were declared illegal. Although most of the Teuto-Brazilians did not adhere to or sympathize with Hitler propaganda, Brazil had the largest section of the Nazi Party outside Germany.
In 1928, the Brazilian section of the Nazi Party was founded in Timbó, Santa Catarina. About 100 thousand born Germans and about one million descendants lived in Brazil at that time. Most of them lived in isolated communities in southern Brazil that preserved German language and culture. With Adolf Hitler's rise to the Chancellor's office in Germany, German-Brazilians began to be besieged by propaganda by Nazism to attract followers abroad.
Although there has never been a Nazi Party organized, legally or clandestinely in the country, several members of the Teuto-Brazilian community were members of the Brazilian section of the Nazi Party of Germany. This section reached 2,822 members and was the largest section of the German Nazi Party outside Germany. As it was a foreign organization, only born Germans could be affiliated; and the Brazilian descendants of Germans, who might want to, could act only as sympathizers.
It is estimated that about 5% of the German immigrants then residing in Brazil were, at one time, associated with the German Nazi Party. These Nazis resided in 17 Brazilian states, most of them in São Paulo, mainly in Santo André. However, the overwhelming majority of Brazilians were not seduced by propaganda and never joined Nazism.
Until 1930, there were two flows of German immigration into Brazil. The first flow occurred in the nineteenth century, which gave rise to several colonies scattered throughout Brazil, but concentrated in the South. At the time of the rise of Nazism in Germany, this community was already in the second and third generation in Brazil. This community maintained diverse German cultural habits, however the geographic distance and the passage of time brought about perceptible cultural changes. In turn, the second flow occurred in the first decades of the twentieth century. During the Republic of Weimar and due to the consequences of World War I, Germany was in an economic crisis. At the same time, Brazil was experiencing industrial development, especially in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Due to the demand for skilled and technical labor, many Germans immigrated to the country at this time. Evidently, these new immigrants had a greater bond with Germany than the German-Brazilians who arrived in 19th century.
The newly arrived immigrants from Germany differed from the German-Brazilians. The first were called Reichsdeutsche (Germans of the Reich), while the second were the Volksdeutsche (Germans of the people). Only the born Germans could join the Nazi party. That is why the largest number of Nazis in Brazil lived in São Paulo, since the state was the preferred destination of this new wave of German immigration.
By the mid-1930s, there were more than one million Germans and descendants in Brazil, most in Rio Grande do Sul (600,000) and Santa Catarina (220,000). In 1940, Germans and descendants made up 22.34% of the population of Santa Catarina and 19.3% in Rio Grande do Sul. The German community in the country preserved its culture and language, understood as a manifestation of Germanism, which was possible through the existence of societies, a German-language press, and especially schools. The 1940 census showed that 640,000 people used German as their primary home language in Brazil. Based on the high proportion of members of the German community who used German at home (more than 70%), it was concluded that there was a low level of cultural assimilation of this community.
|Affiliated to the Nazi party in Brazil, among born Germans (1930/1940)|
|State||Affiliated||Populace born in Germany|
|Rio de Janeiro||447||11.519|
|Rio Grande do Sul||439||15.279|
The government of the Estado Novo promoted the forced integration of the Germans and they descendants that lived in colonies isolated in the south of Brazil. In various occasion acted with brutality against humble immigrants who had no relations with Nazi Germany.
In 1940, on a visit to Blumenau, city of German colonization in the state of Santa Catarina, Vargas declared: "O Brasil não é inglês nem alemão. É um país soberano, que faz respeitar as suas leis e defende os seus interesses. O Brasil é brasileiro. (...) Porém, ser brasileiro, não é somente respeitar as leis do Brasil e acatar as autoridades. Ser brasileiro é amar o Brasil. É possuir o sentimento que permite dizer: o Brasil nos deu pão; nós lhe daremos o sangue". (The Brazil is not English nor German. Is a sovereign country, that respect your laws and defends your interests. The Brazil is Brazilian. (...) But, be Brazilian, isn't just respect the laws of Brazil and respect the authorities. Be Brazilian is love Brazil. Is to possess the feeling that allows to say: Brazil gived us bread; we will give him our blood".)
The japanese immigrants and italians were also persecuted and forced to "braziliate". The case of the teuto-Brazilians is unique because they formed isolated communities that maintained the traditions and used exclusively the german language.
After Germany's defeat in World War II, many Nazis convicted as war criminals fled to Brazil and hid among the German-Brazilian communities. The most famous case was Josef Mengele, a doctor who became known as the "Angel of Death" at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Mengele performed medical experiments with living humans, always without anesthesia, for the purpose of researching the perfection of the Aryan race. A good part of the victims of their "scientific experiments" were dwarfs and twin brothers. He lived hidden in the interior of São Paulo from 1970 to 1979, when he drowned in Bertioga, on the coast of São Paulo, without ever having been recognized.
Currently in Brazil there are some neo-Nazi groups in action. However, there is often an association between these groups and the descendants of Southern Germans. Historian Rafael Athaides asserts there is no justification for making such a connection. Athaides finds it unlikely that there will be any connection, since a survey of the profile of individuals arrested for neo-Nazism shows that none of them are descendants of historical Nazis. These are misfit young people, "devoid of referential identity and who manipulate the signs of Nazism in the world." To hold the descendants of southern Germans for the support of separatist and neo-Nazi groups happens even when practices described as "neo-Nazi" are practiced by caboclos from the interior of Pará. This type of stereotype is criticized in the work of the historian René Gertz.
Some crimes committed by neo-Nazis caught the attention of the Brazilian press. In 2003, for example, a group of neo-Nazi skinheads forced two young punks to jump off a moving train in Mogi das Cruzes. One of them died and the other lost an arm. In São Paulo, the resurgence of the Nazi movement had its origins in the 1980s, when the "Carecas do ABC" emerged, an extreme right-wing group opposed to the trade union movement led by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who emerged in the same region. Since then, communication over the internet has broadened the boundaries of the movement. The site Valhala88, deactivated in 2007, received 200 thousand visits daily by users of the country.
According to the anthropologist Adriana Dias, from Unicamp, a scholar of the question of neo-Nazism in Brazil, the heated debate in the 2010 presidential election breathed the movement. For her, "the issue of prejudice to the Northeastern [...] comes from the elections of Lula. In Dilma's election, this was much radicalized because the issue of abortion and same-sex marriage." According to Adriana, there are two large age groups of neo-Nazis in Brazil. The first one is between 18 and 25 years old and the second is between 35 and 45 years old and the leader of the first. According to her, the reading of the neo-Nazis is composed of William Patch, Thomas Haden and Miguel Serrano. Currently, the region with the largest number of neo-Nazi sympathizers is the South, with more than 105,000; Internet users who download more than 100 files from neo-Nazi websites are considered sympathizers.
The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.Eidgenössische Sammlung
Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.Esoteric Nazism
Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.Hirden
Hirden (the hird) was a uniformed paramilitary organisation during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, modelled the same way as the German Sturmabteilungen.Liechtenstein Homeland Service
Liechtenstein Homeland Service (German: Liechtensteiner Heimatdienst, LHD) was a political party in Liechtenstein that advocated corporate statism and the abolition of party politics.Established in the autumn of 1933, the party's positions began to radicalize and move toward National Socialist ideas within a few months of existence. By December 1933, this radicalization caused some members (such as co-founder Eugen Schafhauser) to abandon the party.LHD merged with the Christian-Social People's Party (VP) in 1936 to form the Patriotic Union (VU).List of Nazis
A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.
This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:
List of Nazis (A–E) : from Gustav Abb to Hanns Heinz Ewers (~ 247 names)
List of Nazis (F–K) : from Arnold Fanck to Kurt Küttner (~ 268 names)
List of Nazis (L–R) : from Bodo Lafferentz to Bernhard Rust (~ 232 names)
List of Nazis (S–Z) : from Ernst Sagebiel to Fritz Zweigelt (~ 259 names)National Movement of Switzerland
The National Movement of Switzerland (German: Nationale Bewegung der Schweiz or NBS) was a Nazi umbrella-group formed in Switzerland in 1940.
The NBS had its roots in the 1938 foundation of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung by Rolf Henne after the more moderate Robert Tobler had removed Henne from the leadership of the National Front. In 1940, the Bund absorbed a number of tiny Nazi-supporting organisations to become the NBS under Henne and Dr. Max Leo Keller. Other groups absorbed included the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiterpartei and elements of the National Front. The new group also officially bore the French-language name Mouvement Nationale Suisse as an appeal to Francophone Swiss. Keller had worked with Heinrich Himmler and brought with him Andreas von Sprecher, whom the SS had trained, to run the new group's propaganda department.Keller, Jakob Schaffner and Ernst Hofmann, as representatives of the NBS, received an audience with the Swiss President Marcel Pilet-Golaz (in office throughout 1940) in which they demanded much closer relations with Nazi Germany, leading to eventual incorporation. This was followed by a Munich conference in October 1940 to which the Director of the Reich Main Security Office, Reinhard Heydrich and the Swiss doctor and SS-member Franz Riedweg invited the leaders of the NBS and of other Swiss groups in order to increase cohesion. Ultimately the meeting strengthened the hand of the NBS, as the remnants of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung as well as the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiter-Partei and Ernst Leonhardt's Nationalsozialistische Schweizerische Arbeitspartei agreed to be absorbed into the movement.Despite this strengthening the National Movement did not last long, as the Swiss Federal Council feared that annexation by Germany was just around the corner. In a series of moves against the most extreme groups, the NBS was closed down on 19 November 1940, by which time it had 160 cells and around 4000 members. The group continued to work underground for a time before a police crackdown which led to most of the leadership fleeing to Germany. Whilst in Germany Keller set up the Bund der Schweizer Nationalsozialisten as an émigré movement, although its influence remained limited; eventually he returned to Switzerland in 1941. Meanwhile, various NBS units continued underground activity secretly, mostly with help from the SS, until World War II ended in 1945.National Socialist Bloc
National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.
The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.
NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.National Socialist Flyers Corps
The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).
During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.National Socialist German Students' League
The National Socialist German Students' League (German: Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund, abbreviated NSDStB) was founded in 1926 as a division of the Nazi Party with the mission of integrating University-level education and academic life within the framework of the National Socialist worldview. Organized (as with other departments of the Nazi Party) strictly in accord with the Führerprinzip (or "leader principle") as well as the principle of Machtdistanz (or "power distance"), the NSDStB housed its members in so-called Kameradschaftshäusern (or "Fellowship Houses"), and (from 1930) had its members decked out in classic brown shirts and its own distinctive Swastika emblems.
After Germany's defeat in World War II, the Nazi Party along with its divisions and affiliated organisations were declared "criminal organizations" and banned by the Allied Control Council on October 10, 1945.National Socialist League
The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.National Union (Switzerland)
The National Union (French: Union Nationale) was a French-speaking fascist political party in Switzerland between 1932 and 1939.
The Union was formed in Geneva in 1932 by Georges Oltramare, a lawyer and writer. Noted for his anti-Semitic writing, Oltramare founded the Order Politique Nationale in 1931 but merged it with the Union de Défense Economique the following year to form the National Union. The group continued under Oltramare's leadership until 1940 when he moved to Paris in order to co-operate more closely with the Nazis. Oltramare spent four years as a member of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland representing the National Union.The Union became notorious for a demonstration in Geneva on November 9, 1932 when their march to the city's Salle Communale was counterdemonstrated by the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland. In the resulting trouble the Swiss army opened fire on the Socialists resulting in 13 deaths.National Unity Party (Canada)
The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.Nationale Jeugdstorm
The Nationale Jeugdstorm (English: National Youth Storm; NJS) was a Dutch youth movement that existed from 1934 to 1945, organized as the Dutch equivalent of the German Hitlerjugend and as a Nazi counterpart of Scouting Nederland.Nationalist Liberation Alliance
The Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista, ALN), originally known as the Argentine Civic Legion (Legión Cívica Argentina, LCA) from 1931 to 1937, the Alliance of Nationalist Youth (Alianza de la Juventud Nacionalista, AJN) from 1937 to 1943, and then using its final name from 1943 to 1955, was a Nacionalista and fascist movement.The movement was heavily influenced by fascism, with its members utilizing the Roman salute, wearing fascist-style uniforms, and marching in military formation. The movement's declaration of principles in 1931 attacked Marxism and democracy and declared support for the creation of a corporatist state like that of Fascist Italy. It cooperated with the Argentine Fascist Party, particularly in the Córdoba region of Argentina. In Córdoba in 1935, the local militia allied with the Argentine Fascist Party and Argentine Nationalist Action to form the Frente de Fuerzas Fascistas de Córdoba, which was replaced by the National Fascist Union in 1936. In 1936, its leader General Juan Bautista Molina reorganized the militia to be based upon the organization of the Nazi Party. General Molina wanted an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.The movement called for "hierarchy and order" in society, various xenophobic and anti-Semitic themes, and the demand for "social justice" and "revolutionary" land reform to destroy the "oligarchy" in Argentina. Juan Bautista Molina wanted the creation of an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.It was violently anti-Semitic, with its journal Combate issuing a "commandment" to its members: "War against the Jew. Hatred towards the Jew. Death to the Jew."Ossewabrandwag
The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.Otto Strasser
Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.
His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.Strasserism
Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.
Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.The Immortals (neo-Nazis)
The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.