Nazi salute

The Nazi salute, Hitler salute (German: Hitlergruß, lit. 'Hitler Greeting', IPA[ˈhɪtlɐˌɡʁuːs], also called German: deutscher Gruß, lit. 'German Greeting' by the Nazi Party, or Sieg Heil salute, is a gesture that was used as a greeting in Nazi Germany. The salute is performed by extending the right arm from the neck into the air with a straightened hand. Usually, the person offering the salute would say "Heil Hitler!" (Hail Hitler!), "Heil, mein Führer!" (Hail, my leader!), or "Sieg Heil!" (Hail victory!). It was adopted in the 1930s by the Nazi Party to signal obedience to the party's leader, Adolf Hitler, and to glorify the German nation (and later the German war effort). The salute was mandatory for civilians[1] but mostly optional for military personnel, who retained the traditional military salute until the failed assassination attempt on Hitler[2] on 20 July 1944.

Use of this salute is illegal in modern Germany and Austria (Verbotsgesetz 1947), and is also considered a criminal offense in modern Poland,[3] Slovakia,[3] and Austria.[3] In Canada, the Czech Republic,[4] France, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Sweden,[3] Switzerland, and Russia, displaying the salute is not in itself a criminal offence, but constitutes illegal hate speech if used for propagating Nazi ideology.[5][6][3]

Bundesarchiv Bild 147-0510, Berlin, Lustgarten, Kundgebung der HJ
Hitler Youth in Berlin performing the Nazi salute at a rally in 1933


The salute was executed by extending the right arm to neck height and then straightening the hand so that it is parallel to the arm.[7] Usually, an utterance of "Heil Hitler!", or "Heil!" accompanied the gesture. If one saw an acquaintance at a distance, it was enough to simply raise the right hand.[7] If one encountered a superior, one would also say "Heil Hitler".[7] If physical disability prevented raising the right arm, it was acceptable to raise the left.[8] The form "Heil, mein Führer!" was for direct address to Hitler.[9] "Sieg Heil" was repeated as a chant on public occasions.[9] Written communications would be concluded with either mit deutschem Gruß ("with German regards"), or with "Heil Hitler".[10] In correspondence with high-ranking Nazi officials, letters were usually signed with "Heil Hitler".[11]

Hitler gave the salute in two ways. When reviewing his troops or crowds, he generally used the traditional stiff armed salute. When greeting individuals, he used a modified version of the salute, bending his right arm while holding an open hand towards those greeted at shoulder height.[12]

Origins and adoption

Hitler 1928 crop
Hitler and Hermann Göring saluting at a 1928 Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12405, Bad Harzburg, Jubelnde NSDAP-Anhänger
Nazi salute at the Harzburg Front rally in Bad Harzburg, October 1931

The oral greeting "Heil" became popular in the pan-German movement around 1900.[13] As a manner of address, Führer was introduced by Georg Ritter von Schönerer who considered himself leader of the Austrian Germans.[13]

The salute gesture is widely believed to be based on an ancient Roman custom.[14] However, no surviving Roman work of art depicts it, nor does any extant Roman text describe it.[14] Jacques-Louis David's painting Oath of the Horatii (1784) may be the starting point for the gesture that became known as the Roman salute.[15][16] The gesture and its identification with ancient Rome was advanced in other French neoclassic art.[17][18][19] This was further elaborated upon in popular culture during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in plays and films that portrayed the salute as an ancient Roman custom.[20] This included the silent film Cabiria (1914), whose screenplay was written by the Italian ultra-nationalist Gabriele d'Annunzio, arguably the forerunner of Benito Mussolini.[21] In 1919, when he led the occupation of Fiume, d'Annunzio adopted the style of salute depicted in the film as a neo-Imperialist ritual;[22] and it was quickly adopted by the Italian Fascist Party.[22]

By autumn 1923, some members of the Nazi Party were using the rigid, outstretched right arm salute to greet Hitler, who responded by raising his own right hand crooked back at the elbow, palm opened upwards, in a gesture of acceptance.[23] In 1926, the Heil Hitler salute was made compulsory.[24] It functioned as a display of commitment to the Party and a declaration of principle to the outside world.[25] Yet the drive to gain acceptance did not go unchallenged.[25]

Some party members challenged the legitimacy of the so-called Roman salute, employed by Fascist Italy, as un-Germanic.[25] In response, efforts were made to establish its pedigree by inventing a tradition after the fact.[25] In June 1928, Rudolf Hess published an article titled "The Fascist Greeting", which claimed that the gesture was used in Germany as early as 1921, before the Nazis had heard about the Italian Fascists.[26] He admits in the article: "The NSDAP's introduction of the raised-arm greeting approximately two years ago still gets some people's blood boiling. Its opponents suspect the greeting of being un-Germanic. They accuse it of merely aping the [Italian] Fascists",[27] but goes on to ask, "and even if the decree from two years ago [Hess' order that all party members use it] is seen as an adaption of the Fascist gesture, is that really so terrible"?[27] Ian Kershaw points out that Hess did not deny the likely influence from Fascist Italy, even if indeed the salute had been used sporadically in 1921 as Hess claimed.[28]

On the night of 3 January 1942, Hitler said of the origins of the salute:[29]

I made it the salute of the Party long after the Duce had adopted it. I'd read the description of the sitting of the Diet of Worms, in the course of which Luther was greeted with the German salute. It was to show him that he was not being confronted with arms, but with peaceful intentions. In the days of Frederick the Great, people still saluted with their hats, with pompous gestures. In the Middle Ages the serfs humbly doffed their bonnets, whilst the noblemen gave the German salute. It was in the Ratskeller at Bremen, about the year 1921, that I first saw this style of salute. It must be regarded as a survival of an ancient custom, which originally signified: "See, I have no weapon in my hand!" I introduced the salute into the Party at our first meeting in Weimar. The SS at once gave it a soldierly style. It's from that moment that our opponents honored us with the epithet "dogs of Fascists".

— Adolf Hitler, Hitler's Table Talk

The Bellamy salute, adopted in 1892 to accompany the American Pledge of Allegiance, bore a resemblance to the Nazi Salute. For this reason, President Franklin D. Roosevelt instituted the hand-over-the-heart gesture as the salute to be rendered by civilians during the Pledge of Allegiance and the national anthem in the United States, instead of the Bellamy salute.[30] This was done when Congress officially adopted the Flag Code on 22 June 1942.[31]

From 1933 to 1945

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2007-0329-501, Reichsgründungsfeier, Schulklasse
Ten- and eleven-year-old Berlin schoolchildren, 1934. The salute was a regular gesture in German schools.
Emailleplakat, Hitlergruß, breit
Enamel sign with the note "The German greets: Hail Hitler!" (Der Deutsche grüßt: Heil Hitler!)

Under a decree issued by Reich Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick on 13 July 1933 (one day before the ban on all non-Nazi parties), all German public employees were required to use the salute.[1] The decree also required the salute during the singing of the national anthem and the "Horst-Wessel-Lied".[1] It stipulated that "anyone not wishing to come under suspicion of behaving in a consciously negative fashion will therefore render the Hitler Greeting".[1] A rider to the decree, added two weeks later, stipulated that if physical disability prevented raising of the right arm, "then it is correct to carry out the Greeting with the left arm".[8] On 27 September, prison inmates were forbidden to use the salute,[32] as were Jews by 1937.[33]

By the end of 1934, special courts were established to punish those who refused to salute.[34] Offenders, such as Protestant preacher Paul Schneider, faced the possibility of being sent to a concentration camp.[34] Foreigners were not exempt from intimidation if they refused to salute. For example, the Portuguese Consul General was beaten by members of the Sturmabteilung for remaining seated in a car and not saluting a procession in Hamburg.[35] Reactions to inappropriate use were not merely violent but sometimes bizarre.[36] For example, a memo dated 23 July 1934 sent to local police stations stated: "There have been reports of traveling vaudeville performers training their monkeys to give the German Greeting. ... see to it that said animals are destroyed."[36]

The salute soon became part of everyday life.[37] Postmen used the greeting when they knocked on people's doors to deliver packages or letters.[37] Small metal signs that reminded people to use the Hitler salute were displayed in public squares and on telephone poles and street lights throughout Germany.[38] Department store clerks greeted customers with "Heil Hitler, how may I help you?"[37] Dinner guests brought glasses etched with the words "Heil Hitler" as house gifts.[37] The salute was required of all persons passing the Feldherrnhalle in Munich, site of the climax of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, which the government had made into a shrine to the Nazi dead; so many pedestrians avoided this mandate by detouring through the small Viscardigasse behind that the passage acquired the nickname "Dodgers' Alley" (Drückebergergasse).[39]

Children were indoctrinated at an early age.[40] Kindergarten children were taught to raise their hand to the proper height by hanging their lunch bags across the raised arm of their teacher.[40] At the beginning of first grade primers was a lesson on how to use the greeting.[40] The greeting found its way into fairy tales, including classics like Sleeping Beauty.[40] Students and teachers would salute each other at the beginning and end of the school day, between classes, or whenever an adult entered the classroom.[41]

Fritz Schilgen 1936 Summer Olympics
Fritz Schilgen carrying the Olympic torch at the Berlin Olympic Stadium. The public gave Nazi salute.

Some athletes used the Nazi salute in the opening ceremony of the 1936 Berlin Olympics as they passed by Hitler in the reviewing stand.[42] This was done by delegates from Afghanistan, Bermuda, Bulgaria, Bolivia, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy and Turkey.[42] The Bulgarian athletes performed the Nazi salute and broke into a goose-step;[42] Turkish athletes maintained the salute all around the track.[43] There is some confusion over the use of the salute, since the stiff-arm Nazi salute could have been mistaken for an Olympic salute, with the right arm held out at a slight angle to the right from the shoulder.[42] According to the American sports writer Jeremy Schaap, only half of the athletes from Austria performed a Nazi salute, while the other half gave an Olympic salute. According to the historian Richard Mandell, there are conflicting reports on whether athletes from France performed a Nazi salute or an Olympic Salute.[43] In football, the England football team bowed to pressure from the British Foreign Office and performed the salute during a friendly match on 14 May 1938.[44]

Jehovah's Witnesses came into conflict with the Nazi regime because they refused to salute Adolf Hitler with the traditional "Heil Hitler" salute, believing that it conflicted with their worship of God. Because refusing to salute Hitler was considered a crime, Jehovah's Witnesses were arrested, and their children attending school were expelled, detained and separated from their families.[45]

Military use

Bundesarchiv Bild 101II-MW-4012-04, Frankreich, Dönitz bei Offizieren
Dönitz and Navy officers performing Nazi salute, 1941

The Wehrmacht refused to adopt the Hitler salute officially and was able for a time to maintain its own customs.[46] A compromise edict from the Reich Defense Ministry, issued on 19 September 1933, required the Hitler salute of soldiers and uniformed civil servants while singing the "Horst-Wessel-Lied" and national anthem, and in non-military encounters both within and outside the Wehrmacht (for example, when greeting members of the civilian government). At all other times they were permitted to use their traditional salutes.[46] Use of the Hitler salute was also permitted when in uniform. However, it is of importance to note that according to (pre-Nazi) Reichswehr and Wehrmacht protocol, the traditional military salute was not permitted when the saluting soldier was not wearing a uniform headgear (helmet or cap). Because of this, all salutes performed bareheaded, even when in full uniform and on duty, made the Nazi salute de facto mandatory in most situations.[47]

Only after the 20 July Plot in 1944 were the military forces of the Third Reich ordered to replace the standard military salute with the Hitler salute, as a show of loyalty in deference to the fact that it was Army officers that had been responsible for the assassination attempt.[48] The order went into effect on 24 July 1944.[48] The use of the Hitler salute by the military had been discussed as early as January 1944 in a conference regarding traditions in the military at Hitler's headquarters. Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, head of the Armed Forces, had expressed a desire to standardize the salute across all organizations in Germany.[49]

On the night of 3 January 1942, Hitler stated the following about the compromise edict of 1933:[29]

I imposed the German salute for the following reason. I'd given orders, at the beginning, that in the Army I should not be greeted with the German salute. But many people forgot. Fritsch drew his conclusions, and punished all who forgot to give me the military salute, with fourteen days' confinement to barracks. I, in turn, drew my conclusions and introduced the German salute likewise into the Army.

— Adolf Hitler, Hitler's Table Talk

Satiric responses

Heartfield Hitler Salute
"Millions stand behind me" (John Heartfield photomontage)

Despite indoctrination and punishment, the salute was ridiculed by some people. Since "heil" is also the imperative of the German verb "heilen" ("to heal"), a common joke in Nazi Germany was to reply with "Is he sick?", "Am I a doctor?", or "You heal him!"[50] Jokes were also made by distorting the phrase. For example, Heil Hitler might become Ein Liter ("One liter").[50] Cabaret performer Karl Valentin would quip, "It's lucky that Hitler's name wasn't 'Kräuter'. Otherwise, we'd have to go around yelling Heilkräuter ('medicinal herbs')".[50] Similar puns were made involving Bronn (rendering Heilbronn, a German city), and Butt (rendering Heilbutt, the German word for halibut).

Satirical use of the salute dates back to anti-Nazi propaganda in Germany before 1933. In 1932, photomontage artist John Heartfield used Hitler's modified version, with the hand bent over the shoulder, in a poster that linked Hitler to Big Business. A giant figure representing right-wing capitalists stands behind Hitler, placing money in his hand, suggesting "backhand" donations. The caption is, "the meaning of the Hitler salute" and "Millions stand behind me".[51] Heartfield was forced to flee in 1933 after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany.

Another example is a cartoon by New Zealand political cartoonist David Low, mocking the Night of the Long Knives. Run in the Evening Standard on 3 July 1934, it shows Hitler with a smoking gun grimacing at terrified SA men with their hands up. The caption reads: "They salute with both hands now".[52] When Achille Starace proposed that Italians should write Evviva Il Duce in letters, Mussolini wrote an editorial in Il Popolo d'Italia mocking the idea.[53]

Sieg Heil

Bundesarchiv Bild 102-04481B, Berlin, Maifeier auf dem Tempelhofer Feld
A mass Sieg Heil during a rally in the Tempelhof-Schöneberg district of Berlin in 1935

Sieg Heil was a verbal salute used at the Nazis' mass rallies, where enthusiastic crowds answered Heil (Hail!) to the call of Sieg (Victory).[54] For example, at the 1934 Nuremberg Rally, Rudolf Hess ended his climactic speech with, "The Party is Hitler. But Hitler is Germany, just as Germany is Hitler. Hitler! Sieg Heil!"[55] At his total war speech delivered in 1943, audiences shouted Sieg Heil as Joseph Goebbels solicited from them "a kind of plebiscitary 'Ja'" to total war.[56] ('Ja' means 'yes' in German.)

On 11 March 1945, less than two months before the capitulation of Nazi Germany, a memorial for the dead of the war was held in Marktschellenberg, a small town near Hitler's Berghof residence.[57] The British historian Ian Kershaw remarks that the power of the Führer-cult and the "Hitler Myth" had vanished, which is evident from a report given in the little Bavarian town of Markt Schellenberg on 11 March 1945:

When the leader of the Wehrmacht unit at the end of his speech called for a Sieg Heil for the Führer, it was returned neither by the Wehrmacht present, nor by the Volkssturm, nor by the spectators of the civilian population who had turned up. This silence of the masses ... probably reflects better than anything else, the attitudes of the population.[57]

The Swing Kids (German: Swing Jugend) were a group of middle-class teenagers who consciously separated themselves from Nazism and its culture, greeting each other with "Swing-Heil!" and addressing one another as "old-hot-boy".[58] This playful behaviour was dangerous for participants in the subculture; on 2 January 1942, Heinrich Himmler ordered that the leaders be put in concentration camps to be drilled and beaten.[58]


Today in Germany, Nazi salutes in written form, vocally, and even straight-extending the right arm as a saluting gesture (with or without the phrase), are illegal.[59][60] It is a criminal offence punishable by up to three years of prison (Strafgesetzbuch section 86a).[60][61] Usage for art, teaching and science is allowed unless "the existence of an insult results from the form of the utterance or the circumstances under which it occurred."[61] Use of the salute has also been illegal in Austria since the end of World War II.

Usage that is "ironic and clearly critical of the Hitler Greeting" is exempt, which has led to legal debates as to what constitutes ironic use.[62] One case involved Prince Ernst August of Hanover who was brought to court after using the gesture as a commentary on the behavior of an unduly zealous airport baggage inspector.[62] On 23 November 2007, the Amtsgericht Cottbus sentenced Horst Mahler to six months of imprisonment without parole for having, according to his own claims, ironically performed the Hitler salute when reporting to prison for a nine-month term a year earlier.[63] The following month, a pensioner named Roland T was given a prison term of five months for, amongst other things, training his dog Adolf to raise his right paw in a Nazi salute every time the command "Heil Hitler!" was uttered.[64]

Modified versions of the salute are sometimes used by neo-Nazis. One such version is the so-called "Kühnen salute" with extended thumb, index and middle finger, which is also a criminal offence in Germany.[65] In written correspondence, the number 88 is sometimes used by some neo-Nazis as a substitute for "Heil Hitler" ("H" as the eighth letter of the alphabet).[66] Swiss neo-Nazis were reported to use a variant of the Kühnengruss, though extending one's right arm over their head and extending said three fingers has a different historical source for Switzerland, as the first three Eidgenossen or confederates are often depicted with this motion. Hezbollah supporters in Lebanon often raise their arms in a Nazi-style salute.[67][68]

The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, a South African neo-Nazi organization known for its militant advocacy of white separatism,[69][70] has espoused brown uniforms as well as Nazi German-esque flags, insignia, and salutes at meetings and public rallies.[71] Hundreds of supporters in 2010 delivered straight-arm salutes outside the funeral for AWB leader Eugène Terre'Blanche, who was murdered by two black farm workers over an alleged wage dispute.[72][73]

On 28 May 2012, BBC current affairs programme Panorama examined the issues of racism, antisemitism and football hooliganism, which it claimed were prevalent among Polish and Ukrainian football supporters. The programme, titled Euro 2012: Stadiums of Hate, included footage of Ukrainian supporters giving the Nazi salute and shouting "Sieg Heil". The two countries hosted the international football competition UEFA Euro 2012.[74]

On 16 March 2013, Greek footballer Giorgos Katidis of AEK Athens F.C. was handed a life ban from the Greek national team for performing the salute after scoring a goal against Veria F.C. in Athens' Olympic Stadium.[75]

In April 2014, the Supreme Court of Switzerland ruled that Nazi salutes do not breach hate crime laws if expressed as one's personal opinion, but only if they are used in attempt to spread its ideology.[5][6]

On 18 July 2015, The Sun published an image of the British Royal Family from private film shot in 1933 or 1934, showing Princess Elizabeth (the future Queen, then a young girl) and the Queen Mother both performing a Nazi salute, accompanied by Edward VIII, taken from 17 seconds of home footage (also released by The Sun).[76] The footage ignited controversy in the UK,[77] and there have been questions as to whether the release of this footage was appropriate.[78] Buckingham Palace described the release of this footage as "disappointing",[79] and has considered pursuing legal action against The Sun,[80] whereas Stig Abell (managing director of The Sun) said that the footage was "a matter of national historical significance to explore what was going on in the [1930s] ahead of the Second World War".[81]

American white supremacist Richard B. Spencer drew considerable media attention in the weeks following the 2016 U.S. presidential election, where, at a National Policy Institute conference, he quoted from Nazi propaganda and denounced Jews.[82] In response to his cry "Hail Trump, hail our people, hail victory!", a number of his supporters gave the Nazi salute and chanted in a similar fashion to the Sieg Heil chant.[83][84]

A junior prom photo of about 50 male students from the class of 2019 at Baraboo High School, most apparently giving a Sieg Heil Nazi salute, was shared on social media and quickly spread on Twitter on November 11, 2018.[85] The photo attracted attention from the Auschwitz Memorial Twitter account, which issued a response,[86] State Senator Jon Erpenbach, who represents Baraboo, and Wisconsin Governor-elect Tony Evers,[87] who condemned the photo.[88] As part of her response to the incident, Lori M. Mueller, Baraboo School District Administrator, said "The photo of students posted to #BarabooProud is not reflective of the educational values and beliefs of the School District of Baraboo. The District will pursue any and all available and appropriate actions, including legal, to address."[89] The Baraboo Police Department said officers are assisting with the school district's investigation into the "controversial photo."[90]

In popular culture

  • In a running gag in Hogan's Heroes, Colonel Klink often forgets to give the Hitler salute at the end of a phone call; instead, he usually asks, "What's that?" and then says, "Yes, of course, Heil Hitler".[91] In the German language version of the show, called Ein Käfig voller Helden (A Cage Full of Heroes), "Col. Klink and Sgt. Schultz have rural Gomer Pyle-type accents", and "stiff-armed salutes are accompanied by such witticisms as "this is how high the cornflowers grow".[92] The "Heil Hitler" greeting was the variant most often used and associated with the series; "Sieg Heil" was rarely heard.
  • CNN fired political commentator Jeffrey Lord on August 10, 2017 after he tweeted "Sieg Heil!" to Angelo Carusone, president of Media Matters for America, suggesting Carusone was a fascist.[93][94][95]
  • A similar gesture was used by the fictional Nazi-affiliated organization Hydra from Marvel Comics, with both arms outstretched, clenched fists and the phrase "Hail Hydra" uttered by members of the organization.[96]

See also



  1. ^ a b c d Kershaw, Ian (2001). The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0192802064.
  2. ^ Büchner, Alex (1991). German Infantry Handbook, 1939–1945: Organization, Uniforms, Weapons, Equipment, Operations. Schipper Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-284-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e Sehmer, Alexander (20 July 2015). "Countries where Nazi salute is illegal". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  4. ^ "Hajloval. Hrozí mu tři roky vězení". Deník (in Czech). Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  5. ^ a b O'Dea, Claire (21 May 2014). "Hitler salute ruled not always illegal". Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Swiss court rules that Nazi salute may be 'personal statement', not racism". The Guardian. Geneva. Associated Press. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  7. ^ a b c Grunberger, Richard (1995). The 12-year Reich: a social history of Nazi Germany, 1933–1945 (illustrated ed.). Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306806605.
  8. ^ a b Kershaw, Ian (2001). The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192802064.
  9. ^ a b Lepage, Jean-Denis G. G. (2008). Hitler Youth, 1922–1945: An Illustrated History (illustrated ed.). McFarland. p. 70. ISBN 9780786439355.
  10. ^ Tilman (2009), p. 15.
  11. ^ Klee, Kulturlexikon, S. 227.
  12. ^ Knickerbocker, H.R. (2008). Is Tomorrow Hitler's?: 200 Questions on the Battle of Mankind (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 9781417992775.
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  14. ^ a b Winkler (2009) p. 2
  15. ^ Winkler (2009), p. 55.
  16. ^ Boime, Albert (1987). Art in an age of revolution, 1750–1800. Social history of modern art. Volume 1. University of Chicago Press. pp. 400–401. ISBN 9780226063348. Boime states: "The brothers stretch out their arms in a salute that has since become associated with tyranny. The 'Hail Caesar' of antiquity (although at the time of the Horatti a Caesar had yet to be born) was transformed into the 'Heil Hitler' of the modern period. The fraternal intimacy brought about by the Horatii's dedication to absolute principles of victory or death ... is closely related to the establishment of the fraternal order ... In the total commitment or blind obedience of a single, exclusive group lies the potentiality of the authoritarian state."
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  25. ^ a b c d Tilman (2009), p. 55.
  26. ^ Tilman (2009), pp.55–56
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  28. ^ Kershaw, Ian (2000). Hitler, 1889–1936: hubris (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 294, 689. ISBN 9780393320350.
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  • Allert, Tilman; Translated by Jefferson Chase (April 2009). The Hitler Salute: On the Meaning of a Gesture (Picador ed.). Picador. ISBN 9780312428303.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2000). Hitler, 1936–45: Nemesis (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393049947.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2001). The "Hitler myth": image and reality in the Third Reich (2, reissue ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192802064.
  • Winkler, Martin M. (2009). The Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 9780814208649.

External links

Antipodean Resistance

Antipodean Resistance (AR) is a neo-Nazi hate group in Australia. The group, formed in October 2016, makes use of Nazi symbols such as the swastika and the Nazi salute. AR‘s logo features the Black Sun and Totenkopf (skull head) with an Akubra hat, a laurel wreath and a swastika.

Antipodean Resistance promotes and incites hatred and violence, as seen through some of its anti-Jewish and anti-homosexual posters, with graphic images of shooting Jews and homosexuals in the head. One poster called to "Legalise the execution of Jews." As of December 2018, its website was shut down by its hosting provider.

Antoine Raab

Antoine Raab (born Anton Raab; 16 July 1913 – 12 December 2006) was a German football player and manager. Raab spent most of his career in France after having escaped Nazi Germany, being prosecuted and incarcerated for refusing to give the Nazi salute at a football game.

August Landmesser

August Landmesser (born 24 May 1910; KIA 17 October 1944; confirmed in 1949) was a worker at the Blohm+Voss shipyard in Hamburg, Germany. He is known as the possible identity of a man appearing in a 1936 photograph, conspicuously refusing to perform the Nazi salute with the other workers. Landmesser had run afoul of the Nazi Party over his unlawful relationship with Irma Eckler, a Jewish woman. He was later imprisoned and eventually drafted into penal military service, where he was killed in action; Eckler was sent to a concentration camp where she was presumably killed.

Baraboo High School

Baraboo High School is a high school in Baraboo, Wisconsin. It is a part of the Baraboo School District, and as the only high school of that district it serves Baraboo, West Baraboo, North Freedom, and a portion of Lake Delton.

Communications Act 2003

The Communications Act 2003 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The act, which came into force on 25 July 2003, superseded the Telecommunications Act 1984. The new act was the responsibility of Culture Secretary Tessa Jowell. It consolidated the telecommunication and broadcasting regulators in the UK, introducing the Office of Communications (Ofcom) as the new industry regulator. On 28 December 2003 Ofcom gained its full regulatory powers, inheriting the duties of the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel). Among other measures, the act introduced legal recognition of community radio and paved the way for full-time community radio services in the UK, as well as controversially lifting many restrictions on cross-media ownership. It also made it illegal to use other people's Wi-Fi broadband connections without their permission. In addition, the legislation also allowed for the first time non-European entities to wholly own a British television company.

Daniel Landa

Daniel Landa (born 4 November 1968) is a Czech musician, occasional actor, car racer, and amateur muay thai fighter. Born in Prague, Landa graduated with honours from Prague Conservatory. He began his musical career in 1987 when he along with David Matásek founded the oi! band Orlík, with whom he released two albums. Orlík has been criticized for its racial overtones, targeting specifically the Gypsy minority in the Czech Republic. In 1992 he began recording as a solo artist, with his first album being Valčík. He went on to enjoy a successful music career. In 2012 Czech tabloid newspaper released photo of Landa giving a nazi salute alongside with other famous Czech singer Lucie Bila. Landa himself gave an explanation that he was only messing around.

On 31 January 2008 Czech prime minister Mirek Topolánek cited his verse Dyť i to největší hovado má svůj strop! (Even the biggest idiot has his limit) from the song Forbes in the concept album Smrtihlav (1998).

Daniel Zeichner

Daniel Stephen Zeichner (born 9 November 1956) is a British Labour Party politician. He was elected at the 2015 general election as the Member of Parliament for Cambridge, replacing the Liberal Democrat Julian Huppert. Before entering Parliament, Zeichner was a councillor for eight years.

Debout Les Belges!

Debout Les Belges! (Belgians, Rise up!) is a political group in Belgium, founded and led by avowedly anti-Zionist Belgian MP Laurent Louis, who was previously associated with the Islamist party ISLAM.The group is associated with French comedian Dieudonné M'bala M'bala and the quenelle gesture which he has popularized, often considered a subversive allusion to the Nazi salute. Although its leader has recently criticized Alain Soral, another important leader of Reconciliation Nationale. The group has been accused of antisemitism and a planned gathering of notable anti-Zionists organized by Louis was banned in 2014.

Giorgos Katidis

Giorgos Katidis (Greek: Γιώργος Κατίδης; born 12 February 1993) is a Greek association footballer who plays FK Příbram in the Czech National Football League.

Helene Mayer

Helene Julie Mayer (20 December 1910 – 10 October 1953) was a German-born fencer who won the gold medal at the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam, and the silver medal at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. She competed for Nazi Germany in Berlin, despite having been forced to leave Germany in 1935 and resettle in the United States because she was Jewish.

Mayer had been called the greatest female fencer of all time, and was named by Sports Illustrated as one of the Top 100 Female Athletes of the 20th Century, but her legacy remains clouded. At the Olympics in Berlin, where she was the only German athlete of Jewish origin to win a medal, she gave the Nazi salute during the medal ceremony, and later said it might have protected her family that was still in Germany, in labor camps. Some consider her a traitor and opportunist, while others consider her a tragic figure who was used not only by Nazi Germany but by the International Olympic Committee and the United States Olympic Committee to prevent a boycott of the Games.After the Olympics, she returned to the United States and became a nine-time U.S. champion. She received citizenship in 1941 but returned to Germany in 1952. Mayer died the following year, leaving few interviews and little correspondence, creating a mystery about her true feelings about competing for Nazi Germany.

Karin Himboldt

Karin Himboldt (1920–2005) was a German film actress. She is perhaps best-known for her roles in the Heinz Rühmann comedy films Quax the Crash Pilot (1941) and Die Feuerzangenbowle (1944). Her career was damaged in 1944 when the Nazi regime banned her from filming: Himbold had denied the Nazi salute at the premiere of Die Feuerzangenbowle and was also married to a so-called "Half-Jew". She retired from film acting in 1959 and married the boss of a chemical concern in Basel.

Karina Urbach

Karina Urbach is a German historian with a special interest in the Nazi period (1933–45). She has written several books on 19th and 20th century European political and cultural history.Urbach is currently researching American intelligence operations against the National Socialists in wartime and postwar.

Lads Society

The Lads Society is an far-right White nationalist extremist group founded by several former members of the United Patriots Front in late 2017, with club houses in Sydney and Melbourne. The Lads Society came to national prominence after it staged a rally in St Kilda, Victoria, targeting the local African Australian community. Attendees were seen making the Nazi salute and one was photographed brandishing an SS helmet. In 2017, the group’s leader Thomas Sewell approached the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings, Brenton Harrison Tarrant, asking him to join the Lads Society, but Tarrant refused. The group’s members and allies attempted to infiltrate the Young Nationals in NSW, and engaged in branch stacking at the May 2018 conference. Lads Society member Clifford Jennings attained a leadership position in the Young Nationals, but was later forced out of the party.

Mark Meechan

Markus Meechan (born 17 October 1987) is a Scottish YouTuber and former European Parliament candidate. Known online as Count Dankula, he received press coverage when he posted a video of a dog he'd taught to raise its paw in the manner of a Nazi salute. Meechan was subsequently arrested and later convicted following a trial of being "grossly offensive" under the Communications Act 2003 in March 2018. This arrest generated controversy and discussions about free speech. In April 2018, Meechan was fined £800. Meechan has since stated he has not and will not pay the £800 fine, instead donating £800 to the Glasgow Children's Hospital Charity.

Mija Martina

Mija Martina Barbarić (born 26 April 1984) is a singer and TV host from Bosnia and Herzegovina who used to work as a spokeswoman for the Ministry of Tourism and Environment of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

She represented Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Eurovision Song Contest 2003 with the song "Ne brini". She also provided the results of the Bosnia and Herzegovina televote in the Eurovision Song Contest 2004.

She was also organizer of special events during the biggest Economy Fair in Mostar (for Mostar Inc.) for 10 years.

Barbarić was accused of neo-Nazi sympathies after she wrote on her Facebook profile Za dom spremni ("For the home"), controversial salute used by the fascist Ustaše movement in Croatia during World War II as equivalent of the Nazi salute "Sieg heil".

Quenelle (gesture)

The quenelle (French pronunciation: ​[kə.nɛl]) is a gesture created and popularized by French political activist and comedian Dieudonné M'bala M'bala. He first used it in 2005 in his sketch entitled "1905" about French secularism, and has used it since in a wide variety of contexts. The quenelle became viral, with many photos posted to the internet showing individuals posing while performing quenelles at mundane places (wedding parties, high school classes, etc.).In late 2013, following its use by professional footballer Nicolas Anelka during a match, Jewish leaders, anti-racism groups, and public officials in France have interpreted it as an inverted Nazi salute and as an expression of antisemitism. French officials have sought to ban the gesture due to its perceived subtext of antisemitism.

Richard B. Spencer

Richard Bertrand Spencer (born 1978) is an American neo-Nazi and white supremacist.

He is president of the National Policy Institute (NPI), a white supremacist think tank, as well as Washington Summit Publishers. Spencer rejects the labels white supremacist and neo-Nazi, considers himself a white nationalist, a white identitarian, and the equivalent of a "Zionist" for white people. Spencer created the term "alt-right", which he considers a movement based on "white identity". Spencer advocates white-European unity, a "peaceful ethnic cleansing" of nonwhites from America, and the creation of a "white racial empire," which he believes would resemble the Roman Empire.Spencer has publicly engaged in Nazi rhetoric on many occasions, for which he has been criticized by the political mainstream, as well as by many fellow white nationalists, who believe that Spencer's flamboyant rhetoric and persona marginalize their movement. In early 2016, Spencer was filmed giving the Nazi salute in a karaoke bar. After Donald Trump was elected President, Spencer urged his supporters to "party like it's 1933," a reference to the year in which Hitler came to power in Germany. In the weeks following the election, at a National Policy Institute conference, Spencer quoted Nazi propaganda and denounced Jews, and he also used the German term "Lügenpresse" ("lying press") to vilify journalists. Later, in response to Spencer's cry "Hail Trump, hail our people, hail victory!", a number of his supporters gave the Nazi salute and chanted in a similar fashion to the Sieg Heil chant used at the Nazis' Nuremberg rallies. Spencer later called Trump's election "the victory of will", a phrase evoking the title of Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will (1935), a Nazi-era propaganda film. Spencer has expressed admiration for the tactics of American Nazi Party founder George Lincoln Rockwell, who in Spencer's view used "shock [as] a positive means to an end".Under oath, Spencer has been accused of repeatedly beating, threatening, and verbally abusing his ex-wife Nina Kouprianova, who has provided hours of recordings and text messages to the press in order to substantiate her allegations. According to media reports, the recordings and text messages show, for example, Spencer telling his wife that he will "fucking break [her] nose," encouraging her to commit suicide, and apologizing for previous incidents of physical abuse. Spencer denies the allegations, and he also says that his statement that he will break his wife's nose and his other ostensible threats against her (as recorded on the tapes) were merely expressions of frustration with his wife that were not intended to be interpreted literally.Spencer's critics argue that his speech and conduct lead to violence, a charge which he rejects. Spencer was a featured speaker at the August 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, during which an alt-right supporter drove his car into a group of counter-protesters, killing one and injuring at least 19 others. Spencer denies any role or culpability in the attack, but has been sued for allegedly acting as a "gang boss" at Charlottesville and inciting the killing. After three other supporters of Spencer were charged with attempted homicide following Spencer's October 2017 speech at the University of Florida, Ohio State and several other universities cancelled Spencer's appearances, describing his presence as a menace to public safety.The majority of European nations, including the entire Schengen Area, and nations with nationalist governments, have banned Spencer and condemned his "racial European" message and his call for a "white racial empire". While promoting his message in a controversial speaking tour in Hungary, Spencer was mocked by the Hungarian newspaper Népszabadság for his call for "a white Imperium" through a revival of the Roman Empire, and for his claim to be a "racial European", ideas that the newspaper called contrived and without any basis in European history. In the aftermath of the controversy, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán pressed through legislative measures which banned his entry and condemned Spencer. The government of Poland has also banned him from entering the country and condemned Spencer, citing Spencer's Nazi rhetoric, the anti-Polish and anti-Slavic racism of the Nazis, and the Nazis' genocide of Slavic "Untermenschen" during World War II. In July 2018, Spencer was detained at Keflavik Airport in Reykjavík, Iceland en route to Sweden and was ordered by Polish officials to return to the United States; the successful effort of the Poles to ban Spencer from other parts of Europe arises from the Schengen Agreement.

Set Teitan

Set Teitan or Sethlans Teitan (born 12 September 1978 In Rome as Davide Totaro) is an Italian musician, residing in Sweden. He was the guitarist of industrial black metal band Aborym from 1997–2005, lead guitarist for Bloodline 2000-2005, as well as the second guitarist of the Swedish black/melodic death metal band Dissection. From 2007-2018 he performed as Second Guitarist for Watain, but in 2018, he was removed from the band after a photograph surfaced of him giving the Nazi salute. He has also performed on Arckanum's albums Antikosmos and ÞÞÞÞÞÞÞÞÞÞÞ.

Wayne Hennessey

Wayne Robert Hennessey (born 24 January 1987) is a Welsh professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Premier League club Crystal Palace and the Wales national team.

Hennessey's first professional games saw him set a new League Two record for consecutive clean sheets while on loan at Stockport County. He played 166 times for Wolverhampton Wanderers over eight seasons, including three years at Premier League level. After several injury setbacks, he moved to join Crystal Palace in 2014.

A full international since 2007, Hennessey has earned more than 80 caps for Wales.

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