Natural England

Natural England is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. It is responsible for ensuring that England's natural environment, including its land, flora and fauna, freshwater and marine environments, geology and soils, are protected and improved. It also has a responsibility to help people enjoy, understand and access the natural environment.

Natural England focuses its activities and resources on four strategic outcomes:

  • a healthy natural environment
  • enjoyment of the natural environment
  • sustainable use of the natural environment
  • a secure environmental future
Natural England
Naturalenglandlogo
Agency overview
Formed1 October 2006
JurisdictionEngland
HeadquartersYork, England
Employees2,241 (2015)[1]
Annual budget£194 million (2015)[1]
Agency executives
  • Andrew Sells, Chairman[1]
  • James Cross, Chief Executive[1]
Parent agencyDepartment for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Websitewww.gov.uk/natural-england

Roles and responsibilities

As a non-departmental public body (NDPB), Natural England is independent of government. However, the Secretary of State for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs has the legal power to issue guidance to Natural England on various matters,[2] a constraint that was not placed on its predecessor NDPBs.

Its powers include defining ancient woodlands, awarding grants, designating Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and Sites of Special Scientific Interest, managing certain national nature reserves, overseeing access to open country and other recreation rights, and enforcing the associated regulations. It is also responsible for the administration of numerous grant schemes and frameworks that finance the development and conservation of the natural environment, for example environmental stewardship, the Countryside Stewardship Scheme, environmentally sensitive areas, and the Access to Nature Scheme. It has been severely criticised recently by badger protection lobbyists for allegedly ignoring scientific data and granting extended badger cull licences to DEFRA.

Natural England's latest corporate plan sets out its goals and detailed objectives.[3] It is responsible for the delivery of some of Defra's public service agreements (e.g. reversing the long-term decline in the number of farmland birds by 2020 and improving public access to the countryside).

Natural England takes its finance, human resources and estates services from the Defra Shared Services organisation.[4] Information technology services are outsourced to IBM.[5]

History

Natural England was established on 1 October 2006 by the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006,[2] which implemented the recommendations of a rural review by The Baron Haskins of Skidby. It was formed by the amalgamation of three founder bodies:

It received the powers of the founder bodies.

Natural England joined the 10:10 project in 2009 in a bid to reduce its own carbon footprint. One year later they announced that they had reduced their carbon emissions (according to 10:10's criteria) by 13%.

In 2008, Sir Martin Doughty, the Chairman of Natural England, warned the Prime Minister of the potential danger of genetically modified crops.[6] However, in 2012, Poul Christensen, CBE, the next Chairman of Natural England, said that middle England should embrace new technologies like GM crops as long as there were adequate testing and safeguards.[7]

Activities

State of the Natural Environment

In May 2008, Natural England published a report, State of the Natural Environment, which brought together statistics and facts about England's environment. The report was intended to be used by environmental organisations as a benchmark and source for policy development. It complements reports on different topics produced by other organisations:

Green exercise

Natural England funded eight pilot green exercise projects through local regional partnerships. These projects increased levels of physical activity and people's connections to their local green spaces. However, it was not clear whether these projects really changed people's long-term attitudes.[8]

Green infrastructure

Natural England is promoting the concept of green infrastructure as a way to deliver a wide range of benefits for people and the natural environment together. It believes that green infrastructure should be delivered via the spatial planning system, as an integral part of new development everywhere, and also form a key part of proposals to regenerate existing urban areas.[9]

Natural England is working with partners in the growth areas, growth points and proposed eco-towns to prepare and implement green infrastructure strategies and demonstrate good practice on the ground.

Natural England is one of the steering group partners of Neighbourhoods Green, a green Infrastructure partnership initiative which works with social landlords and housing associations to highlight the importance of, and raise the overall quality of, design and management for open and green space in social housing.

Legal challenge

Natural England was challenged in High Court in 2006 by Peter Boggis, a pensioner who protected his house from erosion. Natural England claimed that as the site of Boggis's house, at Easton Bavents north of Southwold on the Suffolk coast was a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), the protection went against the scientific community's interests. Natural England lost the case in 2009, when Mr. Justice Blair, the brother of the former Prime Minister, ruled that Mr. Boggis' "human predicament" was more important than the site's SSSI status. Natural England won the subsequent appeal in October 2009.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Annual Report and Accounts 1 April 2014 to 31 March 2015". Natural England. ISBN 9781474117852. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  3. ^ "Corporate plans". Natural England. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Public Update on implementation of Lord Haskins' Rural Delivery Review - Recommendations 1-9". DEFRA. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  5. ^ "Natural England Chooses IBM as Its Transformation Partner". IBM News room. 13 Dec 2006. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  6. ^ Mccarthay, Michael (23 June 2008). "Natural England warns Brown of dangers in promoting GM crops". The Independent. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  7. ^ Gray, Louise (31 May 2012). "Hay Festival 2012: Poul Christensen: "people should not be afraid of GM"". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  8. ^ "Green Exercise Programme Evaluation". Natural England. 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  9. ^ "Green Infrastructure". Natural England. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  10. ^ "High Court judgment confirms conservation status of Easton Bavents cliffs". Natural England. 20 October 2009. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2015.

External links

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Bedfordshire

Bedfordshire is a county in the East of England. It is bounded by Hertfordshire to the south-east, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Northamptonshire to the north, and Buckinghamshire to the west. It has an area of 1,235 square kilometres (477 sq mi), and population estimated in 2015 at 630,000, with an increase of 10% over the previous ten years. The county town is Bedford, and the name is first recorded in the treaty in about 879 between King Alfred the Great and Guthrum, which divided English and Danish territory by a line which went through Bedford.Southern Bedfordshire is part of the Chilterns Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. North and mid Bedfordshire are undulating claylands with broad river valleys of the River Great Ouse and its tributaries, and the Bedfordshire Greensand Ridge. Jurassic and Cretaceous clays are overlaid by Quaternary glacial deposits of chalky boulder clay.There are forty Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Bedfordshire, designated by Natural England. Thirty-five are listed for their biological interest, and five for their geological interest. Three of the sites are also National nature reserves, twelve are in the Chilterns Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and eleven are managed wholly or partly by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire. In 2009 Bedfordshire was divided into three unitary local authorities: thirty-two sites are in Central Bedfordshire, eight in Bedford and none in Luton.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Buckinghamshire

Buckinghamshire is a county in south-east England. Its county town is Aylesbury, and it is surrounded by Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Greater London to the east, Surrey and Berkshire to the south, and Oxfordshire to the west. Under Buckinghamshire County Council there are four districts, Aylesbury Vale, Chiltern, South Bucks and Wycombe, while Milton Keynes has a separate unitary borough council. Buckinghamshire has an area of 1874 km², and a population of 739,600.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of April 2016, there are 65 SSSIs in this Area of Search, 55 of which have been designated for biological interest and 10 for geological interest. Thirty are in the Chilterns Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, three are in National Nature Reserves, four are in Special Areas of Conservation, and seventeen are managed by the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Wildlife Trust.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Cambridgeshire

Cambridgeshire is a county in eastern England, with an area of 339,746 hectares (1,312 sq mi) and a population as of mid-2015 of 841,218. It is crossed by the Nene and the Great Ouse rivers. The University of Cambridge, which was founded in the thirteenth century, made the county one of the country's most important intellectual centres. A large part of the county is in The Fens, and drainage of this habitat, which probably commenced in the Roman period and was largely completed by the seventeenth century, considerably increased the area available for agriculture.The administrative county was formed in 1974, incorporating most of the historic county of Huntingdonshire. Local government is divided between Cambridgeshire County Council and Peterborough City Council, which is a separate unitary authority. Under the county council, there are five district councils, Cambridge City Council, South Cambridgeshire District Council, East Cambridgeshire District Council, Huntingdonshire District Council and Fenland District Council.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of March 2017, there are 99 sites designated in the county. There are eighty-eight sites listed for their biological interest, ten for their geological interest, and one for both interests.

The largest site is Ouse Washes at 2,513.6 hectares (6,211 acres), which is partly in Norfolk. It is internationally important for its wintering and breeding waterfowl and waders, such as teal, pintail and wigeon. The smallest is Delph Bridge Drain at 0.1 hectares (0.25 acres), a short stretch of ditch which was designated because it was found to have a population of fen ragwort, which was believed to have been extinct in Britain since 1857. The only site designated for both biological and geological interests is Ely Pits and Meadows, which has nationally important numbers of bitterns, and has yielded sauropod dinosaurs and pliosaur marine reptiles dating to the Jurassic period.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Cheshire

There are 63 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Cheshire, England, covering a total area of 19,844 hectares (49,035 acres). Of these, 51 have been designated for their biological interest, 7 for their geological or geomorphological features, and 5 for both.SSSIs are governed by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, which mandates that sites be selected for their "flora, fauna, or geological or physiographical features". The body responsible for designating biological SSSIs in England is Natural England, which took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature on its creation in 2006. Earth sciences SSSIs are notified separately by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee across the entire UK via Geological Conservation Review. Natural England, like its predecessor bodies, uses a system of areas termed "Areas of Search", which broadly correspond with the 1974–1996 counties, and for consistency the same approach is followed here. In the case of Cheshire, the Area of Search differs from the modern ceremonial county boundary. Since the 1990s, nature conservation in England has also focused on 120 natural areas: regions defined by natural features rather than by administrative boundaries. The Cheshire Area of Search encompasses four natural areas.

The majority of the SSSIs fall within the Meres and Mosses natural area, which covers the bulk of the county, extending into Shropshire and Staffordshire to the south. This region is dominated by the Cheshire Plain, a wide expanse of flat or gently undulating farmland which rarely rises above 100 metres in elevation. Despite intensive agricultural use, diverse wetland habitats survive including mosses (bogs), swamps, fens, meres and thousands of ponds. Flashes, originating in subsidence after salt extraction, contain examples of inland salt marsh, an extremely rare habitat internationally. Ancient woodland is sparse throughout this area, but is found on the slopes of the Mid Cheshire Ridge and in river valleys towards the north of the county. The lowland heath habitat is very rare, occurring only at a handful of sites. The Mid Cheshire Ridge rises abruptly in the middle of the plain, with a high point of 227 metres; its Triassic sandstones are exposed at the Raw Head geological site.

Two extensive sites, Goyt Valley and Leek Moors, lie at the eastern edge of the county and the south-western end of the Pennines, within the South West Peak natural area of the Peak District. At a significantly higher elevation than the other Cheshire SSSIs and underlain by millstone grit and shale, they contain a variety of upland habitats, predominantly heather moorland, grassland and blanket mire.Ten SSSIs are located in Warrington and the former boroughs of Halton and Ellesmere Port & Neston, in the north-west of the county. These fall within the Urban Mersey Basin natural area, which also covers Greater Manchester and Merseyside. Although the area as a whole is one of the most densely populated regions in Europe, much of the area within Cheshire is farmland. Semi-natural habitats here include ancient woodland, raised bog and freshwater wetland. The Rixton Clay Pits site represents former industrial land, and railway cuttings expose geological features. Finally, the Liverpool Bay coastal region contains two estuaries, the Mersey and Dee, which are Cheshire's largest SSSIs.For other counties see List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest by Area of Search.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Cleveland

This is a list of the Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Cleveland, England, United Kingdom. In England the body responsible for designating SSSIs is Natural England, which chooses a site because of its fauna, flora, geological or physiographical features. As of 2006, there are 18 sites designated within this Area of Search, of which 12 have been designated due to their biological interest, 4 due to their geological interest, and 2 (Durham Coast and Redcar Rocks) for both.Natural England took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature in October 2006 when it was formed from the amalgamation of English Nature, parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service. Natural England, like its predecessor, uses the 1974–1996 county system and as such the same approach is followed here, rather than splitting these sites between the County Durham and North Yorkshire lists. The data in the table is taken from Natural England's website in the form of citation sheets for each SSSI.For other counties, see List of SSSIs by Area of Search.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in East Sussex

This is a list of the Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in East Sussex, a county in South East England. East Sussex is bordered by Kent to the north-east, West Sussex to the west, Surrey to the north and the English Channel to the south. It has an estimated population of 757,600 within an area of 1,795 km2 (443,554.2 acres), therefore making it the 28th largest ceremonial county in the United Kingdom.As of December 2018, there are 65 sites designated within this Area of Search, 45 of which have been designated for their biological interest, 15 for their geological interest, and 5 for both biological and geological interest.In England, the body responsible for designating SSSIs is Natural England, which selects sites because of their flora, fauna, geological or physiographical features. Natural England took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature in October 2006 when it was formed from the amalgamation of English Nature, parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service.

East Sussex is, from a geological viewpoint, the southern anticline of the Weald. The South Downs contain numerous chalk hills, which continue along much of the southern area of the county. East Sussex is home to much marshland area, with large amounts to the east of Beachy Head.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Essex

Essex is a county in the east of England. In the early Anglo-Saxon period it was the Kingdom of the East Saxons, but it gradually came under the control of more powerful kingdoms, and in the ninth century it became part of Wessex. The modern county is bounded by Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Greater London to the south-west, Kent across the River Thames to the south, and the North Sea to the east. It has an area of 1,420 square miles (3,700 km2), with a coastline of 400 miles (640 km), and a population according to the 2011 census of 1,393,600. At the top level of local government are Essex County Council and two unitary authorities, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock. Under the county council, there are twelve district and borough councils.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of August 2016, there are 86 sites designated in Essex. There are 19 sites with a purely geological interest, and 64 listed for biological interest. A further three sites are designated for both reasons.

The largest is Foulness, which is internationally important for wildfowl and waders, and has 71 nationally rare invertebrate species. The smallest is Holland-on-Sea Cliff, a geological site which throws light on the course of the River Thames before it was diverted south by the Anglian glaciation around 450,000 years ago. Hangman's Wood and Deneholes has deneholes, shafts created by medieval chalk mining which are now used by hibernating bats. Lion Pit is the site of flint-knapping by Neanderthals around 200,000 years ago, and it has been possible to fit back together some of the flint flakes.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Gloucestershire

This is a list of the Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Gloucestershire. Natural England, the designating body for SSSIs in England, uses the 1974-1996 county system, and this list follows the same approach. Some sites you may expect to find here could therefore be in the Avon list. It may also be that a site may on the borders of more than one county. It may also be on the country borders.Natural England chooses a site because of its fauna, flora, geological or physiographical features. As of 2012, there are 121 sites designated in this Area of Search, of which 69 have been designated due to their biological interest, 32 due to their geological interest, and 20 for both.Gloucestershire has 3 Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty being the Cotswolds, Malvern Hills, and the Wye Valley (the latter is also partly in Wales). These areas may include several SSSIs, or be named an SSSI as is the case for the Malvern Hills.Gloucestershire has 2 designated Ramsar sites being the Severn Estuary and Walmore Common both SSSIs. These two sites are also designated as Special Protection Areas (SPA) under the EC Directive on the conservation of Wild Birds.Gloucestershire has 7 recognised Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), several of which bring together more than one SSSI. These are: Cotswold Beechwoods; Dixton Wood; River Wye/ Afon Gwy; Rodborough Common; Severn Estuary; Wye Valley and Forest of Dean Bat Sites/ Safleoedd Ystlumod Dyffryn Gwy a Fforest y Ddena; Wye Valley Woodlands/ Coetiroedd Dyffryn Gwy.Highbury Wood SSSI and the Cotswold Commons and Beechwoods SSSI are national nature reserves (NNR). Lady Park Wood (part of the wood is in Gloucestershire and part in Monmouthshire) is a national nature reserve.A significant number of the SSSIs are recognised by the relevant local authorities as Key Wildlife Sites and Regionally Important Geological/Geomorphological Sites. There are c. 800 recognised Key Wildlife Sites in Gloucestershire.For other counties, see List of SSSIs by Area of Search.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London

Greater London is split by the River Thames. The London region has a population of 7,512,400 within an area of 1,579 km2, making it the second-largest populated region in the United Kingdom. However, even though it is one of the largest urban conglomerations in Europe, almost two-thirds of London is made up of greenspace and wetlands, consisting primarily of extensive areas of green belt, large parks and the Thames basin. As of January 2016, there are 37 sites designated within this Area of Search, 30 of which have been designated for their biological interest and 7 for their geological interest.In England, the body responsible for designating Sites of Special Scientific Interests is Natural England, which chooses sites because of their fauna, flora, geological or physiographical features. Natural England took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature in October 2006 when it was formed from the amalgamation of English Nature, parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service. The data in the table is taken from Natural England's website in the form of citation sheets for each SSSI.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater Manchester

This is a list of the Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Greater Manchester, a metropolitan county in North West England. In England the body responsible for designating SSSIs is Natural England, which chooses a site because of its fauna, flora, geological or physiographical features. As of 2006, there are 21 sites designated within this Area of Search, of which 14 have been designated due to their biological interest, 5 due to their geological interest, and 2 for both biological and geological interest.Natural England took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature in October 2006 when it was formed from the amalgamation of English Nature, parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service. Natural England, like its predecessor, uses the 1974-1996 county system and as such the same approach is followed here, rather than splitting these sites between the Lancashire and Cheshire lists. The data in the table is taken from English Nature's website in the form of citation sheets for each SSSI.For other counties, see List of SSSIs by Area of Search.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Hertfordshire

Hertfordshire is a county in eastern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south. The county town is Hertford. As of June 2014, the county has a population of 1,154,800 in an area of 634 square miles (1,640 km2).As of January 2016, there are 43 sites designated within this Area of Search, 36 of which have been designated for their biological interest and 7 for their geological interest. In England the body responsible for designating SSSIs is Natural England, which chooses a site "because of its flora, fauna, or geological or physiographical features".

The data in the table is taken from Natural England's website in the form of citation sheets for each SSSI.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Humberside

This is a list of the Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Humberside (sic), England. In England the body responsible for designating SSSIs is Natural England, which chooses a site because of its fauna, flora, geological or physiographical features. Although the county of Humberside no longer exists, Natural England curiously uses its former borders to mark an Area of Search. As of 2012, there are 72 sites designated in this Area of Search, of which 51 have been designated due to their biological interest, 17 due to their geological interest, and 4 for both.Natural England took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature in October 2006 when it was formed from the amalgamation of English Nature, parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service. Natural England, like its predecessor, uses the 1974–1996 county system and as such the same approach is followed here. There are four unitary authorities in the Area of Search: Kingston upon Hull and East Riding of Yorkshire cover East Yorkshire, and North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire cover south of the Humber. The SSSI list for Lincolnshire does not include the sites on this list.

The data in the table is taken from Natural England in the form of citation sheets for each SSSI, and the County Background Datasheet for Humberside.For other counties, see List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest by Area of Search.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Kent

Kent is a county in the south-eastern corner of England. It is bounded to the north by Greater London and the Thames Estuary, to the west by Sussex and Surrey, and to the south and east by the English channel and the North Sea. The county town is Maidstone. It is governed by Kent County Council, with twelve district councils, Ashford, Canterbury, Dartford, Dover, Folkestone and Hythe, Gravesham, Maidstone, Thanet, Tonbridge and Malling and Tunbridge Wells. Medway is a separate unitary authority. The chalk hills of the North Downs run from east to west through the county, with the wooded Weald to the south. The coastline is alternately flat and cliff-lined.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of May 2018, there are 98 sites designated in Kent. There are 21 sites which have been designated for their geological interest, 67 for their biological interest, and 10 for both reasons.

Sixteen sites are Special Areas of Conservation, eight are Special Protection Areas, twenty-three are Nature Conservation Review sites, thirty-three are Geological Conservation Review sites, eleven are National Nature Reserves, nine are Ramsar internationally important wetland sites, eleven are Local Nature Reserves, thirteen are in Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, one is on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England and two contain Scheduled Monuments. Seventeen sites are managed by the Kent Wildlife Trust, four by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and seven by the National Trust.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Leicestershire

Leicestershire is a county in the East Midlands of England with an area of 833 square miles (2,160 km2), and a population according to the 2011 census of 980,000. Leicester City Council is a unitary authority, and the rest of the county is administered by Leicestershire County Council at the top level, with seven district councils in the second tier, Blaby, Charnwood, Harborough, Hinckley and Bosworth, Melton, North West Leicestershire and Oadby and Wigston.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, a non-departmental public body which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of January 2018, there are seventy-six SSSIs in the county, fifty-seven of which are designated for their biology, twelve for their geology and seven for both criteria.

There are nineteen Geological Conservation Review sites, six Nature Conservation Review sites, one Special Area of Conservation, three National Nature Reserves, two are Common Land, and three contain Scheduled Monuments. One site is a Local Nature Reserve, thirteen are managed by the Leicestershire and Rutland Wildlife Trust, and one by the National Trust. The largest site is Bradgate Park and Cropston Reservoir at 399.3 hectares (987 acres). It has rocks dating to the Ediacaran period around 600 million years ago, and is very important for the study of Precambrian palaeontology. The smallest is Gipsy Lane Pit at 0.5 hectares (1.2 acres), which is important to mineralogists as it is rich in sulphides, some of which are unidentified.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Norfolk

In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, a non-departmental public body which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of November 2018 there are 163 SSSIs in Norfolk, out of which 123 are biological, 25 are geological and 15 are both biological and geological.

Sixty-one sites are Special Areas of Conservation, forty-four are Special Protection Areas, thirty-two are Ramsar sites, forty are Geological Conservation Review sites, thirty-five are Nature Conservation Review sites, eighteen are National Nature Reserves, ten are Local Nature Reserves, twenty-eight are in Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, one is on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens and three contain Scheduled Monuments. Twenty-two sites are managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, one by the Suffolk Wildlife Trust, three by the National Trust, one by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and one by the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

Norfolk is a county in East Anglia. It has an area of 2,074 square miles (5,370 square kilometres) and a population as of mid-2017 of 898,400. The top level of local government is Norfolk County Council with seven second tier councils: Breckland District Council, Broadland District Council, Great Yarmouth Borough Council, King's Lynn and West Norfolk Borough Council, North Norfolk District Council, Norwich City Council and South Norfolk District Council. The county is bounded by Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Lincolnshire and the North Sea.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Northamptonshire

Northamptonshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. It has an area of 236,700 hectares (914 sq mi) and a population estimated in mid-2016 at 733,000. The county is bordered by Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Rutland and Lincolnshire. It is governed by Northamptonshire County Council and seven district and borough councils, Corby, Daventry, East Northamptonshire, Kettering, Northampton, South Northamptonshire and Wellingborough. The county flower is the cowslip.A ridge of low Jurassic hills runs through the county, separating the basins of the Welland and Nene rivers. The county has good transportation connections as it is crossed by two main railway lines and the M1 motorway, and it has many small industrial centres rather than large conurbations.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of July 2017, there are 57 sites designated in Northamptonshire, 48 for their biological interest and 9 for their geological interest. Eight are Geological Conservation Review sites, four are Nature Conservation Review sites, and fourteen are managed by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire. The largest is Upper Nene Valley Gravel Pits, which is a Ramsar internationally important wetland site and a Special Protection Area under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. The smallest is Irchester Old Lodge Pit, which is described in the Geological Conservation Review as a Middle Jurassic site of national importance.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Rutland

Rutland is a landlocked ceremonial county in the East Midlands of England. In 1974 it was merged to be part of the administrative county of Leicestershire, but in 1997 it was separated to become a unitary local authority, which is responsible for all local services apart from the police and fire service. It is mainly rural, but has two market towns, Oakham, the county town, and Uppingham. The county has an area of 151.5 square miles (392 square kilometres), and the 2011 census showed a population of 37,400.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, a non-departmental public body which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of November 2017, there are 19 SSSIs in the county. Sixteen are designated for their biological importance, one for its geological importance and two under both criteria.

The largest site is Rutland Water at 1,555.3 hectares (3,843 acres), a Ramsar internationally important wetland site and a Special Protection Area under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. The smallest is Tolethorpe Road Verges at 1.0 hectare (2.5 acres), which has several regionally uncommon plants on Jurassic limestone.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Suffolk

Suffolk is a county in East Anglia. It is bounded by Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west, Essex to the south and the North Sea to the east. With an area of 1,466 square miles (3,800 km2), it is the eighth largest county in England, and in mid-2016 the population was 745,000. At the top level of local government is Suffolk County Council, and below it are seven borough and district councils: Babergh, Forest Heath, Ipswich, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal and Waveney. Much of the coast consists of the estuaries of the Orwell, Stour, Alde, Deben and Blyth rivers, with large areas of wetlands and marshes. Agriculture and shipping play a major role in the county's economy.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, a non-departmental public body which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of October 2017 there are 142 SSSIs in Suffolk, of which 109 are biological, 28 geological and 5 are designated under both criteria.

One site is in the Dedham Vale, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), and thirty-six are in another AONB, Suffolk Coast and Heaths. There are thirty-three Geological Conservation Review sites, twenty-three Nature Conservation Review sites, twenty Special Areas of Conservation, thirty Special Protection Areas under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds, eight Ramsar internationally important wetland sites, seven National Nature Reserves and 4 contain Scheduled Monuments. Six sites are Local Nature Reserves, twenty-seven are managed by the Suffolk Wildlife Trust, five by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and one by the National Trust. The largest is Breckland Forest at 18,126-hectare (44,790-acre), which is partly in Norfolk and has several invertebrates on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and the smallest is a 0.1-hectare (0.25-acre) meadow in London Road Industrial Estate, Brandon, which has the largest known wild population in Britain of the nationally rare sunflower Artemisia campestris.

List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Surrey

Surrey is a county in South East England. It has an area of 642 square miles (1,660 square kilometres) and an estimated population of 1.1 million as of 2017. It is bordered by Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. Its top level of government is provided by Surrey County Council and the lower level by eleven boroughs and districts, Elmbridge, Epsom and Ewell, Guildford, Mole Valley, Reigate and Banstead, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge, Waverley and Woking.In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of January 2019, there are 62 Sites of Special Scientific Interest in the county, 52 of which have been designated for their biological interest, 8 for their geological interest, and 2 for both biological and geological interest.

Fourteen sites are also Special Protection Areas, six are Special Areas of Conservation, six are Ramsar sites, eleven are Nature Conservation Review sites, ten are Geological Conservation Review sites, twelve are Local Nature Reserves, three are National Nature Reserves and one is on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Five include Scheduled Monuments and twenty-six are managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.