Naval Review

A Naval Review is an event where the whole (or a very large part) of the United States Navy is paraded to be reviewed by the president of the United States or the secretary of the Navy. It often includes warships and delegates from other national navies. It is more regular and frequent than its British equivalent, the Fleet Review, and often occurs on a Navy Day.

Following is a list of past Naval Reviews, by president. Each was reviewed by the president, unless otherwise noted.

Truman on Renshaw;0549908
President Harry S. Truman (waving his hat) with his party on board USS Renshaw (DD-499) during the Navy Day Fleet Review in New York Harbor, 27 October 1945. USS Missouri (BB-63) is in the right background, and Navy planes are flying in formation overhead.

Nineteenth century

Grover Cleveland

Before World War One

Theodore Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

1914–1919: Woodrow Wilson

USS Arizona (BB-39) 1918
USS Arizona (BB-39) at the New York City review, 26 December 1918. She was the first of ten dreadnoughts to parade past Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels.

Inter-war

Warren G. Harding

Calvin Coolidge

USS Maryland at 1927 naval review NARA 19-LC-19C
The USS Maryland (BB-46) during the June 1927 review

Franklin D. Roosevelt

USS Chicago (CA-29) underway off New York City on 31 May 1934 (NH 715)
USS Chicago (CA-29) underway off New York City, during 31 May 1934 fleet review.

1940 to 1945

USS Texas-4

USS Texas, 1940 review

Missouri panama canal

USS Missouri in the Panama Canal en route to the 1945 review

Truman on Renshaw;0549908

Truman, 1945 review

USS New York-7

USS New York (BB-34) at the 1945 review

  • Navy Day, 27 October 1940
  • Navy Day Fleet Review in New York Harbor, 27 October 1945

Post-war to present

Dwight Eisenhower

International Naval Review - 1957
International Naval Review – 1957
USS Saratoga (CVA-60) 1957

USS Saratoga (CVA-60)

USS Randolph (CVA-15) during the International Naval Review in Hampton Roads, 12 Jun 1957 (NH 97490)

USS Randolph (CVA-15)

USS Iowa (BB-61) anchored in Hampton Roads on 12 June 1957

USS Iowa (BB-61)

USS Canberra (CAG-2) in Hampton Roads on 12 June 1957 (NH 98389)

USS Canberra (CAG-2)

Gerald Ford

Ronald Reagan

Bill Clinton

References

  1. ^ "Bennington I". DANFS.
  2. ^ Paul Stillwell, Battleship Arizona: An Illustrated History (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1991), 303. ISBN 0-87021-023-8. OCLC 23654474.
  3. ^ USS Albany Web Site

External links

Charles Gidley Wheeler

Charles Gidley Wheeler (1938–2010), also known as Charles Gidley, was a television screenwriter and historical novelist whose work has been acclaimed in Publishers Weekly, The Washington Post, Kirkus Reviews, and The New York Times.Wheeler was educated at University College School, London and Durham University, where he read Philosophy. He served in the Royal Navy from 1954 to 1979. His best known work is The Raging of the Sea.

Fleet review (Commonwealth realms)

A fleet review is a traditional gathering of ships from a particular navy to be observed by the reigning monarch or his or her representative, a practice allegedly dating back to the 15th century. Such an event is not held at regular intervals and originally only occurred when the fleet was mobilised for war or for a show of strength to discourage potential enemies. However, since the 19th century, they have often been held for the coronation or for special royal jubilees and increasingly included delegates from other national navies.

French battleship Gaulois

Gaulois was one of three Charlemagne-class pre-dreadnought battleships built for the French Navy in the mid-1890s. Completed in 1899, she spent most of her career assigned to the Mediterranean Squadron (Escadre de la Méditerranée). The ship accidentally rammed two other French warships early in her career, although neither was seriously damaged, nor was the ship herself.

When World War I began in August 1914, she escorted troop convoys from French North Africa to France for a month and a half. Gaulois was ordered to the Dardanelles in November 1914 to guard against a sortie into the Mediterranean by the ex-German battlecruiser Yavuz Sultan Selim. In 1915, she joined British ships in bombarding Ottoman fortifications. She was badly damaged during one such bombardment in March and had to beach herself to avoid sinking. She was refloated and sent to Toulon for permanent repairs. Gaulois returned to the Dardanelles and covered the Allied evacuation in January 1916. On 27 December, she was en route for the Dardanelles after a refit in France when she was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine with the loss of four crewmen.

French destroyer Cyclone

Cyclone was a Bourrasque-class destroyer (torpilleur d'escadre) built for the French Navy during the 1920s. She saw service in the early months of World War II before being scuttled in June 1940 to prevent her capture by advancing German forces during the Battle of France.

HMS Chelmer (1904)

HMS Chelmer was a Thornycroft-type River-Class destroyer ordered by the Royal Navy under the 1903–1904 Naval Estimates. Named after the River Chelmer in eastern England, north-east of London, she was the first ship to carry this name in the Royal Navy.

HMS Hazard (1894)

The sixth HMS Hazard was a Dryad-class torpedo gunboat. She was launched in 1894 and was converted into the world's first submarine depot ship in 1901. She collided with the submarine A3 on 2 February 1912, killing 14 men, and was herself sunk in collision with SS Western Australia on 28 January 1918.

HMS Triumph (1903)

HMS Triumph, originally known as Libertad, was the second of the two Swiftsure-class pre-dreadnought battleships of the Royal Navy. The ship was ordered by the Chilean Navy, but she was purchased by the United Kingdom as part of ending the Argentine–Chilean naval arms race. Triumph was initially assigned to the Home Fleet and Channel Fleets before being transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1909. The ship briefly rejoined the Home Fleet in 1912 before she was transferred abroad to the China Station in 1913. Triumph participated in the hunt for the German East Asia Squadron of Maximilian Graf von Spee and in the campaign against the German colony at Tsingtao, China early in World War I. The ship was transferred to the Mediterranean in early 1915 to participate in the Dardanelles Campaign against the Ottoman Empire. She was torpedoed and sunk off Gaba Tepe by the German submarine U-21 on 25 May 1915.

Herne Bay Steamboat Co v Hutton

Herne Bay Steamboat Co v Hutton [1903] 2 KB 683 is a case on the subject of frustration of purpose. It is one of a group of cases arising out of the same event, known as the coronation cases.

Japanese cruiser Ashigara

Ashigara (足柄) was the final vessel of the four-member Myōkō class of heavy cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which were active in World War II. The other ships of the class were Nachi, Myōkō, and Haguro. Ashigara was named after Mount Ashigara on the border of Kanagawa and Shizuoka Prefectures.

Joint Warfare Establishment

The Joint Warfare Establishment was a British military training establishment based at Old Sarum in Wiltshire.

Master (naval)

The master, or sailing master, was a historical rank for a naval officer trained in and responsible for the navigation of a sailing vessel. The rank can be equated to a professional seaman and specialist in navigation, rather than as a military commander.

In the British Royal Navy, the master was originally a warrant officer who ranked with, but after, the lieutenants. The rank became a commissioned officer rank and was renamed navigating lieutenant in 1867; the rank gradually fell out of use from around 1890 since all lieutenants were required to pass the same examinations.

When the United States Navy was formed in 1794, master was listed as one of the warrant officer ranks and ranked between midshipmen and lieutenants. The rank was also a commissioned officer rank from 1837 until it was replaced with the current rank of lieutenant, junior grade in 1883.

Naval Review (magazine)

The Naval Review was first published in February 1913 by a group of eight Royal Navy officers. They had formed a naval society "to promote the advancement and spreading within the service of knowledge relevant to the higher aspects of the naval profession" in 1912.The eight founders were

Captain Herbert Richmond

Commander Kenneth Dewar

Commander the Hon. Reginald Plunkett

Lieutenant Roger Bellairs

Lieutenant T. Fisher

Lieutenant Henry Thursfield

Captain Edward Harding

Admiral William Henderson (Honorary Editor)The Naval Review is issued quarterly for private circulation in the last week of January, April, July, and October. Subscription is limited by regulation.

Since 2010, the Naval Review has been a co-sponsor of the annual Alan Villiers Memorial Lecture at Oxford.

Operation Sail

Operation Sail refers to a series of sailing events held to celebrate special occasions and features sailing vessels from around the world. Each event is coordinated by Operation Sail, Inc., a non-profit organization established in 1961 by U.S. President John F. Kennedy and must be approved by the United States Congress. Often referred to as OpSail or Op Sail, the event has the goals of promoting good will and cooperation between countries while providing sail training and celebrating maritime history. It is also sometimes erroneously referred to as "Tall Ships". While the tall ships form the centerpiece of the event, smaller sailing vessels also participate.

Op Sail events, when scheduled, are run concurrently with the annual International Naval Review, which features present-day warships from various navies. Six Op Sail events have been held to date, in 1964, 1976, 1986, 1992, 2000 and 2012. The event culminates in the Parade of Ships on the Hudson River and in New York Harbor on July 4, Independence Day. The United States Coast Guard cutter Eagle has been the host vessel to all six Op Sail events.

Along with Nils Hansell, Frank Braynard launched the world's first Operation Sail, an extravaganza in which tall ships and naval vessels filled New York Harbor, in 1964.

Russian battleship Petropavlovsk (1911)

The Russian battleship Petropavlovsk (Russian: Петропавловск) was the third of the four Gangut-class dreadnoughts built before World War I for the Imperial Russian Navy, the first Russian class of dreadnoughts. She was named after the Russian victory over the British and the French in the Siege of Petropavlovsk in 1854. The ship was completed during the winter of 1914–1915, but was not ready for combat until mid-1915. Her role was to defend the mouth of the Gulf of Finland against the Germans, who never tried to enter, so she spent her time training and providing cover for minelaying operations. Her crew joined the general mutiny of the Baltic Fleet after the February Revolution of 1917 and she was the only dreadnought available to the Bolsheviks for several years after the October Revolution of 1917. She bombarded the mutinous garrison of Fort Krasnaya Gorka and supported Bolshevik light forces operating against British ships supporting the White Russians in the Gulf of Finland in 1918–19. Later, her crew joined the Kronstadt Rebellion of 1921 and she was renamed Marat after the rebellion was crushed.

Marat was reconstructed from 1928 to 1931 and represented the Soviet Union at the Coronation Naval Review at Spithead in 1937. Two years later, she bombarded a Finnish coastal artillery position during the Winter War once before the Gulf of Finland iced up. Shortly afterwards, her anti-aircraft armament was upgraded. When the Germans invaded on 22 June 1941 she was in Kronstadt and provided gunfire support to Soviet troops in September as the Germans approached Leningrad. Later that month she had her bow blown off and sank in shallow water after two hits by 1,000-kilogram (2,200 lb) bombs (dropped from a Ju 87 Stuka, piloted by Hans Ulrich Rudel) that detonated her forward magazine. She was refloated several months later and became a stationary battery, providing gunfire support during the Siege of Leningrad. Plans were made to reconstruct her after the war, using the bow of her sister Frunze, but they were not accepted and were formally cancelled in 1948. She was renamed Volkhov, after the nearby river, in 1950 and served as a stationary training ship until stricken in 1953 and broken up afterwards.

SAS President Kruger

SAS President Kruger was the first of three President-class Type 12 frigates built in the United Kingdom for the South African Navy (SAN) during the 1960s. The ship spent most of her career training and made visits to foreign ports in Africa, Western Europe and the United States. In the late 1960s, she was modernized and equipped to operate a helicopter. In the mid-1970s, President Kruger played a minor role in the South African Border War, conducting patrol operations off the Angolan coast. The ship was placed in reserve in 1977, but was recommissioned in 1980. She sank in 1982 with the loss of 16 lives after colliding with her replenishment oiler, SAS Tafelberg, in the South Atlantic.

SS Sierra Cordoba (1913)

SS Sierra Cordoba was a Norddeutscher Lloyd passenger and cargo ship completed 1913 by AG Vulcan Stettin. The ship operated between Bremen and Buenos Aires on the line's South American service and was equipped with wireless and "submarine sounding apparatus" with accommodations for 116 first class, 74 second class and 1,270 "between decks" passengers. A description after the ship had been seized and restored in 1919 noted she was among the fastest and best equipped ships of the line with accommodations for 115 first class passengers and 1,572 third and steerage class passengers as well as a crew of 179 officers and men.During World War I Sierra Cordoba supplied German raiders, particularly SMS Dresden while hiding in the Straits of Magellan. After that ship and Sierra Cordoba moved northward in the Pacific, where the cruiser met British forces, the German liner interned herself in Callao, Peru, named Callao and later transferred to the United States Shipping Board, refurbished by Panama Canal personnel and briefly placed in commission with the United States Navy as USS Callao (ID-4036) to bring service people home from Europe. The ship was sold, renamed Ruth Alexander in 1923 and put into coastwise passenger and cargo service between Puget Sound and Mexico, typically calling at Seattle, Victoria, San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego and (by 1931) Ensenada, Mexico, until finally converted to a cargo ship in 1939.

On 9 December 1941 Ruth Alexander arrived in Manila the day after Manila had learned of the coming of war to the Pacific (8 December Manila time). The ship survived bombing raids in Manila harbor before attempting to escape on 28 December, as United States forces were retreating into Bataan, and being bombed and abandoned on 31 December. One crew member was lost, four wounded, and all survivors were picked up by a Dutch Dornier 24 bomber. The ship finally sank on 2 January.

USS Wisconsin (BB-9)

USS Wisconsin (BB-9), an Illinois-class pre-dreadnought battleship, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 30th state. She was the third and final member of her class to be built. Her keel was laid down in February 1897 at the Union Iron Works in San Francisco, and she was launched in November 1898. The completed ship was commissioned into the fleet in February 1901. The ship was armed with a main battery of four 13-inch (330 mm) guns and she had a top speed of 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph).

Wisconsin served as the flagship of the Pacific Fleet from her commissioning to 1903; during this period, she made one long distance cruise to American Samoa in late 1901. In 1903, she was transferred to the Asiatic Fleet, where she served as the Northern Squadron flagship. She returned to the United States in late 1906, where she was overhauled extensively. In July 1908, she joined the Great White Fleet for the second leg of its cruise around the world, which lasted until February 1909. The ship remained in service with the Atlantic Fleet until early 1910, when she was reduced to reserve status.

The vessel was employed as a training ship starting in 1912, primarily for cadets from the US Naval Academy. After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Wisconsin's training duties expanded to engine room personnel. She was also assigned to the Coast Battleship Patrol Squadron. She took part in a naval review in December 1918 after the war ended. She served briefly with the fleet in 1919, though by May 1920, she was decommissioned. The old battleship, thoroughly obsolete by this time, was sold for scrap in January 1922 and broken up.

Vice Chief of the Naval Staff

The Vice Chief of the Naval Staff (V.C.N.S.) was a senior appointment in the Royal Navy usually a three-star rank and had a NATO ranking code of OF-8 that existed from 1941 to 1985 and was a member of the Admiralty Naval Staff.

William Hannam Henderson

Admiral Sir William Hannam Henderson, (20 June 1845 – 29 April 1931) was a British flag officer of the Royal Navy, and the first editor of The Naval Review.

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