Nayarit

Nayarit (Spanish pronunciation: [naʝaˈɾit]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nayarit (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Nayarit), is one of the 31 states which, together with the Mexico City, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided in 20 municipalities and its capital city is Tepic.

It is bordered by the states of Sinaloa to the northwest, Durango to the north, Zacatecas to the northeast and Jalisco to the south. To the west, Nayarit has a significant share of coastline on the Pacific Ocean, including the islands of Marías and Marietas. The beaches of San Blas and the so-called "Riviera Nayarit" are popular with tourists. Besides tourism, the economy of the state is based mainly on agriculture and fishing.

Home to Uto-Aztecan indigenous peoples such as the Huichol and Cora, the region was exposed to the conquistadores, Hernán Cortés and Nuño de Guzmán, in the 16th century. Spanish governance was made difficult by indigenous rebellions and by the inhospitable terrain of the Sierra del Nayar. The last independent Cora communities were subjugated in 1722. The state's name recalls the Cora people's label for themselves: Náayerite, commemorating Nayar, a resistance leader.[9]

Nayarit
Estado Libre y Soberano de Nayarit
Flag of Nayarit

Flag
Official seal of Nayarit

Seal
State of Nayarit within Mexico
State of Nayarit within Mexico
Coordinates: 21°45′N 105°14′W / 21.750°N 105.233°WCoordinates: 21°45′N 105°14′W / 21.750°N 105.233°W
Country Mexico
CapitalTepic
Largest CityTepic
Municipalities20
AdmissionJanuary 26, 1917[1]
Order28th
Government
 • GovernorPAN Antonio Echevarría García
 • Senators[2]Morena Party (Mexico).svg Miguel Ángel Navarro Quintero
Worker's Party logo (Mexico).svg Cora Cecilia Pinedo Alonso
PAN (Mexico).svg Gloria Elizabeth Núñez Sánchez
 • Deputies[3]
Area
 • Total27,857 km2 (10,756 sq mi)
 Ranked 23rd
Highest elevation2,760 m (9,060 ft)
Population
 (2015)[6]
 • Total1,181,050
 • Rank29th
 • Density42/km2 (110/sq mi)
 • Density rank23rd
Demonym(s)Nayarita
Time zonesUTC−7 (MST)
UTC-6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
UTC-5 (CDT)
Postal code
63
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-NAY
HDIIncrease 0.785 (high)
Ranked 13th
GDPUS$ 4,281.52 mil[a]
WebsiteOfficial website
^ a. The state's GDP was 53,167,305 thousand pesos in 2008,[7] an amount corresponding to US$4.281 billion (a dollar worth 12.80 pesos as of June 3, 2010).[8]

History

Nayarit precolombino
Map of Nayarit before the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire
Jardín de La Contaduría, en San Blas.
The colonial contaduría (accounting offices) in the old port town of San Blas

Radiocarbon dating estimate Aztatlán colonization of the western Mexican coast – including parts of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco – as occurring as early as 900 AD, with some evidence suggesting it might have been as early as 520 AD. Encountered on the western coast by the Spanish invaders in 1500, the cultures were descended from these original Aztatlán settlements and other Classic-stage cultures who had merged with them.[10][11]

Hernán Cortés was the first known European to enter into the area now known as Nayarit, which he claimed for Spain as part of Nueva Galicia. Under Nuño de Guzman, Spaniards took the region with considerable brutality, causing the indigenous inhabitants to revolt, in what was later referred to as the Mixtón War.[12][13] After almost two centuries of resistance, the last independent Cora communities were incorporated into Spanish administration by force in 1722. Then followed intense missionary efforts by Jesuits to convert the indigenous.[14]

In the colonial period, the port of San Blas was one of the most important trade ports on the American Pacific coast. Galleons transporting goods from Manila, the Philippines arrived here before the rise of the port of Acapulco. Today, the town still boasts colonial architecture from the its heyday, such as the aduana (customs office), the contaduria (accounting offices) and the fortress that protected the port against pirates.

In Nayarit, the struggle for independence from Spain was initiated by the priest José María Mercado, who conquered Tepic and San Blas before being defeated and executed by Spanish royalists. In 1824, in the first constitution of the Mexican republic, Nayarit was a part of Jalisco state. During the second half of the 19th century, Nayarit was one of the most turbulent territories in Mexico. The population was in open revolt, demanding access to land.[15] Nayarit was one of the last territories admitted as a state of the Mexican federation, which occurred on May 1, 1917.[16]

Geography

Sayulita-nanzalview
Sayulita off Nayarit's Pacific coast, a former fishing village now mostly given over to tourism, part of the area now marketed as "La Riviera Nayarita" or "Nuevo Vallarta"

Nayarit covers 27,815 square kilometers (10,739 sq mi), making it one of the smaller states in Mexico.[17] Nayarit is located between latitude lines 23°05' north and 20°36' south and longitude lines 103°43' east and 105°46' west.[18] Its terrain is broken up by the western ends of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains. Its highest mountains are: San Juan, Sanguangüey, El Ceboruco, Cumbre de Pajaritos and Picachos.[19] Nayarit has two volcanoes, Ceboruco and Sangangüey. In the northeast are broad, tropical plains watered by the Río Grande de Santiago, a continuation of the Lerma River. The main state rivers are the Río Grande de Santiago, San Pedro, Acaponeta, Ameca and Las Cañas. The Río Grande de Santiago is the largest river in Nayarit. The Santiago and its tributaries are of major importance for agricultural irrigation. The Ameca and the Las Cañas lie on the border between Nayarit and the states of Jalisco and Sinaloa, respectively. Notable lagoons in Nayarit include Santa María del Oro, San Pedro Lagunillas and Agua Brava.[20][21]

Municipalities

Nayarit – as with all states of Mexico – is geographically divided into municipalities (municipios), creating twenty municipalities in Nayarit:

Environment

Nayarit contains hundreds of miles of rain forest in the sierra. Its wildlife includes hundreds of bird species including the lilac-crowned amazon (Amazona finschi) and Mexican woodnymph (Thalurania ridgwayi). There are also 119 registered species of mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), caymans, armadillos and wild felines such as jaguarundi (Puma yagouarundi) and ocelot (Felis pardalis) and many more.[22] Unfortunately, most of the rain forest has been exploited, especially around the region of Santa María del Oro. The conservation and protection of the rain forest and wildlife of Nayarit is an issue of crucial importance.[23]

The Islas Marías were designated as the Islas Marías Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2010.[24]

Flora and fauna

Flora and fauna of Nayarit
Jaguarundi Micrurus tener Bark Scorpion Aquila chrysaetos Flickr Zenaida macroura2
Puma yagouaroundi,
eyra cat
Micrurus,
coral snake
Centruroides suffusus,
bark scorpion
Aquila chrysaetos,
golden eagle
Zenaida macroura,
mourning dove
Amazona finschi -Xcaret Eco Park -Mexico-8a Crotalus basiliscus Odocoileus hemionus 20 Canis latrans Falco peregrinus - 01
Amazona finschi,
lilac-crowned amazon
Crotalus basiliscus,
green rattler
Odocoileus hemionus,
mule deer
Canis latrans,
coyote
Falco peregrinus,
peregrine
Agave tequilana 1 Figa de moro 01 Singapore Botanic Gardens Cactus Garden 2 Cylindropuntia spinosior, with flower, Albuquerque Pinus ponderosa 9681
Agave tequilana,
tequila agave
Opuntia ficus-indica,
cactus pear
Echinocactus grusonii,
golden barrel cactus
Cylindropuntia imbricata,
cane cholla
Pinus ponderosa,
ponderosa pine

Education

Ixtlán
Archaeological zone of Los Toriles
  • Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic
  • Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit
  • Universidad Tecnólogica de Nayarit
  • Universidad Tecnólogica de la Costa
  • Escuela Normal Superior de Nayarit: a normal school (for teachers)
  • Universidad Vizcaya de Las Americas
  • Escuela Secundaria Técnica No. 51 (Emilio M. Gonzalez)

Demographics

Cerro de la cruz
The state capital, Tepic, seen from the Cerro de la Cruz. Tepic is home to some 340,000 people.
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895[25] 149,807—    
1900 150,098+0.2%
1910 171,173+14.0%
1921 163,183−4.7%
1930 167,724+2.8%
1940 216,698+29.2%
1950 290,124+33.9%
1960 389,929+34.4%
1970 544,031+39.5%
1980 726,120+33.5%
1990 824,643+13.6%
1995 896,702+8.7%
2000 920,185+2.6%
2005 949,684+3.2%
2010 1,084,979+14.2%
2015 1,181,050+8.9%

Nayarit is Mexico's twenty-ninth most populous state. According to the census of 2010, the state had a population of 1,084,979 and its population density was 39/km2.

Indigenous groups

Nayarit is the home to four indigenous groups: the Wixaritari (Huichol), the Naayeri (Cora), the Odam (Tepehuan) and the Nahuatl-speaking Mexicaneros. The indigenous groups mostly inhabit the Nayar highlands, but are also frequently encountered in Tepic and on the Pacific coast, where they have also established colonies. They are known for their crafts and artwork which they sell. About five percent of the state population speaks an indigenous language.[26]

Economy

Shrimp fisherman
Shrimp fisherman on the coast of Nayarit

Nayarit is predominantly an agricultural state, and produces a large variety of crops such as beans, sorghum, sugar cane, corn, tobacco, rice, chiles, peanuts, melons, tomatoes, coffee, mangoes, bananas, and avocados. In addition to these crops, livestock and fishing are also central to the local economy. Approximately six percent of the land in Nayarit is pasture land, with the most common livestock being cattle, horses, pigs, goats, and sheep. Nayarit has 289 kilometers of coastline, which provides an abundance of fish and shellfish, including bass, snapper, sharks, and oysters. There are over 75 cooperatives related to the fishing industry alone in Nayarit. Much of the food produced in Nayarit is exported to the larger urban areas surrounding Mexico City and Guadalajara, and much of the agricultural labor is performed by migrant laborers. Although mining exists in Nayarit, it is mostly of non-metallic substances such as limestone or kaolin.[27]

In recent years, Nayarit has worked to build its tourism sector, marketing the "Riviera Nayarita" as a safe, beautiful destination served by Puerto Vallarta International Airport. Popular resort towns include Bucerius, Punta de Mita, La Cruz de Huanacaxtle, San Blas, Santiago Ixcuintla, Sayulita and Tecuala. However, some residents in these and other towns are concerned that the growth in the tourism industry might have harmful impacts on the community.[27] Due to the growth of tourism, some vacationers have fallen victim to timeshare scams.[28]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Diciembre en la Historia de Nayarit" [December in the History of Nayarit]. nayaritas.net (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 January 2008.
  2. ^ "Senadores por Nayarit LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved March 24, 2010.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Nayarit". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  4. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on December 22, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  5. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  6. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  7. ^ "Jalisco". 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  8. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  9. ^ "El Nayar". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Archived from the original on 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
  10. ^ Mountjoy, Joseph B. (2013). "Aztatlan Complex". In Evans, Susan T.; Webster, David L. (eds.). Archaeology of Ancient Mexico and Central America: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 9781136801853.
  11. ^ For a map showing important archaeological sites in Nayarit, refer to: Gorenstein, Shirley (2000). "Western and Northwestern Mexico". In Trigger, Bruce G.; et al. (eds.). The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780521351652.
  12. ^ Pasztor, Suzanne B. (2004). "Nayarit (state)". In Coerver, Don M.; et al. (eds.). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 323. ISBN 9781576071328.
  13. ^ Patch, Robert W. (2010). "Indian Resistance to Colonialism". In Beezley, William; Meyer, Michael (eds.). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. pp. 180–184. ISBN 9780199779932.
  14. ^ Coyle, Philip E. “The Customs of our Ancestros: Cora Religious Conversion and Millennailism, 2000-1722. Ethnohistory 45:3 (summer 1998), pp. 509-542
  15. ^ Morales, Leopoldo R. (2001). El Nayarit de los años del general Romano: la historia documental de un gobernante. Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. p. 5.
  16. ^ "Nayarit y Su History ("Nayarit and Its History")". H. Congreso del Estado de Nayarit. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.
  17. ^ "Gov Mx". elbalero.gob.mx. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  18. ^ "Map Gov Mx". inegi.gob.mx. Archived from the original on 1 March 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  19. ^ "Nayarit" in The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2012, Columbia University Press
  20. ^ Pasztor, Suzanne B. (2012). "Nayarit". In Saragoza, Alex; et al. (eds.). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 459. ISBN 9780313349485.
  21. ^ Fernández, Marina Anguiano (1992). Nayarit: costa y altiplanicie en el momento del contacto (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). p. 27. ISBN 9789683616067.
  22. ^ Pulido Pérez, R. (1995). Diagnostico de la fauna silvestre en el estado de Nayarit/."Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-07-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ Kealy, Kelly; Duecy, Erica, eds. (2011). Fodor's Puerto Vallarta with the Riviera Nayarit, Costalegre, and Inland Jalisco. Random House. p. 33. ISBN 9781400004829.
  24. ^ "Islas María". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  25. ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  26. ^ [1] Archived 2013-01-19 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ a b Standish, Peter (2009). "Nayarit". The States of Mexico: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 251–252. ISBN 9780313342233.
  28. ^ ""Nayarit Vacation Rentals"". Nayarit Vacation Rentals. Retrieved 1 December 2016.

Further reading

External links

Autopista Tepic–San Blas

The Autopista Tepic–San Blas is a toll highway in the Mexican state of Nayarit. The 32.4-kilometre (20.1 mi) road was constructed and is operated by Red de Carreteras de Occidente, which charge cars 49 pesos (on weekdays) or 69 pesos (on weekends) to travel the full length of the road.

Bahía de Banderas

Bahía de Banderas (Spanish pronunciation: [ba'i.a ðe βan'deɾas], Spanish for: Bay of Flags) is a bay on the Pacific Coast of Mexico, within the Mexican states of Jalisco and Nayarit. It is also the name of an administrative municipality, located on the bay in Nayarit state. The port and resort city of Puerto Vallarta is on the bay.

Compostela, Nayarit

Compostela is the name of both a municipality and the town within that municipality that serves as the seat. They are in the Mexican state of Nayarit. The population of the municipality was 62,925 (2005 census) in a total area of 1,848 km² (713.5 sq mi). The population of the town and municipal seat, was 15,991 in 2000.

Cora people

The Cora are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico which live in the municipality El Nayar in the Mexican state of Nayarit and in a few settlements in the neighboring state of Jalisco. They call themselves náayerite (plural; náayeri singular), whence the name of the present day Mexican state of Nayarit. The 2000 Mexican census reported that there were 24,390 persons who were members of Cora speaking households, these being defined as households where at least one parent or elder claim to speak the Cora language. Of these 24 thousand, 67 percent (16,357) were reported to speak Cora, 17 percent were nonspeakers, and the remaining 16 percent were unspecified with regard to their language.The Cora cultivate maize, beans, and amaranth and they raise some cattle.

Deportivo Tepic F.C.

Club Coras de Nayarit Fútbol Club commonly known as Coras is a football club that plays in the Mexican football league system Mexican Liga Premier (third-tier). The club was founded in the late 1950s as Deportivo Tepic and was based in Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico.

Governor of Nayarit

The Governor of Nayarit is the chief executive of Nayarit.

Islas Marías

The Islas Marías ("Mary Islands") are an archipelago of four islands that belong to Mexico. They are located in the Pacific Ocean, some 100 km (62 mi) off the coast of the state of Nayarit and about 370 km (230 mi) southeast of the tip of Baja California. They are part of the municipality (municipio) of San Blas, Nayarit. As of 2011, the islands were used as a penal colony until February 18th of 2019 when Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador (then Mexico's President) ordered the closure of its operation as Islas Marías Federal Prison.

The first European to discover the islands was Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, a cousin of Hernán Cortés in 1532, who gave them the name Islas Magdalenas. He found no evidence of prior habitation by the Native Americans.

In 2010 the archipelago was designated the Islas Marías Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO

List of television stations in Nayarit

The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of Nayarit. There are 10 television stations in Nayarit which are independent or affiliated to at least one Televisa, TV Azteca, or 10 TV Nayarit network.

Manuel Humberto Cota Jiménez

Manuel Humberto Cota Jiménez (born 2 March 1961) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. He currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress, representing Nayarit. He also served as member of the Chamber of Deputies during the LXI Legislature.

Mexican Federal Highway 200

Federal Highway 200 (Carretera Federal 200), also known as Carretera Pacífico, is a Federal Highway of Mexico. The Carretera Pacífico is the main leg of the Pacific Coastal Highway within Mexico and travels along the Pacific Coast from Mexican Federal Highway 15 in Tepic, Nayarit in the north to the Guatemala-Mexico border at Talismán, Chiapas in the south. Upon entering Guatemala, the highway continues as Central American Highway 1.

Mexican Federal Highway 68D

Federal Highway 68D is a toll highway in Nayarit. It connects the cities of Compostela and Chapalilla. The road is operated by Caminos y Puentes Federales, which charges cars 38 pesos to travel Highway 68D.

Mexican Federal Highway 74

Federal Highway 74 (Carretera Federal 74) (Fed. 74) is a free (libre) part of the federal highways corridors (los corredores carreteros federales) of Mexico. The entire length of the highway is within Nayarit.

Mexicaneros

The Mexicaneros are an indigenous people of Durango and Nayarit, Mexico. They speak the Mexicanero language, one of the Nahuatl dialects. Some 1,300 individuals spoke the Mexicanero language as of 2011.

Currently, three Mexicanero communities exist: Santa Cruz in Nayarit and San Agustín de San Buenaventura and San Pedro Jícoras in southern Durango.

Nayarit mouse

The Nayarit mouse or Sinaloan deer mouse (Peromyscus simulus) is a species of cricetid rodent endemic to Mexico. It was considered a subspecies of brush mouse until 1977.

San Blas, Nayarit

San Blas is both a municipality and municipal seat located on the Pacific coast of Mexico in Nayarit.

Sayulita

Sayulita is a village about 40 km (25 miles) north of downtown Puerto Vallarta in the state of Nayarit, Mexico, with a population of approximately 5,000. It is called by the Mexican government a "Magical Town" for its colorful ambience and richness and convergence of cultures; not only Mexican, but international as well.

Tepic

Tepic (Spanish pronunciation: [teˈpik] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of the western Mexican state of Nayarit.

It is located in the central part of the state, at 21°30′30″N 104°53′35″W.

It stands at an altitude of 915 metres (3,002 ft) above sea level, on the banks of the Río Mololoa and the Río Tepic, approximately 225 kilometres (140 mi) north-west of Guadalajara, Jalisco. Nearby are the extinct Sangangüey volcano and its crater lake. Tepic is the primary urban center of this rich agricultural region; major crops include sugarcane, tobacco and citrus fruits.

The city was founded in 1531 as Villa del Espíritu Santo de la Mayor España.

XHTPG-TDT

XHTPG-TDT virtual channel 10 is a state-owned television station in Tepic, Nayarit, forming part of the Sistema de Radio y Televisión de Nayarit state agency. Branded on air as 10 TV Nayarit, XHTPG carries a variety of local and national cultural programs and other shows relevant to the state and government of Nayarit. XHTPG signed on in 1993.

XHTPG signed on in digital in 2015. It uses virtual channel 10 and the short name "TV10TDT".

The state network was known as "La Señal de la Gente" and later "Tele 10" during the government of Roberto Sandoval Castañeda. In 2017, XHTPG received a new logo in the style of other state agencies under Governor Antonio Echevarría García.

Yasser Corona

Yasser Anwar Corona Delgado (born 28 July 1987 in Tepic) is a former Mexican football defender who last played for Club Tijuana Xoloitzcuintles de Caliente in the Liga MX.

Nayarit State of Nayarit
Municipalities
and
municipal seats

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