The Nawab of Dhaka was the largest Muslim zamindar in British Bengal & Assam based in Dhaka city. The title of Nawab, similar to the British peerage, was conferred upon the head of the family by the British Raj as a recognition of their loyalty in the time of the Sepoy Mutiny. The self-definition is a family instead of an estate due to certain legal considerations imposed by the East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950.
They were not sovereigns, but played an important role in the politics of South Asia. The family was owner of Dhaka Nawab estate, and were seated at Ahsan Manzil palace. Nawab of Dhaka was the title of the head of family and estate. Khwaja Alimullah was the first Nawab of Dhaka instated by the British Raj.
Considerable infighting within the Nawab's family lead to the decline of the estate. In 1952 the East Pakistan Estates Acquisition Act formally abolished the estate. Khwaja Habibullah Khan Bahadur was the last reigning Nawab of Dhaka. Successive land reform in Pakistan and Bangladesh brought an end to the remaining landholdings of the Nawab family.
Dhaka Nawab family was founded by Maulvi Khwaja Hafizullah Kashmiri, who acquired considerable wealth from trading in leather and gold. His fortune was built trading leather, spices, and salt with Armenian and Greek merchants. He also purchased some floundering zamindari estates, on sale everywhere in Bengal under Permanent Settlement, and indigo factories in Barisal District and Mymensingh District.
Hafizullah acquired Atia pargana in the then Mymensingh district (now in the Tangail district). Hafizullah bought a 4-anna (one fourth) share of the pargana, including Dhamrai, the Atia Mosque built in 1608 and much of Madhupur forest, in 1806 on the strength of a mortgage bond for Rs. 40,000. Profits from this purchase inspired him to buy more land properties. He also acquired Aila Phuljhuri in the Bakarganj Sundarbans, a 44000 acres (180 km²) area bought for Rs 21000 in 1812, at a revenue demand of only Rs 372 annually. After clearing of the jungle was affected, in the late 1870s, its estimated total rental income appeared as high as Rs 2,20,502.
Due to an absence of any surviving male successor of Hafizullah, his estate on his death descended on his nephew Khwaja Alimullah, son of his deceased elder brother Ahsanullah, whom he groomed as an estate manager. His landed acquisitions were added to those of his uncle, consequently making the united zamindari and taluqdari one of the largest in the province. Before his death in 1854, Alimullah made a waqf for a united status of the zamindari which was to be managed jointly by a mutawalli.
His nephew, Khwaja Alimullah, who was the third son of Khwaja Ahsanullah, is reported to have been an enterprising member of the clan, and laid the foundation upon which successive heads of the family built their prosperity and power. He purchased Ahsan Manzil which was a French trading house. He learnt English and encouraged members of his family to learn English, and forged ties of friendship with Englishmen by mixing with them freely. He did some development work for the Dhaka Municipality and with the help of the British he set up the Ramna Race course. He bought thoroughbreds for his race course and established the Gymkhana Club. He purchased the famous diamond, Dariya-e-Noor at a Government auction in 1852 held by Hamilton and Company of Calcutta. The diamond was initially exhibited at The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park but failed to sell for a desirable price and as a result was sent back to India. The diamond is presently in a vault of the Sonali Bank in Dhaka.
In 1846 he made a Waqfnama in favour of his second son Khwaja Abdul Ghani, and made him a powerful Mutawalli (Manager) for the management of all the properties of the Nawab Family. This helped preserve the wealth of the Nawab family as it could not be divided by descendants. That Waqfnama was the main key responsible for the success of the Nawab Family of Dhaka. Khwaja Alimullah despite being a Sunni he financed the Muharram festival of the shia Muslims in Dhaka. He started in 1843 after the death of Ghaziuddin Haider who was the Naib Nazim of Dhaka. He died on 1854 and was buried in the Begum Bazar graveyard.
Khwaja Abdul Ghani, son of khwaja Alimullah and Zinat Begum, was made the Mutawalli of the estate. On the succession of Khwaja Abdul Ghani to the management that the prosperity of the house reached its zenith. Under him the land control of the family was extended to many parganas in the districts of Dhaka, Bakerganj, Tripura, and Mymensingh. For management he split the zamindari into 26 sub-circles, each governed by a kachari (office) headed by a naib (manager) with a number of amlas (officials). He was vested with the personal title of Nawab in 1875, which was made hereditary in 1877.
With Khwaja Abdul Ghani the Khwaja family for the first time developed interest in the politics and social works of the country. He also organised Dhaka people into panchayet mahallas, which was endorsed by the British Raj in view of his support to the Raj during the Sepoy Mutiny. Nawab Abdul Ghani made several contributions towards benevolent and charitable work, not only in the city and elsewhere in Bengal but also beyond the Indian subcontinent. His most conspicuous public act was the water works system in Dhaka city. The filtered water was supplied free of charge to the people of Dhaka. In addition he established a number of schools, madrasas and donated funds for the Mitford hospital in Dhaka, Kolkata Medical College and Aligarh College. He supported women to act in dramas in spite of the opposition of leaders of the conservative society. At the beginning of the Christian era, each year, he arranged a grand fair in Shahbagh Garden, and maintained a Portuguese Band to entertain guests on festive occasions. He oversaw and financed the construction of Buckland Bund.
Nawab Abdul Ghani handed over the responsibility of the Dhaka Nawab Estate to his eldest son, Khwaja Ahsanullah on 11 September 1868, but continued to supervise the estate until his death on 24 August 1896. Khwaja Ahsanullah was born in Dhaka in the year 1846. He was an Urdu poet and his pen name was "Shaheen". He was known to compose verses spontaneously, and at the spur of the moment at the request of his friends. His songs disclose a joyous and optimistic outlook on life. His selected poems, Kulliat-e-Shaheen is preserved in the Dhaka University. His book, Tawariq-e-Khandan-e-Kashmiria is a very important addition to Urdu literature and history. Both father and son had the title of Nawab conferred upon them in 1875, and in 1877, this title was made hereditary for the eldest member of the line.
"Nawab Ahsanullah established the Ahsanullah School of Engineering, and being thoughtful of the health of the residents of Dhaka he, along with his father, contributed towards the establishment of a water tank from which filtered water would be supplied to the citizens of Dhaka as far back as 1874.
Nawab Salimullah, the second son of Ahsanullah took up the management of the zamindari in 1902. But soon family feuds started and Salimullah lost the grip on the estate. The estate management deteriorated to the extent of rising revenue arrears and estate debts. For political considerations, the government backed up Nawab Salimullah financially, which included a confidential official loan to Salimullah (1912) to clear up his personal debts. Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and the Muslim aristocrats who formed the bulwark of the Muslim League in 1906 inspired Muslim peasants against the Swadeshi movement (1905–1911) in support of Partition of Bengal. Together with Nawab Ali Chowdhury, he was instrumental in initiating A. K. Fazlul Huq into politics, who isolated Muslim League from peasants and defeated Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin at the Patuakhali Constituency in the election of 1937. Dhaka Nawab Family, together with the Ispahanis of Kolkata still kept a firm grip on a majority of Muslim students while the Bengal chapter of the All India Muslim Students Association was renamed as All Bengal Muslim Students League in 1938.
The tottering Dhaka Nawab Estate was brought under the Court of Wards in September 1907. The first steward of the Estate was HCF Meyer who was followed by LG Pillen, PJ Griffith, and PD Martin, all members of the Indian civil service. On 16 December 1901, while he was posted in Mymensingh, he received a telegram informing him of the death of his father, and on his arrival in Dhaka the next morning, as the eldest son, and with the "unanimous consent of all parties concerned" was installed as the new Nawab. Nawab Salimullah was a great educational reformer, and like his father, was inclined to prodigal liberality. He was a great philanthropist, rendering financial assistance to many poor students, and established the largest orphanage of undivided Bengal, which was named "Salimullah Muslim Orphanage". For the benefit of Muslim students he donated the well-known "Salimullah Muslim Hall" in Dhaka, which was then the largest residential Hall in any Asian University.
Nawab Sir Salimuilah is mainly remembered today for three of his greatest achievements. Firstly, the part he played in the partition of Bengal which was implemented on 16 October 1905, aimed at freeing the Bengali Muslims from the bondage of Hindu domination, and to secure their socio-economic progress by establishing a separate Muslim majority province; secondly, for being the founder of such a strong political party as the All India Muslim League in December 1906, and the establishment of Dhaka University in 1912.
As has so often happened in the great families of India, after five generations of splendour, the Nawab Family now entered on a period of decline. Extravagant living and the necessity of maintaining an ever-increasing number of dependents were the main causes of the trouble, but to them must be added, the considerable sums spent by Nawab Ahsanullah and Nawab Salimuilah on public service or pro-Partition propaganda. The family was heavily in debt and in view of the political importance of the family, its estates were brought under the Court of Wards in 1909.
Nawab Salimullah was the first man of the Nawab Family of Dhaka to actively participate in politics. He is reported to have said that, his grandfather, Nawab Sir Abdul Ghani, and his father, Nawab Sir Khwaja .Ahsanullah, were men of international renown and were imbibed with the love of their country and people, but, they refrained from participating in politics. It was in his destiny to open the door to politics for the Nawab Family of Dhaka. Nawab Sir Salimullah died in Calcutta on 16 January 1915, and his coffin was brought to Dhaka by a special launch, and he was buried in the family graveyard in Begum Bazar."
The Dhaka Nawab Estate was abolished in 1952 under the East Bengal Estate Acquisition and Tenancy Act (1950). Only the Ahsan Manzil complex and khas lands held under raiyati rights were exempted from the operation of the Acquisition Act. But due to many unresolved family claims many assets of the Estate were still controlled by the Court of Wards. The land reforms board, which is the successor of the Court of Wards, still holds those assets on behalf of the family.
The influence of Dhaka Nawab family on the Muslim Students League eroded after the partition, particularly after Muhammad Ali Jinnah's pronouncement on the state language issue in 1948. The anti-Khwaja faction of the Muslim League broke away from the All Bengal Muslim Students League, and established East Pakistan Muslim Students League in 1948. This Students League spearheaded the Language Movement that began that year.
Extended kin of the Dhaka Nawab Family played a vital role in the history of Urdu-Persian literature in Bengal. Khwaja Haider Jan Shayek, Khwaja Kawkab, Khwaja Atiqullah Sayeda, Khwaja Muhammad Afzal and Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin KCIE, CIE and others contributed considerably to Urdu and Persian literature in the 19th and 20th centuries. The family maintained close connection with literary figures like Mahmud Azad and Hakim Habibur Rahman. Khwaja Muhammad Azam wrote Islami Panchayet Dhaka (1911) in Urdu. His son, Khwaja Muhammad Adel, co-edited Jadu, a monthly journal with Hakim Habibur Rahman. Khwaja Abdur Rahim Saba (d 1871) wrote Urdu poems. His manuscript, Daste Saba is preserved in the Dhaka University Library. Nawab Khwaja Ahsanullah wrote Urdu poems by his pen-name Shaheen collected in Kulliat-e-Shaheen, and a history of his family collected in Tawarikh-e-Khandan-e-Kashmirian. He was also a composer and lyricist of thumri songs, and a financier of Ahsanul Kasas (15 February 1884), an Urdu weekly magazine of Dhaka.
It was in the later part of the 19th century that the art of photography got its momentum in Dhaka under the patronage of Nawab Khwaja Ahsanullah and his son Nawab Khwaja Salimullah. Khwaja Ahsanullah joined the Calcutta-based Photographic Society of India in 1888.
Abdul Ghani (Arabic: عبد الغني) is a male Muslim given name, and in modern usage, surname. It is built from the Arabic words Abd, al- and Ghani. The name means "servant of the All-sufficient", Al-Ghaniyy being one of the names of God in the Qur'an, which give rise to the Muslim theophoric names.The letter a of the al- is unstressed, and can be transliterated by almost any vowel, often by u. The last element may appear as Gani, Ghany or in other ways, with the whole name subject to variable spacing and hyphenation.
It may refer to:
Khwaja Abdul Ghani (1813–1896), Nawab of Dhaka
Abdul Ghani Saheb Saudagar (1843-1897), Nawab of Kholapur, Maharashtra, India
Khan Abdul Ghani Khan (1914–1996), Pashtun-nationalist poet
Abdul Gani (soldier) (1919–1957), Bengali military officer
Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy (1921–2003), Egyptian soldier
Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani (1927–1996), Algerian politician
Abdul Ghani Lone (1932–2002), Indian lawyer and politician
Abdul Ghani Minhat (born 1935), Malaysian footballer
Abdul Aziz Abdul Ghani (1939–2011), Yemeni politician
Abdul Ghani Othman (born 1946), politician in Johor, Malaysia
Abdelghani Djaadaoui, or just Abdel Djaadaoui (born 1947), Algerian footballer
Abdul Gani Patail (born 1955), Malaysian lawyer
Magdi Abdelghani (born 1959), Egyptian footballer
Mohamed Abdulghani, Somali politician
Emad Abdul-Ghani Sabouni (born 1964), Syrian politician
Abdul Ghani Baradar (born 1968), Afghan, co-founder of the Taliban
Abdelghani Mzoudi (born 1972), Moroccan accused in Germany of terrorism
Hussein Abdulghani Sulaimani, or just Hussein Sulaimani (born 1977), Saudi footballer
Alaa Abdel-Ghany (born 1979), Egyptian footballer
Ahmed Abdel-Ghani (born 1981), Egyptian footballer
Gaith Abdul-Ghani (born 1983), Iraqi footballer
Safwan Abdul-Ghani (born 1983), Iraqi footballer
Abdul Ghani Rahman (born 1985), Malaysian footballer
Abdul Ghani Ahmad, Malaysian politician
Amran Abdul Ghani, Malaysian politician
Abdulrahman Abd Ghani, former President of the Somali Region
Abdul Ghani, Afghan, former Guantanamo detainee (ISN 934)
Abdul Ghani, Afghan, former Guantanamo detainee (ISN 943)Ahsan
Ahsan is a male name in Urdu and Persian, coming from the Arabic triconsonantal root Ḥ-S-N, also as the diminutive of Hassan, which means "good" or "The best of All".
Ahsan Ayaz (born 1998), Pakistani squash player
Ahsan Iqbal, Pakistani politician
Ahsan Khan (actor), Pakistani actor
Ahsan Malik, Pakistani commander
Ahsan Raza, Pakistani first class cricketer
Ahsan Watts, teenage soul and R&B singer from Newark, New Jersey
Ahsanullah Khan Bahadur, nawab of Dhaka
Ahsan Ali (disambiguation)Surname
Aitzaz Ahsan, Pakistani barrister and politician
Riaz Ahsan, Pakistani statistician and mathematicianAhsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil (Bengali: আহসান মঞ্জিল, Ahsan Monjil) was the official residential palace and seat of the Nawab of Dhaka. The building is situated at Kumartoli along the banks of the Buriganga River in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Construction was started in 1859 and was completed in 1872. It was constructed in the Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture. It has been designated as a national museum.Dhaka Collegiate School
Dhaka Collegiate School is a secondary school in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is the oldest school in Dhaka.Farhat Banu
Farhat Banu was a Member of the Dhaka Nawab family and member of the Bengal Legislative Assembly in British India. Her uncle was the Nawab of Dhaka, Sir Khwaja Salimullah.Habib
Habib (Arabic: حبيب, translit. ḥabīb; Arabic pronunciation: [ħabiːb ]), sometimes written as Habeeb, is an Arabic masculine given name and occasional surname with the meaning "beloved".The name is popular throughout the Muslim World, though particularly in the Middle East and Africa. In other countries, especially in Yemen and Southeast Asian countries such as Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia, it is an honorific to address a Muslim scholar of Sayyid (a descendant of Muhammad) families and where it is one of the names of Muhammad - حبيب الله Habib Allah (Habibullah/ Habiballah).
The name, as is the case with other Arabic names, is not confined to Muslims. Notable examples of Christian individuals named Habib include 'Habib the Deacon' and Gabriel Habib and the Philosopher Habib.Israt Manzil Palace
Israt Manzil was one of the royal residences of the Nawabs of Dhaka. The mansion served as a retreat for members of the Dhaka Nawab Family.Israt Manzil is best known for hosting the opening session of the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1906. The conference, sponsored by Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah, the Nawab of Dhaka, established the All India Muslim League, the first Muslim political party of the Indian Subcontinent. The party, which became the prime platform for Indian Muslims and led to the creation of Pakistan, was formed against the backdrop of political agitation by the Indian National Congress against the 1905 Partition of Bengal.
During the durbar at Israt Manzil palace, delegates debated the new name to be given to the political party. A party styled as All India Muslim Confederacy was discussed. But, in the process the name All India Muslim League, proposed by Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur and seconded by Hakim Ajmal Khan, was resolved in the meeting.
In 1912, a delegation led by Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, the Viceroy of India, met with Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah. During the meeting, Sir Salimullah demanded the establishment of a university for the mainly Muslim people of eastern Bengal. The demands would be realised with the establishment of the University of Dhaka in 1921.
The present day Madhur Canteen, situated in the northeastern part of the Arts Faculty compound of Dhaka University was the Jalsaghar of this garden-house. The floor and the spacious surrounding area of the building were covered with marbles. The building was also called 'Skating Pavilion' since members of the Nawab family used to skate there.Kamrunnessa Govt Girls High School
Kamrunnessa Govt Girls High School is a public girls high school in Tikatuli, Dhaka.Khawaja
Khawaja or khwaja (Persian: خواجه) is an honorific title used across the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia, particularly towards Sufi teachers. The word comes from the Iranian word khwāja (New Persian: خواجه khāje; Dari khājah; Tajik khoja) and translates as "master", "lord" . The spellings hodja or hoca (Turkish), খাজা (Khaaja) (Bengali), hodža (Bosnian), hoxha (Albanian), хоџа (Serbian), χότζας (chótzas) (Greek), hogea (Romanian), koja (Javanese). The name is also used in Egypt and Sudan to indicate a person with a foreign nationality or foreign heritage.Khwaja Abdul Ghani
Nawab Bahadur Sir Khwaja Abdul Ghani Mian (1813–1896) was the first Nawab of Dhaka recognized by the British Raj.
He introduced the panchayat system, gaslights, water works, newspaper, and the zoological garden to Dhaka. He established Ahsan Manzil, the residence and seat of power for Dhaka Nawab Family, Victoria Park, the gardens at Dilkusha and Shahbag, where he initiated many annual events like Boli Khela and agricultural and industrial fair to celebrate the Christian New Year. He was also responsible for the Buckland Bund and the first female ward in the first hospital in Dhaka, and was a founding commissioner of Dhaka municipality.Khwaja Ahsanullah
Nawab Khwaja Ahsanullah (1846–1901), Khan Bahadur KCIE, was the Nawab of Dhaka. He was a renowned Urdu litterateur.Khwaja Alimullah
Khwaja Alimullah was the first Nawab of Dhaka. He was the founder of the Dhaka Nawab Family.
He was the nephew and heir of the merchant prince Khawaja Hafizullah, son of Khwaja Ahsanullah, and father of Khwaja Abdul Ghani, the first Nawab of Dhaka to be recognized by the British Raj.Khwaja Atiqullah
Khwaja Atiqullah (1876–1945) was a Bengali British Indian politician and member of the Dhaka Nawab Family.Khwaja Habibullah
Nawab Khwaja Habibullah Bahadur (1895–1958) was the fifth Nawab of Dhaka. He was the son of his more prominent father, Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur. Under his rule, the Dhaka Nawab Estate went into decline until its actual relinquishment in 1952 by the East Pakistan Estates Acquisition Act.Khwaja Hassan Askari
Nawab Major Khwaja Hassan Askari (21 August 1921 – 9 August 1984), the last Nawab of Dacca was born at the Ahsan Manzil Palace in Dhaka. The eldest son of Nawab Habibullah Bahadur of Dhaka and Shahryar Begum (the granddaughter of Nawab Khwaja Ahsanullah), he became the Nawab of Dhaka after his father's death in 1958.Khwaja Salimullah
Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur (1871–1915) was the fourth Nawab of Dhaka and one of the leading Muslim politicians during the British Raj. In 1906, the Muslim League was officially founded at the educational conference held in Dhaka. The convention was held at Ahsan Manzil, the official residence of the Dhaka Nawab Family. Sir Salimullah was a key patron of education for the Eastern Bengal. He was one of the founders of the University of Dhaka and the prestigious Ahsanullah School of Engineering (now the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology). Sir Salimullah was a staunch supporter of the Partition of Bengal and was a member of East Bengal and Assam Legislative Council from 1906 to 1907. He was also a member of Bengal Legislative Assembly from 1913 till his death in Calcutta in 1915 at the age of 43. He was the founder President of Bengal Muslim League in 1907.Meherbanu Khanam
Meherbanu Khanam(1885-1925) was a Bengali noblewoman and artist.Raozan R.R.A.C Model High School
Raozan R.R.A.C Model High School also known as Raozan RRAC Adarsha School, is one of the oldest schools in Bangladesh.