Natural disaster

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property,[1] and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience (ability to recover) and also on the infrastructure available.[2]

An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population.[3][4] In a vulnerable area, however, such as Nepal during the 2015 earthquake, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and leave lasting damage, which can require years to repair.

Elkton, Maryland 2009 Blizzard
A blizzard in Maryland in 2009
Roping tornado
A rope tornado in its dissipating stage, Tecumseh, Oklahoma.
Wildfire in California
A daytime wildfire in California.
1755 Lisbon earthquake
1755 copper engraving depicting Lisbon in ruins and in flames after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. A tsunami overwhelms the ships in the harbor.

Geological disasters

Avalanches and landslides

Wikipedia Landslide
A landslide in San Clemente, California in 1966

A landslide is described as an outward and downward slope movement of an abundance of slope-forming materials including rock, soil, artificial, or even a combination of these things.[5]

During World War I, an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front. Many of the avalanches were caused by artillery fire.[6][7]

Earthquakes

An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking, and sometimes displacement of the ground. Earthquakes are caused by slippage within geological faults. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the seismic focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and planning.

Sinkholes

RedLakeCroatia
The Red Lake in Croatia.

When natural erosion, human mining or underground excavation makes the ground too weak to support the structures built on it, the ground can collapse and produce a sinkhole. For example, the 2010 Guatemala City sinkhole which killed fifteen people was caused when heavy rain from Tropical Storm Agatha, diverted by leaking pipes into a pumice bedrock, led to the sudden collapse of the ground beneath a factory building.

Volcanic eruptions

Deccan Traps volcano
Artist's impression of the volcanic eruptions that formed the Deccan Traps in India.

Volcanoes can cause widespread destruction and consequent disaster in several ways. The effects include the volcanic eruption itself that may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or falling rocks. Secondly, lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano, and so as it leaves the volcano the lava destroys many buildings, plants and animals due to its extreme heat. Thirdly, volcanic ash, generally meaning the cooled ash, may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantities, ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will harm humans if inhaled. Since the ash has the consistency of ground glass, it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines. The main killer of humans in the immediate surroundings of a volcanic eruption is the pyroclastic flows, which consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up in the air above the volcano and rushes down the slopes when the eruption no longer supports the lifting of the gases. It is believed that Pompeii was destroyed by a pyroclastic flow. A lahar is a volcanic mudflow or landslide. The 1953 Tangiwai disaster was caused by a lahar, as was the 1985 Armero tragedy in which the town of Armero was buried and an estimated 23,000 people were killed.

Volcanoes rated at 8 (the highest level) on the Volcanic Explosivity Index are known as supervolcanoes. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, 75,000 to 80,000 years ago a supervolcanic eruption at what is now Lake Toba in Sumatra reduced the human population to 10,000 or even 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution,[8] and killed three-quarters of all plant life in the northern hemisphere. However, there is considerable debate regarding the veracity of this theory. The main danger from a supervolcano is the immense cloud of ash, which has a disastrous global effect on climate and temperature for many years.

Hydrological disasters

A violent, sudden and destructive change either in the quality of Earth's water or in the distribution or movement of water on land below the surface or in the atmosphere.

Floods

A flood is an overflow of water that 'submerges' land.[9] The EU Floods Directive defines a flood as a temporary covering the land with water which is usually not covered by water.[10] In the sense of 'flowing water', the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tides. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows, causing some of the water to escape its usual boundaries.[11] While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless the water covers land used by man, like a village, city or other inhabited area, roads, expanses of farmland, etc.

Tsunami

A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: 津波, lit. "harbour wave"; English pronunciation: /tsuːˈnɑːmi/), also known as a seismic sea wave or as a tidal wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Tsunamis can be caused by undersea earthquakes such as the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, or by landslides such as the one in 1958 at Lituya Bay, Alaska, or by volcanic eruptions such as the ancient eruption of Santorini. On March 11, 2011, a tsunami occurred near Fukushima, Japan and spread through the Pacific Ocean.

Limnic eruptions

A limnic eruption occurs when a gas, usually CO2, suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the threat of suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans. Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising gas displaces water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such an eruption. To date, only two limnic eruptions have been observed and recorded. In 1984, in Cameroon, a limnic eruption in Lake Monoun caused the deaths of 37 nearby residents, and at nearby Lake Nyos in 1986 a much larger eruption killed between 1,700 and 1,800 people by asphyxiation.

Meteorological disasters

Young steer after blizzard - NOAA
Young steer after a blizzard, March 1966

Cyclonic storms

Cyclone, tropical cyclone, hurricane, and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon, which is a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. The determining factor on which term is used is based on where they originate. In the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific, the term "hurricane" is used; in the Northwest Pacific it is referred to as a "typhoon" and "cyclones" occur in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.

The deadliest hurricane ever was the 1970 Bhola cyclone; the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was the Great Hurricane of 1780 which devastated Martinique, St. Eustatius and Barbados. Another notable hurricane is Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005.

Blizzards

Blizzards are severe winter storms characterized by heavy snow and strong winds. When high winds stir up snow that has already fallen, it is known as a ground blizzard. Blizzards can impact local economic activities, especially in regions where snowfall is rare. The Great Blizzard of 1888 affected the United States, when many tons of wheat crops were destroyed, and in Asia, 2008 Afghanistan blizzard and the 1972 Iran blizzard were also significant events. The 1993 Superstorm originated in the Gulf of Mexico and traveled north, causing damage in 26 states as well as Canada and leading to more than 300 deaths.[12]

Hailstorms

Hailstorms are precipitation in the form of ice, with the ice not melting before it hits the ground. Hailstones usually measure between 0.2-inch (5 millimetres) and 6 inches (15 centimetres) in diameter. A particularly damaging hailstorm hit Munich, Germany, on July 12, 1984, causing about $2 billion in insurance claims.

Ice storms

An ice storm is a type of winter storm characterized by freezing rain. The U.S. National Weather Service defines an ice storm as a storm which results in the accumulation of at least 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) of ice on exposed surfaces.

Cold waves

A cold wave (known in some regions as a cold snap or cold spell) is a weather phenomenon that is distinguished by a cooling of the air. Specifically, as used by the U.S. National Weather Service, a cold wave is a rapid fall in temperature within a 24-hour period requiring substantially increased protection to agriculture, industry, commerce, and social activities. The precise criterion for a cold wave is determined by the rate at which the temperature falls, and the minimum to which it falls. This minimum temperature is dependent on the geographical region and time of year.

Heat waves

A heat wave is a period of unusually and excessively hot weather. The worst heat wave in recent history was the European Heat Wave of 2003. A summer heat wave in Victoria, Australia, created conditions which fuelled the massive bushfires in 2009. Melbourne experienced three days in a row of temperatures exceeding 40 °C (104 °F) with some regional areas sweltering through much higher temperatures. The bushfires, collectively known as "Black Saturday", were partly the act of arsonists. The 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer resulted in severe heat waves, which killed over 2,000 people. It resulted in hundreds of wildfires which caused widespread air pollution, and burned thousands of square miles of forest.

Cumulonimbus NOAA gov
A classic anvil-shaped, and clearly-developed Cumulonimbus incus

Droughts

Drought is the unusual dryness of soil caused by levels of rainfall significantly below average over a prolonged period. Hot dry winds, shortage of water, high temperatures and consequent evaporation of moisture from the ground can also contribute to conditions of drought. Droughts result in crop failure and shortages of water.

Well-known historical droughts include the 1997–2009 Millennium Drought in Australia led to a water supply crisis across much of the country. As a result, many desalination plants were built for the first time (see list). In 2011, the State of Texas lived under a drought emergency declaration for the entire calendar year and severe economic losses.[13] The drought caused the Bastrop fires.

Thunderstorms

Severe storms, dust clouds, and volcanic eruptions can generate lightning. Apart from the damage typically associated with storms, such as winds, hail, and flooding, the lightning itself can damage buildings, ignite fires and kill by direct contact. Especially deadly lightning incidents include a 2007 strike in Ushari Dara, a remote mountain village in northwestern Pakistan, that killed 30 people,[14] the crash of LANSA Flight 508 which killed 91 people, and a fuel explosion in Dronka, Egypt caused by lightning in 1994 which killed 469.[15] Most lightning deaths occur in the poor countries of America and Asia, where lightning is common and adobe mud brick housing provides little protection.[16]

Granizo
A large hailstone, about 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter

Tornadoes

A tornado is a violent and dangerous rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud, or the base of a cumulus cloud in rare cases. It is also referred to as a twister or a cyclone,[17] although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider sense, to refer to any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the Earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are approximately 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 mph (480 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (perhaps more than 100 km).[18][19][20]

Wildfires

Wildfires are large fires which often start in wildland areas. Common causes include lightning and drought but wildfires may also be started by human negligence or arson. They can spread to populated areas and can thus be a threat to humans and property, as well as wildlife. Notable cases of wildfires were the 1871 Peshtigo Fire in the United States, which killed at least 1700 people, and the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia.

Space disasters

Tunguska event fallen trees
Fallen trees caused by the Tunguska meteoroid of the Tunguska event in June 1908.

Impact events and airburst

Asteroids that impact the Earth have led to several major extinction events, including one which created the Chicxulub crater 64.9 million years ago and which is associated with the demise of the dinosaurs. Scientists estimate that the likelihood of death for a living human from a global impact event is comparable to the probability of death from an airliner crash.

No human death has been definitively attributed to an impact event, but the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event in which over 10,000 people may have died has been linked to a meteor shower. Even asteroids and comets that burn up in the atmosphere can cause significant destruction on the ground due to the air burst explosion: notable air bursts include the Tunguska event in June 1908, which devastated large areas of Siberian countryside, and the Chelyabinsk meteor on 15 February 2013, which caused widespread property damage in the city of Chelyabinsk and injured 1,491.

Solar flare

A solar flare is a phenomenon where the Sun suddenly releases a great amount of solar radiation, much more than normal. Solar flares are unlikely to cause any direct injury, but can destroy electrical equipment. The potential of solar storms to cause disaster was seen during the 1859 Carrington event, which disrupted the telegraph network, and the March 1989 geomagnetic storm which blacked out Quebec. Some major known solar flares include the X20 event on August 16, 1989,[21] and a similar flare on April 2, 2001.[21] The most powerful flare ever recorded occurred on November 4, 2003 (estimated at between X40 and X45).[22]

Protection by international law

International law, for example Geneva Conventions defines International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, requires that "States shall take, in accordance with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, all necessary measures to ensure the protection and safety of persons with disabilities in situations of risk, including the occurrence of natural disaster."[23] And further United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs is formed by General Assembly Resolution 44/182. People displaced due to natural disasters are currently protected under international law (Guiding Principles of International Displacement, Campala Convention of 2009).[24]

Location

According to the UN, Asia-Pacific is the world's most disaster prone region.[25] According to ReliefWeb, a person in Asia-Pacific is five times more likely to be hit by a natural disaster than someone living in other regions.[26]

Disproportionate impact on women

Direct impact

Due to the social, political and cultural context of many places throughout the world, women are often disproportionately affected by disaster.[27] In settings where women and children are likely to remain at home, natural disasters, such as earthquakes, can result in greater morbidity and mortality among women. For example, during the 1993 earthquake in Maharastra, India, more women died than men as they were more likely to be in the home, due to their role as caregivers.[27] In the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, more women died than men, partly due to the fact that fewer women knew how to swim.[27]

Gender-based and sexual violence

During and after a natural disaster, women are at increased risk of being affected by gender based violence and are increasingly vulnerable to sexual violence. Disrupted police enforcement, lax regulations, and displacement all contribute to increased risk of gender based violence and sexual assault.[27] As food, water, and shelter becomes scarce, women may be forced into sexual relations as a bargain for providing essential resources.[27] Furthermore, health care during times of disaster often focuses on life saving & critical care.[27] However, as a result, many health care workers are not adequately trained to respond to sexual violence, screen for appropriate complications and treating non-life/limb threatening emergencies.[27] As a result, women who have been affected by sexual violence are at a significantly increased risk of sexually transmitted infections, unique physical injuries and long term psychological consequences.[27] All of these long-term health outcomes can prevent successful reintegration into society after the disaster recovery period.[27]

Religious scapegoating

In addition to LGBT people and immigrants, women are also disproportionately victimised by religion-based scapegoating for natural disasters: fanatical religious leaders or adherents may claim that a god or gods are angry with women's independent, freethinking behaviour, such as dressing 'immodestly', having sex or abortions if they so choose.[28] For example, Hindutva party Hindu Makkal Katchi and others blamed women's struggle for the right to enter the Sabarimala temple for the August 2018 Kerala floods, purportedly inflicted by the angry god Ayyappan.[29][30] After an earthquake struck on 26 September 2019 near Istanbul, Turkey, Islamists blamed the disaster on women, and harassed random women in the streets; a similar Islamist backlash against women occurred after the 1999 İzmit earthquake.[31] In response to Iranian Islamic cleric Kazem Seddiqi's accusation of women dressing immodestly and spreading promiscuity being the cause of earthquakes, American student Jennifer McCreight organised the Boobquake event on 26 April 2010: she encouraged women around the world to participate in dressing immodestly all at the same time while performing regular seismographic checks to prove that such behaviour in women causes no significant increase in earthquake activity.[32]

Reproductive and sexual health

During and after natural disasters, routine health behaviors become interrupted. Women who were taking contraceptives may forget or may no longer have access to these medications. In addition, health care systems may have broken down as a result of the disaster, further reducing access to contraceptives.[27] Unprotected intercourse during this time can lead to increased rates of childbirth, unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).[27][33] Methods used to prevent STIs (such as condom use) are often forgotten or not accessible during times surrounding a disaster. Lack of health care infrastructure and medical shortages hinder the ability to treat individuals once they acquire an STI. In addition, health efforts to prevent, monitor or treat HIV/AIDS are often disrupted, leading to increased rates of HIV complications and increased transmission of the virus through the population.[27]

Maternal health

Pregnant women are one of the groups disproportionately affected by natural disasters. Inadequate nutrition, little access to clean water, lack of health-care services and psychological stress in the aftermath of the disaster can lead to a significant increase in maternal morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, shortage of healthcare resources during this time can convert even routine obstetric complications into emergencies.

During and after a disaster, women's prenatal, peri-natal and postpartum care can become disrupted.[33] After disasters, there is often a significant increase in the number of women who receive late or no prenatal care.[34] Among women affected by natural disaster, there are significantly higher rates of low birth weight infants, preterm infants and infants with low head circumference.[27][34] Separation of mothers and babies as a result of poor infrastructure and displacement practices can interfere with breastfeeding and cause significant emotional stress for mom and baby.[34] It can also lead to negative long-term health outcome mother and especially babies. In addition, it can be particularly difficult to find clean water for sterilizing bottles for breast milk or pre-made formula.[27] These factors can further hinder breastfeeding practices and adequate infant nutrition, resulting in long term health consequences for the baby.

Political consequences

Everyone is desperate for food and water. There's no food, water, or gasoline. The government is missing. — Lian Gogali Aid worker following 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami.[35]

Natural disasters can also affect political relations with countries and vice versa. Violent conflicts within states can exacerbate the impact of natural disasters by weakening the ability of states, communities and individuals to provide disaster relief. Natural disasters can also worsen ongoing conflicts within states by weakening the capacity of states to fight rebels.[36][37] In developed countries like the US, studies find that incumbents lose votes when the electorate perceives them as responsible for a poor disaster response.[38] In Chinese and Japanese history, it has been routine for era names or capital cities and palaces of emperors to be changed after a major natural disaster, chiefly for political reasons such as association with hardships by the populace and fear of upheaveal.[39] (i.e. in East Asian government chronicles, such fears were recorded in a low profile way as an unlucky name or place requiring change.) Disasters and responses can dictate political careers; the once popular President Benigno Aquino III of Philippines, following a weak and confused response[40] to Typhoon Yolanda which killed over 6,000 people and survivors were largely left to fend for themselves, this widely accepted sentiment carried over and the President never recovered his popularity, his hand picked successor Mar Roxas lost the subsequent election to a rival party in a landslide vote. Post-disaster mishandling can spread despair as bad news travels fast and far, and contribute to the appeal of electing a strongman out of sheer desperation.

Recent history

Between 1995 and 2015, according to the UN's disaster-monitoring system, the greatest number of natural disasters occurred in America, China and India.[41]

In 2012, there were 905 natural disasters worldwide, 93% of which were weather-related disasters. Overall costs were US$170 billion and insured losses $70 billion. 2012 was a moderate year. 45% were meteorological (storms), 36% were hydrological (floods), 12% were climatological (heat waves, cold waves, droughts, wildfires) and 7% were geophysical events (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions). Between 1980 and 2011 geophysical events accounted for 14% of all natural catastrophes.[42]

Studies on natural events require complete historical records and strategies related to obtaining and storing reliable records, allowing for both critical interpretation and validation of the sources. Under this point of view the irreplaceable role of traditional repositories (archives) can be supplemented by the use of such web sources as eBay.[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters
  2. ^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN 1-85383-964-7.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBN 1-903544-10-6.
  4. ^ B. Wisner; P. Blaikie; T. Cannon & I. Davis (2004). At Risk – Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25216-4.
  5. ^ Highland, Lynn. "Landslide Hazard Information". Geology.com. Geology.com. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  6. ^ Lee Davis (2008). "Natural Disasters". Infobase Publishing. p.7. ISBN 0-8160-7000-8
  7. ^ "Avalanche!". WorldWar1.com. Retrieved 2015-01-12.
  8. ^ Gibbons, Ann (19 January 2010). "Human Ancestors Were an Endangered Species". ScienceNow.
  9. ^ MSN Encarta Dictionary. Flood. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. Archived 2009-10-31.
  10. ^ Directive 2007/60/EC Chapter 1 Article2
  11. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). Flood. Archived 2007-08-24 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2009-01-09.
  12. ^ "Natural Hazards – Snow & Hail Storms". www.n-d-a.org. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
  13. ^ Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters: Table of Events
  14. ^ "Lightning kills 30 people in Pakistan's north". Reuters. 2007-07-20. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  15. ^ Evans, D. "An appraisal of underground gas storage technologies and incidents, for the development of risk assessment methodology" (PDF). British Geological Survey. Health and Safety Executive: 121. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
  16. ^ Nina Lakhani (31 July 2015). "Deadly lightning strike in Mexico reveals plight of poorest citizens". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-03-18.
  17. ^ merriam-webster.com
  18. ^ Wurman, Joshua (2008-08-29). "Doppler on Wheels". Center for Severe Weather Research. Archived from the original on 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  19. ^ "Hallam Nebraska Tornado". National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2005-10-02. Retrieved 2009-11-15.
  20. ^ Roger Edwards (2006-04-04). "The Online Tornado FAQ". National Weather Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2006-09-08.
  21. ^ a b "Sun Unleashes Record Superflare, Earth Dodges Solar Bullet". ScienceDaily. April 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-27.
  22. ^ "Biggest Solar Flare ever recorded". National Association for Scientific and Cultural Appreciation. 2004. Archived from the original on August 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-27.
  23. ^ Article 11 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  24. ^ Terminski, Bogumil, Towards Recognition and Protection of Forced Environmental Migrants in the Public International Law: Refugee or IDPs Umbrella (December 1, 2011). Policy Studies Organization (PSO) Summit, December 2011.
  25. ^ Asia-Pacific World’s Most Disaster-Prone Region
  26. ^ https://reliefweb.int/report/world/factbox-asia-pacific-worlds-most-disaster-prone-region
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nour, Nawal N. (2011). "Maternal health considerations during disaster relief". Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 4 (1): 22–27. PMC 3100103. PMID 21629495.
  28. ^ Leighann Lord (1 October 2019). "The easiest way to respond to a natural disaster? Blame God or global warming". The Guardiuan. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  29. ^ "Kerala flood blamed on women's entry into Sabarimala by Hindu Makkal Katchi". The New Indian Express. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  30. ^ Asmita Nandy (20 August 2018). "Hate Mongers on Twitter Blamed Women, Beef, Muslims, Christians and Communism for Causing the Kerala Floods". The Quint. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  31. ^ "Istanbul hit by earthquake, Islamists blame women". Ahval. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  32. ^ Pat Pilcher (26 April 2010). "Islamic cleric causes Boobquake". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  33. ^ a b Harville, E; Xiong, X; Buekens, P (2010). "Disasters and perinatal health: a systematic review". Obstet Gynecol Surv. 65 (11): 713–28. doi:10.1097/OGX.0b013e31820eddbe. PMC 3472448. PMID 21375788.
  34. ^ a b c Preparing for disasters: perspectives on women. Committee Opinion No. 457. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115:1339–42.
  35. ^ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/10/indonesia-earthquake-tsunami-latest-updates-181003060041729.html
  36. ^ Philip Nel and Marjolein Righarts, 2008, "National Disasters and the Risk of Violent Civil Conflict", International Studies Quarterly, 52 (1): 159–185
  37. ^ Dawn Brancati, 2007. "Political Aftershocks: The Impact of Earthquakes on Intrastate Conflict", Journal of Conflict Resolution 51 (5): 715–743.
  38. ^ JT Gasper, A Reeves, 2011, "Make It Rain? Retrospection and the Attentive Electorate in the Context of Natural Disasters", American Journal of Political Science 55 (2), 340–355
  39. ^ https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/09/03/national/name-japans-next-era-avoid-initial-letters-used-refer-past-four-eras/
  40. ^ https://www.dw.com/en/typhoon-puts-aquinos-popularity-to-the-test/a-17237230
  41. ^ "Weather-related disasters are increasing". The Economist. 29 Aug 2017.
  42. ^ Natural Catastrophes in 2012 Dominated by U.S. Weather Extremes Worldwatch Institute May 29, 2013
  43. ^ Gizzi F.T. (2009).The electronic trading site eBay as a useful tool for obtaining historical data on natural events. Computers & Geosciences, 35(9), 1950–1957, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.12.016

External links

A Natural Disaster

A Natural Disaster is the seventh album by the British rock band Anathema. It was released on 3 November 2003 in the United Kingdom and on 24 February 2004 in the United States through Music for Nations.

Alexander Burgener

Alexander Burgener (1845, Saas Fee – 8 July 1910, near the Berglihütte) was a Swiss mountain guide and the first ascentionist of many mountains and new routes in the western Alps during the silver age of alpinism.

Together with Albert Mummery, he made the first ascent of the Zmuttgrat on the Matterhorn on 3 September 1879, and of the Grands Charmoz (1880) and the Aiguille du Grépon in the Mont Blanc Massif (5 August 1881). With another British alpinist, Clinton Thomas Dent, he made the first ascent of the Lenzspitze (August 1870) and the Grand Dru (12 September 1878),

He was killed by an avalanche on 8 July 1910 near the Berglihütte in the Bernese Alps. Six other climbers died in the avalanche, including Burgener's son Adolf. Another son, Alexander, lost an eye in the incident.

Anathema (band)

Anathema are a British rock band from Liverpool. The line-up consists of singers and guitarists Vincent and Daniel Cavanagh, their brother Jamie Cavanagh on bass, drummer John Douglas, singer Lee Douglas, and keyboardist/drummer Daniel Cardoso since November 2012.

The band was founded as Pagan Angel in 1990 by the three Cavanagh brothers, drummer John Douglas, and singer Darren White, as a death/doom band. At the time White was the only singer of the band. The following year, Jamie left and was replaced by Duncan Patterson. Under this line-up, Anathema released their first EP, The Crestfallen (1992), and their first album, Serenades (1993). However, White left in 1995; Vincent decided to act as Anathema's vocalist in addition to his guitarist function in the albums The Silent Enigma (1995) and Eternity (1996), which were going into a more gothic metal direction.

In 1997, John left the band, and was replaced by Shaun Steels for the album Alternative 4 (1998). Both Patterson and Steels left the same year, replaced by Dave Pybus and a returning John Douglas, while former My Dying Bride keyboardist and violinist Martin Powell also joined the band (Daniel Cavanagh was also acting as the band's only keyboardist, and shared this position since). The only album released with this line-up was Judgement (1999): the same year Powell switched positions with Cradle of Filth's keyboardist Les Smith who joined Anathema, and Lee Douglas, John's sister, was added to the line-up as a backing and occasional lead vocalist.

The band released their sixth album A Fine Day to Exit in 2001, turning to an alternative sound. Shortly after the release, Pybus announced his departure and was replaced by the band's original bassist, Jamie Cavanagh, reuniting the three brothers in the band for the first time since 1991. There were no new members for the next ten years, with the albums A Natural Disaster (2003) and We're Here Because We're Here (2010) all being recorded and released by the same line-up, with the sound turning even more towards progressive rock; however, Daniel Cavanagh left Anathema in 2002 to join Antimatter, returning in 2003. Smith left Anathema in 2011, and Vincent and Daniel both assumed the function of keyboardist for the band's ninth album, Weather Systems, in 2012. The same year, Cardoso, the band's live keyboardist since 2011, joined as a full-time member.

The band's tenth studio album, Distant Satellites, was released on 9 June 2014 via Kscope. Their eleventh album, The Optimist, won "Album of the Year" at the 2017 Progressive Music Awards.

Casualty estimation

Casualty estimation is the process of estimating the number of injuries or deaths in a battle or natural disaster that has already occurred. On the other, casualty prediction is the process of estimating the number of injuries or deaths that might occur in a planned or potential battle or natural disaster.

Measures used to imply casualties include:

Reported number of kills

Number of enemy individual weapons captured after engagement

Number of tanks and aircraft lost

Remote sensing of mass graves

Climate change in South Korea

In recent decades a lot countries have been experiencing huge industrial progress. Urban and industrial areas in South Korea and north korea also had fast development from 1960s to 1980s. Industrialization and the increase in population have produced various pollutants and greenhouse gases, which are anthropogenic factors for climate change. South Korea is experiencing changes in climate parameters, including annual temperature, rainfall amounts, and precipitation. The most distinct climate change predicted for South Korea is an increase in the range of temperature fluctuation throughout the four seasons. The number of record minimum temperature days has decreased rapidly, and maximum precipitation during the summer has increased. Ongoing global climate change has produced local climate changes and extreme weather that affects: social, economy, industry, culture, and many other sectors. The increased possibility for new types of strong weather damage evokes the seriousness and the urgency of climate change. To quickly adapt to climate change, the South Korean government began an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and is one step closer to having a low-carbon based socio-economic nation.

Exclusion zone

An exclusion zone is a territorial division established for various, case-specific purposes.

Per the United States Department of Defense, an exclusion zone is a territory where sanctioning body prohibits specific activities in a specific geographic area (see Military exclusion zone). These zones are created for control of populations for safety, crowd control, or military purposes, or as a border zone, and they may be temporary or permanent.

First responder

A first responder is a person with specialized training who is among the first to arrive and provide assistance at the scene of an emergency, such as an accident, natural disaster, or terrorist attack. First responders typically include paramedics, emergency medical technicians, police officers, firefighters, rescuers, and other trained members of organisations connected with this type of work.

A certified first responder is one who has received certification to provide pre-hospital care in a certain jurisdiction, for example, the Certified First Responder in France. A community first responder is a person dispatched to attend medical emergencies until an ambulance arrives. A wilderness first responder is trained to provide pre-hospital care in remote settings and will therefore have skills in ad hoc patient packaging and transport by non-motorized means.

Great Chinese Famine

The Great Chinese Famine (Chinese: 三年大饑荒, "three years of famine") was a period in the People's Republic of China between the years 1959 and 1961 characterized by widespread famine. The policies of ruler Mao Zedong contributed to the famine. Estimates of deaths due to starvation range in the tens of millions.

Indigo (Chris Brown album)

Indigo is the ninth studio album by American singer Chris Brown, released on June 28, 2019, by RCA Records. The album marks as his second double album and follows up to his eighth album Heartbreak on a Full Moon (2017).

Six official singles have been released from Indigo thus far: "Undecided", "Back to Love", "Wobble Up", featuring Nicki Minaj and G-Eazy, "No Guidance", featuring Drake, "Heat", featuring Gunna and "Don't Check on Me", featuring Justin Bieber and Ink. The album became Brown's third US number-one album and first in seven years, since Fortune (2012).

List of countries by natural disaster risk

This is a list of countries by natural disaster risk, as measured in the World Risk Index, calculated by the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) and featured in the 2016 World Risk Report (WRR 2016) published by the Alliance Development Works/Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft (BEH).

The report systematically considers a country's vulnerability and its exposure to natural hazards to determine a ranking of countries around the world based on their natural disaster risk. The WRI developed by UNU-EHS and BEH the main feature of the WRR, determines the risk of becoming a victim of a disaster as a result of vulnerability and natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms, floods, droughts and sea level rise for 173 countries worldwide. The WRI is based on 28 indicators and research data which are globally freely available and results in a global risk ranking and maps which allow for comparison between countries. Risk is at its highest where a high level of exposure to natural hazards coincides with very vulnerable societies.

List of natural disasters by death toll

A natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, major collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, hurricanes etc. To be classified as a disaster, it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.

Looting

Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.The proceeds of all these activities can be described as booty, loot, plunder, spoils, or pillage.

In armed conflict, pillage is prohibited by international law, and constitutes a war crime.

Mass grave

A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial. The United Nations has defined a criminal mass grave as a burial site containing three or more victims of execution. Mass graves are usually created after many people die or are killed, and there is a desire to bury the corpses quickly for sanitation concerns. Although mass graves can be used during major conflicts such as war and crime, in modern times they may be used after a famine, epidemic, or natural disaster. In disasters, mass graves are used for infection and disease control. In such cases, there is often a breakdown of the social infrastructure that would enable proper identification and disposal of individual bodies.

Natural Disaster (Example song)

"Natural Disaster" is a song by Dutch DJ Laidback Luke and British singer and rapper Example. It was released on 4 October 2011 in the USA and on 16 October 2011 in the UK as the third single of Example's third studio album, Playing in the Shadows, with an entire remix EP on iTunes. A 5-minute extended explicit album version of the song was included on the album Playing in the Shadows. The song was written by Example, Laidback Luke, and Dipesh Parmar, and was produced by Laidback Luke.

Richard Kidder

Richard Kidder (1633–1703) was an English Anglican churchman, Bishop of Bath and Wells, from 1691 to his death. He was a noted theologian.

Urban reforestation

Urban reforestation is the practice of planting trees, typically on a large scale, in urban environments. It sometimes includes also urban horticulture and urban farming. Reasons for practicing urban reforestation include urban beautification, increasing shade, modifying the urban climate, improving air quality, and restoration of urban forests after a natural disaster.

Vargas tragedy

The Vargas tragedy was a natural disaster that occurred in Vargas State, Venezuela on 14–16 December 1999, when torrential rains caused flash floods and debris flows that killed tens of thousands of people, destroyed thousands of homes, and led to the complete collapse of the state's infrastructure. According to relief workers, the neighborhood of Los Corales was buried under 3 metres (9.8 ft) of mud and a high percentage of homes were simply swept into the ocean. Entire towns including Cerro Grande and Carmen de Uria completely disappeared. As much as 10% of the population of Vargas died during the event.

War Emergency Radio Service

The War Emergency Radio Service (WERS) was a precursor to the civil defense and Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service systems in the United States.

At the start of the Second World War the United States Congress had suspended all amateur radio activity throughout the country. WERS was established by the Federal Communications Commission in June 1942 at the insistence of the American Radio Relay League. WERS would remain in operation in through the end of the Second World War in 1945. At the end of 1944, five thousand radio transmitters operated under 250 licenses. WERS was to provide communications in connection with air raid protection, and communications during times of natural disaster. WERS licenses were given to communities and not individuals. One of the requirements for individuals to participate in the WERS was to hold an Amateur radio license.

Wellington, Washington

Wellington (later known as Tye) was a small unincorporated community and railroad community in the northwest United States, on the Great Northern Railway in northeastern King County, Washington.Founded in 1893, it was located in the Cascade Range at the west portal of the original Cascade Tunnel under Stevens Pass. It was the site of the 1910 Wellington avalanche, the worst in U.S. history, in which 96 people died.

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