Navarre

Navarre (English: /nəˈvɑːr/; Spanish: Navarra [naˈβara]; Basque: Nafarroa [nafaˈroa]; Occitan: Navarra [naˈbaʀɔ]); officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra [komuniˈðað foˈɾal de naˈβara]; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea [nafaroako foɾu komunitatea]), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France. The capital city is Pamplona (or Iruñea in Basque).

Navarre

Navarra (in Spanish)
Nafarroa (in Basque)
Comunidad Foral de Navarra (in Spanish)
Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea (in Basque)
Anthem: Gorteen Ereserkia / Himno de las Cortes
Map of Navarre
Location of Navarre within Spain
Coordinates: 42°49′N 1°39′W / 42.817°N 1.650°WCoordinates: 42°49′N 1°39′W / 42.817°N 1.650°W
CountrySpain
CapitalPamplona (Iruña)
Government
 • PresidentUxue Barkos (Geroa Bai)
Area
(2.2% of Spain; Ranked 11th)
 • Total10,391 km2 (4,012 sq mi)
Population
(2018)
 • Total647,554
 • Density62/km2 (160/sq mi)
 • Pop. rank
15th
 • Percent
1.3% of Spain
Demonym(s)
Navarrese (en)
Navarro/a (es)
Nafar (eu)
ISO 3166-2
ES-NA
Official languagesSpanish (Basque is co-official in the Basque-speaking areas)
Statute of Autonomy16 August 1982
ParliamentParliament of Navarre
Congress seats5 (of 350) deputies
Senate seats5 (of 265) senators
HDI (2017)0.912[1]
very high · 3rd
Websitewww.navarra.es/home_en/

Etymology

The first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne.[2] Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name.[2]

  • Basque nabar (declined absolute singular nabarra): "brownish", "multicolour" (i. e. in contrast to the green mountainous lands north of the original County of Navarre).
  • Basque naba (or Castilian nava): "valley", "plain" + Basque herri ("people", "land").

The linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se.

History

Coins of Arsaos in Navarre Spain 150BCE 100BCE Roman stylistic influence
Coins of Arsaos, Navarre, 150–100 BC, showing Rome's stylistic influence

Antiquity

During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would ultimately become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso (in what is now Gipuzkoa)—and the flatter areas to the south, Calagurris (in what is now La Rioja), which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards, olives, and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.[3]

Kingdom of Navarre

Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks ever completely subjugated the area. The Vascones (to become the Basques) assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass.

Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (824), the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom that was later called Navarre.[4] That kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, and even a short overlordship of Gascony (in the early 11th century).[5]

When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons.[6] It never fully recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims (the Francs) poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James.[7] In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked.[8] Navarre then contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.

The native line of kings came to an end in 1234; their heirs intermarried with French dynasties.[9] However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong laws and institutions. The death of Queen Blanche I (1441) inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs.[10] In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops,[11] with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, and establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555.

To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile (1515), but kept a separate ambiguous status, and a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established (the Diputación), and the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War (1839–1841) definitely bringing the kingdom and its home rule (fueros) to an end.[12]

Province of Spain

Les carlistes, battus à Montejurra, transportent leurs blessés à l'hôpital d'Irache, de Vierge
Carlists in retreat to the Irache monastery during the Third Carlist War
NafarForuak
Memorial to the Charters of Navarre erected by popular subscription in Pamplona, after the Gamazada (1903)
ArturoCampión
Arturo Campión (1854–1937), a major Basque Navarrese activist, and MP in Madrid during the Gamazada
NafarParlamentua
Façade of the Parliament of Navarre in Pamplona

Loss of home rule

After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule (fueros) was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros (later called the "Compromise Act", Ley Paccionada) definitely made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre. The relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling.

Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in Navarre and the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital (1872–1876), but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat. The end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre.

In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction (the so-called Alfonsinos), all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain. Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, and resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a basically rural economy.

Republic and military uprising

In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd Spanish Republic (1931–1939). Thousands of landless labourers occupied properties of wealthy landowners in October 1933, leaving the latter eager for revenge.[13] The most reactionary and clerical Carlists came to prominence, ideologues such as Víctor Pradera, and an understanding with General Mola paved the way to the Spanish Nationalist uprising in Pamplona (18 July 1936).

The triumphant military revolt was followed by a terror campaign in the rearguard against blacklisted individuals considered to be progressive ("reds"), mildly republicans, or just inconvenient.[14] The purge especially affected southern Navarre along the Ebro banks, and counted on the active complicity of the clergy, who adopted the fascist salute and even involved in murderous tasks.[15][16] The killing took a death toll of at least 2,857, plus a further 305 dying in prisons (ill-treatment, malnutrition).[17]

The dead were buried in mass graves or discarded into chasms abounding on the central hilly areas (Urbasa, etc.). Basque nationalists were also chased to a lesser extent, e.g. Fortunato Aguirre, a Basque nationalist and mayor of Estella (and co-founder of Osasuna Football Club), was executed in September 1936. Humiliation and silence ensued for the survivors. Pamplona became the rebel launching point against the Republic during the War in the North.

Post-war scene

As a reward for its support in the Spanish Civil War (Navarre sided for the most part with the military uprising), Franco allowed Navarre, as it happened with Álava, to maintain during his dictatorship a number of prerogatives reminiscent of the ancient Navarrese liberties.[18] The bleak post-war years were shaken by shortage, famine, and smuggling, with the economy relying on agriculture (wheat, vineyards, olive, barley), and a negative migration balance.

The victors came to cluster around two main factions, Carlists and Falangists,[19] while the totalitarian ultra-Catholic environment provided fertile grounds for another religious group, the Opus Dei, to found their University of Navarre (1952), ever more influential in Pamplona.

The coming of the society of consumption and incipient economic liberalisation saw also the establishment of factories and workshops during the early 1960s (automobile manufacturing and accessories, etc.), especially around the overgrown capital. It was followed by labour and political unrest. In the run-up to Spanish democracy (Constitution ratified in 1978), Navarre plunged into a climate of violence practised by ETA, police forces, and state-sponsored paramilitary groups, extending through the 1980s and beyond.

Tension during the Spanish transition

Officials and figures with good connections to the Navarrese regional government went on to join Adolfo Suárez’s UCD, later splitting into the party UPN led by Jaime Ignacio del Burgo and Jesús Aizpún Tuero (1979), refusing to join a democratic constitutional process on the grounds that Navarre’s charters (or fueros) remained in place. They also refused to join the Basque process to become an autonomous community, where recently legalised Basque nationalist and leftist parties held a majority.

A continuation of the institutional framework inherited from the dictatorship and its accommodation into the Spanish democracy was guaranteed by the Betterment (“Amejoramiento”), a Navarre-only solution considered ‘an upgrade’ of its former status issued from the (remains of the) charters. In a 3-year span, the Spanish Socialists in Navarre veered in their position, quit the Basque process, and joined the arrangement adopted for Navarre (Chartered Community of Navarre, 1982). The reform was not ratified by referendum, as demanded by Basque nationalist and minority progressive forces.

Politics

Institutions and status

After the end of Franco's dictatorship, Navarre became one of the 17 Autonomous Communities in Spain. The community ceremonies, education, and social services, together with housing, urban development, and environment protection policies are under the responsibility of Navarre's political institutions. As in the rest of communities, Navarre has a Parliament elected every four years, and the majority in this Parliament determines the president of the Community, who is in charge of Navarre's government.

Unlike most other autonomous communities of Spain (but like the Basque Autonomous Community), Navarre has almost full responsibility for collecting and administering taxes which must follow the overall guidelines established by the Spanish government but may have some minor differences.

The first 3 presidents of the community belonged to the extinct Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) party. After 1984 the government was ruled by either the Socialist Party of Navarre (PSN–PSOE, one of the federative components of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, main centre-left wing party in Spain) or the Navarrese People's Union (UPN) (a Navarrese party that had a long alliance with the People's Party (PP), main right-wing party in Spain). However, in 2015 Uxue Barkos (Geroa Bai) became president with the support of EH Bildu, Podemos and Izquierda-Ezkerra. She is the first Basque nationalist president in Navarre.

Basque nationalist parties also represent a sizeable part of the vote (around 31% in the 2015 elections), and a majority in most of the northern areas. Basque nationalist parties have as a key point in their agendas to merge Navarre into the Basque Autonomous Community by referendum (as predicted in the Spanish constitution). All Spain-based parties, as well as UPN and PSN, oppose this move.

Present-day political dynamics

NavarreParliamentDiagram2015
Seat distribution in the Parliament of Navarre since 2015
  EH Bildu (8)
  Geroa Bai (9)
  PSN (7)
  UPN (15)
  PP (2)

Politics in Navarre has been marked by fierce rivalry between two blocks representing different national identities that are part of Navarre society: Basque nationalist EH Bildu and pro-Basque Geroa Bai parties, on the one side, and the institutional pro-Spanish parties, UPN, PP and PSN on the other. Parties on the pro-Basque spectrum demand further sovereignty in internal affairs of Navarre and closer relationship with the districts of the Basque Autonomous Community. In the past, pro-Basque parties were excluded from key political posts and institutions. Another 2013-2014 controversy refers to the alleged ideological profiling of public school Basque language teachers, billed as "ETA supporting teachers".

Since the establishment of Navarre's present status (the Amejoramiento, the 'Betterment') in 1982, the successive regional governments ruled by UPN and PSN have been shaken by frequent political instability and corruption scandals, with UPN's Miguel Sanz's term being the most stable and longest, extending from 2001 to 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, a series of corruption scandals broke out involving regional president Yolanda Barcina and other regional government officials that included influence peddling, embezzlement, misappropriation of funds and mismanagement leading to the bankruptcy of Caja Navarra.[20][21] By November 2012, the PSN—UPN's standing ally in Navarre up to that point—backed down on its support of UPN, but refused to impeach Yolanda Barcina or search new political alliances, leaving a deadlocked government. The regional president, widely questioned in Navarre as of 2012 and relying only on the PP central government's backup, went on to urge the Constitutional Court to challenge several decisions made by the Parliament of Navarre.[22]

After the latest scandal and corruption allegations affecting a secretary of her cabinet (Lourdes Goicoechea, regional public finance secretary) in February 2014,[23] the Spanish home office secretary Jorge Fernández Díaz stepped in warning leading members of PSN that "Navarre is strategic for Spain", and asserting that any other political alliance means "supporting ETA". The Justice secretary in Madrid Alberto Ruiz Gallardón in turn stated that "the worst political error is not corruption" but getting along with Bildu (a Basque pro-independence coalition).[24] In May 2015, the elections for Navarre Parliament left a better result for pro-Basque parties, which managed to establish an alliance between Geroa Bai (9 seats), EH Bildu (8 seats), Podemos (7 seats) and Izquierda-Ezkerra (2 seats), by which Uxue Barkos from Geroa Bai was elected president of Navarre for the period 2015-2019. In local elections, UPN lost every municipality with over 10,000 inhabitants, landing EH Bildu the largest figure of elected mayors.

In December 2017, the Navarrese parliament passed a law splitting teachers aspiring to work in the state-run education network into two different professional categories, one for those qualified in Basque and Spanish, and another for Spanish monolinguals, so thwarting with the vote of Izquierda-Ezkerra (integrated in the regional government) the new progressive government's plan to have just one; the latter echoes a long-running demand of education unions.[25] In July 2018, the Constitutional Court of Spain suspended the Far Right's and Civil Servants' Victims Act passed by the Parliament of Navarre in 2015.[26] Three months later, the Chief Executive Officer of the National Police in Navarre stepped down for the disclosure of a fake Twitter account he owned that praised Antonio Tejero, as well as Vox leader Santiago Abascal as a new Jose Antonio, also insulting a number of Catalan and Basque nationalist and leftist figures.[27]

Geography and climate

Navarre consists of 272 municipalities and has a total population of 601,874 (2006), of whom approximately one-third live in the capital, Pamplona (195,769 pop.), and one-half in the capital's metropolitan area (315,988 pop.). There are no other large municipalities in the region. The next largest are Tudela (32,802), Barañáin (22,401), Burlada (18,388), Estella - Lizarra (13,892), Zizur Mayor (13,197), Tafalla (11,040), Villava/Atarrabia (10,295), and Ansoáin (9,952).

Despite its relatively small size, Navarre features stark contrasts in geography, from the Pyrenees mountain range that dominates the territory to the plains of the Ebro river valley in the south. The highest point in Navarre is Mesa de los Tres Reyes, with an elevation of 2,428 metres (7,965 feet).

Other important mountains are Txamantxoia, Kartxela, the Larra-Belagua Massif, Sierra de Alaiz, Untzueko Harria, Sierra de Leyre, Sierra del Perdón, Montejurra, Ezkaba, Monte Ori, Sierra de Codés, Urbasa, Andia, and the Aralar Range.

In the north, climate is affected by the Atlantic Ocean leading an Oceanic west coast climate (Köppen: Cfb) At central Navarre the summer precipitations start to lower, leading to a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa and Csb) At the southernmost part of Navarre the climate is cool semi-arid (Köppen: Bsk)

The sole official weather station of Navarre is located in Pamplona in its north-western corner and has summer highs of 28 °C (82 °F) and lows of 14 °C (57 °F), while winter highs are 9 °C (48 °F) and lows 1 °C (34 °F) with moderate precipitation year-round.

Cultural heritage

Navarre is a mixture of its Vasconic tradition, the Trans-Pyrenean influx of people and ideas and Mediterranean influences coming from the Ebro. The Ebro valley is amenable to wheat, vegetables, wine, and even olive trees as in Aragon and La Rioja. It was a part of the Roman Empire, inhabited by the Vascones, later controlled on its southern fringes by the Muslims Banu Qasi, whose authority was taken over by the taifa kingdom of Tudela in the 11th century.

During the Reconquista, Navarre gained little ground at the expense of the Muslims, since its southern boundary had already been established by the time of the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. Starting in the 11th century, the Way of Saint James grew in importance. It brought pilgrims, traders and Christian soldiers from the North. Gascons and Occitanians from beyond the Pyrenees (called Franks) received self-government and other privileges to foster settlement in Navarrese towns, and they brought their crafts, culture and Romance languages.

Jews and Muslims were persecuted both north and south of Navarre, expelled for the most part during the late 15th century to the early 16th century. The kingdom struggled to maintain its separate identity in 14th and 15th centuries, and after King Ferdinand V forcibly conquered Navarre after the death of his wife Queen Isabella, he extended the Castilian expulsion and forcible integration orders applicable to conversos and mudejars of 1492 to the former kingdom. Therefore, Tudela in particular could no longer serve as a refuge after the Inquisitors were allowed.

Economy

Navarre is one of the richest regions in Spain. The unemployment rate stood at 10.2% in 2017 and was the lowest in the country.[30]

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
unemployment rate
(in %)
5.4% 4.7% 6.8% 10.8% 11.9% 13.0% 16.2% 17.9% 15.7% 13.8% 12.5% 10.2%

Energy policy

Navarre leads Europe in its use of renewable energy technology and was planning to reach 100% renewable electricity generation by 2010. By 2004, 61% of the region's electricity was generated by renewable sources consisting of 43.6% from 28 wind farms, 12% from over 100 small-scale water turbines, and 5.3% from 2 biomass and 2 biogas plants. In addition, the region had what was then Spain's largest photovoltaic power plant at Montes de Cierzo de Tudela (1.2 MWp capacity) plus several hundred smaller photovoltaic installations.

Developments since 2004 have included further photovoltaic plants at Larrión (0.25 MWp)[31] and another at Castejón (2.44 MWp), also once the largest in Spain.[32]

Languages

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1900310,535—    
1910323,503+4.2%
1920339,220+4.9%
1930352,108+3.8%
1940365,014+3.7%
1950383,354+5.0%
1960406,838+6.1%
1970466,593+14.7%
1981509,002+9.1%
1991519,277+2.0%
2001555,829+7.0%
2011640,129+15.2%
2017640,502+0.1%
Source: INE

Spanish is the official language throughout Navarre. Basque also has co-official status in the Basque-speaking area.[33] The northwestern part of the community is largely Basque-speaking, while the southern part is entirely Spanish-speaking. The capital, Pamplona, is in the mixed region. Navarre is legally divided into three linguistic regions: regions where Basque is widespread and co-official (the Basque-speaking area), regions where Basque is present and has reduced co-official recognition (the mixed region), and regions where Basque is non-official.[33]

In 2006 11.1% of people in Navarre were Basque speakers, 7.6% were passive speakers and 81.3% were Spanish-speaking monolinguals, an increase from 9.5% Basque speakers in 1991.[34] The age distribution of speakers is unequal, with the lowest percentages in the above‑35 age group, rising to 20% amongst the 16–24 age group.[34]

The 2011 census showed another small increase in the percentage of Basque speakers to 11.7% (63,000 speakers)[35] In June 2017, the Parliament approved the modification of the Basque Language Act, assigning 44 new municipalities to the transition area, where Basque language has certain recognition as a native language.

Navarra - Mapa densidad euskera 2001

Map showing density of Basque speakers, including second-language speakers]]

Chupinazo8

Sanfermines in Pamplona, Navarre

Ioaldunak 001

Joaldun feast in January

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. ^ a b Bernardo Estornés Lasa's Spanish article on Navarra Archived 2012-01-12 at the Wayback Machine in the Auñamendi Entziklopedia (click on "NAVARRA – NAFARROA (NOMBRE Y EMBLEMAS)")
  3. ^ "HISTORY OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY - THE ROMANS". Kondaira.net.
  4. ^ Collins, Roger (1990). The Basques (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 0631175652., p. 140-141.
  5. ^ Collins (1990), p. 181.
  6. ^ Kennedy, Hugh (2014). Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of Al-Andalus. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 978-1317870418.
  7. ^ Collins (1990), pp. 214–215.
  8. ^ Collins (1990), pp. 185.
  9. ^ Collins (1990), pp. 232.
  10. ^ Monreal/Jimeno (2012), pp. 10–15.
  11. ^ Monreal, Gregorio; Jimeno, Roldan (2012). Conquista e Incorporación de Navarra a Castilla. Pamplona-Iruña: Pamiela. ISBN 978-84-7681-736-0., pp. 30–32
  12. ^ Collins (1990), p. 275.
  13. ^ Paul Preston (2013). The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain. London, UK: HarperCollins. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-00-638695-7.
  14. ^ Preston, P. 2013, p. 179-181
  15. ^ Preston, P. 2013, p. 182-184
  16. ^ Charla con Lucio Urtubia [Talks with Lucio Urtubia] (in Spanish). CGT/LKN Bizkaia. 2014-04-15. Event occurs at 07’02. Retrieved 2015-05-01. (First-hand witness Lucio Urtubia's testimony in Spanish) For the first time ever that is being talked about now, I only bore witness to crimes and abuses in my land carried out by that Church that if it really wanted, all could have been prevented. In the Ribera of Navarre, there are about 4,000 dead by fire-squad, people who had done no harm, no evil to anyone, they were just workers, farmers, the hunger-stricken, so that is why, because they were Republicans, or just affiliated to the CNT or UGT that they were executed by firearm. That was with the complicity of the Catholic Church, that is why I don't believe in that Church, that Church was horrific. That Church had the likes of don Pablo or don Vitoriano, who came down every morning, there were little kids who had just come from shooting in executions, with the former asking to them, "How many, how many today?", the kids going, "Three or four", in turn responding, "Small number, small number". I lived through all that.
  17. ^ Preston, P. 2013, p. 183
  18. ^ "Navarra. Historia: Franquismo". Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia. EuskoMedia Fundazioa. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  19. ^ "Navarra. Historia: Franquismo". Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia. EuskoMedia Fundazioa. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  20. ^ "La Cámara de Comptos constata que el Gobierno hizo dejación de funciones al no controlar Caja Navarra". Noticias de Navarra. 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 15 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  21. ^ "Barcina y Sanz duplicaban la reuniones de Caja Navarra para cobrar más en dietas". La Vanguardia. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  22. ^ "Barcina arriesga el régimen foral para salvar su Gobierno". Naiz. 11 August 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  23. ^ "La exdirectora de Hacienda acusa a Lourdes Goicoechea de presionar sobre inspecciones a determinados clientes". Noticias de Navarra. 11 February 2014. Archived from the original on 15 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  24. ^ "Fernández Díaz: "Navarra es estratégica para España"". Naiz. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  25. ^ N.Elia (21 December 2017). "IU hace fracasar el intento del Gobierno de implantar la lista única para euskera y castellano en la próxima OPE de Educación". El Diario. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  26. ^ "El Constitucional anula la ley foral de víctimas de extrema derecha y funcionarios públicos". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  27. ^ "Una cuenta secreta de Twitter del jefe de la Policía Nacional en Navarra insulta a políticos de izquierdas y nacionalistas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  28. ^ "Standard Climate Values for Pamplona". Aemet.es. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  29. ^ "Extreme Climate Values for Pamplona". Aemet.es. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  30. ^ "Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region". Eurostat.
  31. ^ Iberinco to Construct Solar Installation at Renewable Facility | Renewable Energy Today | Find Articles at BNET
  32. ^ [1] Archived September 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2014-11-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ a b IV. Inkesta Soziolinguistikoa Gobierno Vasco, Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco 2008, ISBN 978-84-457-2775-1
  35. ^ "V Inkesta Soziolinguistikoa" (PDF). Eusko Jaurlaritza. Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoko Administrazioa Hezkuntza, Hizkuntza Politika eta Kultura Saila. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2014.

External links

Antoine of Navarre

Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (jure uxoris) to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France.

Basque Country (greater region)

The Basque Country (Basque: Euskal Herria; French: Pays Basque; Spanish: País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people. The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Euskal Herria is the oldest documented Basque name for the area they inhabit, dating from the 16th century.It comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France. The region is home to the Basque people (Basque: Euskaldunak), their language (Basque: Euskara), culture and traditions. The area is neither linguistically nor culturally homogeneous, and certain areas have a majority of people who do not consider themselves Basque, such as the south of Navarre.

Funimation

Funimation Productions, LLC (commonly known as Funimation) is an American entertainment company that specializes in the dubbing and distribution of foreign content, most notably anime. Sony Pictures Entertainment, a division of the Japanese conglomerate Sony, is its majority owner. Based in Flower Mound, Texas, the studio is one of the leading distributors of anime and other foreign entertainment properties in North America alongside Viz Media, Sentai Filmworks, Aniplex of America, and more. Their most popular property is Toei Animation's action-adventure franchise Dragon Ball.

The company was founded on May 9, 1994 by Gen Fukunaga and his wife Cindy as FUNimation Productions, with funding by Daniel Cocanougher and his family, who became investors in the company. Funimation was acquired by Navarre Corporation on May 11, 2005 and the company was renamed FUNimation Entertainment.

In April 2011, Navarre sold Funimation to a group of investors including Fukunaga and John A. Kuelbs for $24 million. Around the same time, the company's trademark ball, star and blue bar were dropped from its logo and the company was renamed to simply Funimation. In May 2013, Funimation consolidated its divisions under its new holding company Group 1200 Media. Kuelbs became Chairman of Funimation/Group 1200 after the acquisition from Navarre. Kuelbs and Fukunaga continued to make additional investments into Funimation. A new senior management was brought on and a multi-year distribution deal was announced with Universal Pictures Home Entertainment. In January 2016 FunimationNow, a new ad free HD anime streaming service with Sony subscription, was announced at the CES show in Las Vegas. On July 31, 2017, Sony Pictures Television announced plans to acquire a 95% stake in Funimation for $143 million while Gen Fukunaga would retain his position with a 5% share. The deal was closed on October 27, 2017.

From 2016-2018, Funimation had a partnership agreement with Crunchyroll.

Henry IV of France

Henry IV (French: Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre [ɑ̃ʁi katʁ]; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.Henry IV and his predecessor Henry III of France are both direct descendants of the Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; Henry IV belonged to the House of Bourbon, descended from Robert, Count of Clermont, younger son of Saint Louis. As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood." Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.

Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. An unpopular king among his contemporaries, Henry gained more status after his death. He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education. During his reign, the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colony of Acadia and its capital Port-Royal. He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.

House of Capet

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians and (French: Capétiens directs Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet (c. 939 – 996). Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian" (see House of France). The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings" (following the Merovingians and the Carolingians). The name "Capet" derives from the nickname (of uncertain meaning) given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet.The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, when the three sons of Philip IV (reigned 1285-1314) all failed to produce surviving male heirs to the French throne. With the death of Charles IV (reigned 1322-1328), the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. Royal power would later pass (1589) to another Capetian branch, the House of Bourbon, descended from the youngest son of Louis IX (reigned 1226-1270), and (from 1830) to a Bourbon cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet.

Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, and was the mother of Henri de Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France, the first Bourbon king of France. She became the Duchess of Vendôme by marriage.

Jeanne was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement, and a key figure in the French Wars of Religion. After her public conversion to Calvinism in 1560, she joined the Huguenot side. During the first and second war she remained relatively neutral, but in the third war she fled to La Rochelle, becoming the de facto leader of the Huguenot-controlled city. After negotiating a peace treaty with Catherine de' Medici and arranging the marriage of her son, Henry, to Catherine's daughter, Marguerite de Valois, she died suddenly in Paris.

Jeanne was the last active ruler of Navarre. Her son inherited her kingdom, but as he was constantly leading the Huguenot forces, he entrusted the government of Béarn to his sister, Catherine de Bourbon, who held the regency for more than two decades. In 1620, Jeanne's grandson Louis XIII annexed Navarre to the French crown.

Joan I of Navarre

Joan I of Navarre (14 January 1273 – 31 March/2 April 1305) (Basque: Joana I.a Nafarroakoa) was queen regnant of Navarre and ruling countess of Champagne from 1274 until 1305; she was also queen consort of France by marriage to Philip IV of France. She was the daughter of king Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois.

John II of Aragon

John II (Catalan: Joan II, Aragonese: Chuan II and Basque: Joanes II), called the Great (el Gran) or the Faithless (el Sense Fe) (29 June 1398 – 20 January 1479), was the King of Navarre through his wife (jure uxoris) from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John was also King of Sicily from 1458-1468.

Kingdom of Navarre

The Kingdom of Navarre (; Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma, Spanish: Reino de Navarra, French: Royaume de Navarre, Latin: Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Basque: Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.

The medieval state took form around the city of Pamplona during the first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista. The kingdom has its origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king Charlemagne and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula. The city of Pamplona (Latin: Pompaelo; Basque: Iruñea), had been the main city of the indigenous Vasconic population and was located amid a predominantly Basque-speaking area. In an event traditionally dated to 824, Íñigo Arista was elected or declared ruler of the area around Pamplona in opposition to Frankish expansion into the region, originally as vassal to the Córdoba Emirate. This polity evolved into the Kingdom of Pamplona. In the first quarter of the 10th century the Kingdom was able to briefly break its vassalage under Córdoba and expand militarily, but again found itself dominated by Córdoba until the early 11th century. A series of partitions and dynastic changes led to a diminution of its territory and to periods of rule by the kings of Aragon (1054–1134) and France (1285–1328).

In the 15th century, another dynastic dispute over control by the king of Aragon led to internal divisions and the eventual conquest of the southern part of the kingdom by the Crown of Castile in 1512 (permanently in 1524). It would become part of the unified Kingdom of Spain. The remaining northern part of the kingdom was again joined with France by personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, and in 1620 it was merged into the Kingdom of France. The monarchs of this unified state took the title "King of France and Navarre" until its fall in the French Revolution, and again during the Bourbon Restoration from 1814 until 1830 (with a brief interregnum in 1815).

Today, significant parts of the ancient Kingdom of Navarre comprise the autonomous communities of Navarre, Basque Country and La Rioja.

List of French monarchs

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

Sometimes included as 'Kings of France' are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled from 486 until 751, and of the Carolingians, who ruled until 987 (with some interruptions).

The Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, included the first rulers to adopt the title of 'King of France' for the first time with Philip II (r. 1180–1223).

The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until 1848).

During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style of "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy, which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.With the House of Bonaparte, "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th-century France between 1804 and 1814, again in 1815, and between 1852 and 1870.

List of Navarrese monarchs

This is a list of the kings and queens of Pamplona, later Navarre. Pamplona was the primary name of the kingdom until its union with Aragon (1076–1134). However, the territorial designation Navarre came into use as an alternative name in the late tenth century, and the name Pamplona was retained well into the twelfth century.

List of municipalities in Navarre

This is a list of the municipalities in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, Spain.

Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (French pronunciation: ​[lwi tʁɛz]; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who was King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court.

Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, and ending the revolt of the French nobility. They systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence (dueling, carrying weapons, and maintaining private armies). By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine. The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain.

Louis X of France

Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French: le Hutin), was King of France from 1314 until his death (the twelfth from the House of Capet), succeeding his father Philip IV. After the death of his mother, Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Louis I (Basque: Luis I a Nafarroakoa) from 1305 until his death in 1316.

His short reign in France was marked by tensions with the nobility, due to fiscal and centralization reforms initiated by Enguerrand de Marigny, the Grand Chamberlain of France, under the reign of his father. Louis' uncle—Charles of Valois, leader of the feudalist party—managed to convince the king to execute Enguerrand de Marigny.

Louis allowed serfs to buy their freedom (which was the first step towards the abolition of serfdom), abolished slavery, and readmitted French Jews into the kingdom.

In 1305, Louis had married Margaret of Burgundy, with whom he had Joan II of Navarre. Margaret was later convicted of adultery and died in prison, possibly murdered by strangulation. In 1315, Louis married Clementia of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France a few months after the king's death. John's untimely death led to a disputed succession.

Marguerite de Navarre

Marguerite de Navarre (French: Marguerite d'Angoulême, Marguerite d'Alençon; 11 April 1492 – 21 December 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angoulême and Margaret of Navarre, was the princess of France, Queen of Navarre, and Duchess of Alençon and Berry. She was married to Henry II of Navarre. Her brother became King of France, as Francis I, and the two siblings were responsible for the celebrated intellectual and cultural court and salons of their day in France.

Marguerite is the ancestress of the Bourbon kings of France, being the mother of Jeanne d'Albret, whose son, Henry of Navarre, succeeded as Henry IV of France, the first Bourbon king.

As an author and a patron of humanists and reformers, she was an outstanding figure of the French Renaissance. Samuel Putnam called her "The First Modern Woman".

Navarre, Florida

Navarre is a Census-designated place and unincorporated community in Santa Rosa County in the northwest Florida Panhandle. It is a bedroom community for mostly U.S. Military personnel, Federal Civil Servants, local population, retirees and defense contractors. Due to its proximity to Navarre Beach and its four miles of beach front on the Gulf of Mexico, not including the Navarre Beach Marine Park, as well as the Gulf Islands National Seashore, it has a small, but growing community of nature enthusiasts and tourists. Navarre has quickly grown from being a sleepy town of a little over 1,500 in the 1970s to a town with a population of 42,200, as of a 2014 estimate.Navarre is about 25 miles east of Pensacola and about 15 miles west of Fort Walton Beach. The community is roughly centered on the junction of U.S. Route 98 and State Road 87. It is part of the Pensacola–Ferry Pass–Brent Metropolitan Statistical Area (more commonly referred to as the Pensacola Metro Area), and is the second largest community in the metropolitan area, according to a 2014 study. Navarre is part of the Fort Walton Beach-Navarre-Wright Urbanized Area. It is known for the natural environment, swimming, picnic spots, and county park which is located on the Gulf of Mexico.

Pamplona

Pamplona (Spanish: [pamˈplona]; French: Pampelune) or Iruña (Basque: [iɾuɲa], alternative spelling: Iruñea, IPA: [iɾuɲea]) is the capital city of the Autonomous Community of Navarre, in Spain, and historically also of the former Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona is also the second largest city in the greater Basque cultural region, composed of two Spanish autonomous communities, Navarre and Basque Country, and the French Basque Country.

Pamplona has a moderate climate being at 446 metres (1,463 ft) in terms of elevation. In addition to its elevation, Pamplona being inland results in cool nights by Spanish standards.

The city is famous worldwide for the running of the bulls during the San Fermín festival, which is held annually from July 6 to 14. This festival was brought to literary renown with the 1926 publication of Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises. It is also home to Osasuna, the only Navarrese football club to have ever played in the Spanish top division.

Philip IV of France

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called Philip the Fair (French: Philippe le Bel), was King of France from 1285 until his death (the eleventh from the House of Capet). By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him (from friend and foe alike) other nicknames, such as the Iron King (French: le Roi de fer). His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his nobles. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages. His ambitions made him highly influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones. Princes from his house ruled in Naples and Hungary. He tried and failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor. He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs.The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with the English over King Edward I's fiefs in southwestern France, and a war with the Flemish, who had rebelled against French royal authority and humiliated Philip at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302. In 1306, Philip expelled the Jews from France, and in 1307 he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar. He was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state". To further strengthen the monarchy, Philip tried to take control of the French clergy, leading to a violent conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. This conflict resulted in the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309.

His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle affair, in which Philip's three daughters-in-law were accused of adultery. His three sons were successively kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV. Their deaths without surviving sons of their own would compromise the future of the French royal house, which until then seemed secure, precipitating a succession crisis that would eventually lead to the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453).

Tudela, Navarre

Tudela is a municipality in Spain, the second largest city of the autonomous community of Navarre and twice a former Latin bishopric. Its population is around 35,000. The city is sited in the Ebro valley. Fast trains running on two-track electrified railways serve the city and two freeways (AP 68 and AP 15) join close to it. Tudela is the capital of the Ribera Navarra, the agricultural region of lower Navarre and also the seat of the courts of its judicial district.

The poet Al-Tutili, the 12th-century traveler Benjamin of Tudela, the 13th century writer William of Tudela and the physician and theologian Michael de Villanueva were from the city.

The city hosts an annual festival in honor of Santa Ana (mother of the Virgin Mary) which begin on 24 July at noon and continue for approximately a week. Street music, bullfights and the running of the bulls are typical events of the festival.

Climate data for Pamplona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.5
(67.1)
23.6
(74.5)
30
(86)
29.6
(85.3)
33.5
(92.3)
38.5
(101.3)
40.2
(104.4)
40.6
(105.1)
38.8
(101.8)
30
(86)
27
(81)
20
(68)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
10.9
(51.6)
14.6
(58.3)
16.4
(61.5)
20.2
(68.4)
25.2
(77.4)
28.2
(82.8)
28.3
(82.9)
24.5
(76.1)
19.3
(66.7)
13.1
(55.6)
9.7
(49.5)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
6.3
(43.3)
9.1
(48.4)
10.9
(51.6)
14.7
(58.5)
18.6
(65.5)
21.2
(70.2)
21.4
(70.5)
18.2
(64.8)
14.1
(57.4)
9.0
(48.2)
6.0
(42.8)
12.9
(55.2)
Average low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.6
(34.9)
3.7
(38.7)
5.3
(41.5)
8.6
(47.5)
11.9
(53.4)
14.2
(57.6)
14.5
(58.1)
12.0
(53.6)
8.9
(48.0)
4.8
(40.6)
2.2
(36.0)
7.4
(45.3)
Record low °C (°F) −12.4
(9.7)
−15.2
(4.6)
−9
(16)
−2.2
(28.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
3.8
(38.8)
7
(45)
4.8
(40.6)
3.4
(38.1)
−1
(30)
−6.6
(20.1)
−14.2
(6.4)
−15.2
(4.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57
(2.2)
50
(2.0)
54
(2.1)
74
(2.9)
60
(2.4)
46
(1.8)
33
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.7)
68
(2.7)
75
(3.0)
72
(2.8)
674
(26.5)
Average relative humidity (%) 78 72 66 65 63 59 57 58 62 69 76 78 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93 125 177 185 228 268 310 282 219 164 108 88 2,240
Source #1: [28]
Source #2: [29]
Autonomous communities
Autonomous cities
Plazas de soberanía
Traditional provinces of the Basque Country
Southern Basque Country
French Basque Country

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