Native Hawaiians

Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the Aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the original Polynesian settlers of Hawaiʻi. In total, 527,000 Americans consider themselves Native Hawaiian.[1]

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 371,000 people who identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" in combination with one or more other races or Pacific Islander groups. 156,000 people identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" alone.

The majority of Native Hawaiians reside in the state of Hawaii (two-thirds) and the rest are scattered among other states, especially in the American Southwest and with a high concentration in California.

The history of Native Hawaiians, like the history of Hawaii, is commonly classified into four major periods:

Native Hawaiians
(Kānaka Maoli, Hawaiʻi Maoli-JK)
Hawaiian Schoolchildren by Henry Wetherbee Henshaw modified
Native Hawaiian schoolchildren, circa 1900
Total population
527,077 (2010 census)
156,146 (Native Hawaiian alone)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Hawaii, United States
(California, Washington, Utah, Alaska, Nevada)
English, Hawaiʻian, Hawaiʻi Sign Language (HSL), Hawaiʻian Pidgin
Christianity, Polytheism, Hawaiian religion
Related ethnic groups
Pacific Islands Americans, other Polynesians


One theory is that the first Polynesians arrived in Hawaii in the 3rd century from the Marquesas by travelling in groups of waka, and were followed by Tahitians in AD 1300, who then conquered the original inhabitants. Another is that a single, extended period of settlement populated the islands.[3] Evidence for a Tahitian conquest of the islands include the legends of Hawaiʻiloa and the navigator-priest Paʻao, who is said to have made a voyage between Hawaii and the island of "Kahiki" (Tahiti) and introduced many customs. Early historians, such as Fornander and Beckwith, subscribed to this Tahitian invasion theory, but later historians, such as Kirch, do not mention it. King Kalakaua claimed that Pa'ao was from Samoa.

Some writers claim that other settlers in Hawaiʻi were forced into remote valleys by newer arrivals. They claim that stories about the Menehune, little people who built heiau and fishponds, prove the existence of ancient peoples who settled the islands before the Hawaiians [4]; but similar stories exist throughout Polynesia.


At the time of Captain Cook's arrival in 1778, the population is estimated to have been between 250,000 and 800,000.[5][6] Some Hawaiians left the islands during the period of the Kingdom of Hawaii like Harry Maitey, who became the first Hawaiian in Prussia. Over the span of the first century after first contact, the native Hawaiians were nearly wiped out by diseases introduced to the islands. Native Hawaiians had no resistance to influenza, smallpox, measles, or whooping cough, among others. The 1900 U.S. Census identified 37,656 residents of full or partial native Hawaiian ancestry.[7] The 2000 U.S. Census identified 283,430 residents of Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander ancestry, showing a dramatic growth trend since annexation by the U.S. in 1898.[8]

Hawaiian language

The Hawaiian language (or ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi) was once the primary language of the native Hawaiian people; today, native Hawaiians predominantly speak the English language. A major factor for this change was an 1896 law that required that English "be the only medium and basis of instruction in all public and private schools". This law prevented the Hawaiian language from being taught as a second language. In spite of this, some native Hawaiians (as well as non-native Hawaiians) have learned ʻŌlelo as a second language.[9] As with others local to Hawaii, native Hawaiians often speak Hawaiian Creole English (referred to in Hawai'i as Pidgin), a creole which developed during Hawaiʻi's plantation era in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with the influence of the various ethnic groups living in Hawaii during that time.

Nowadays ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi is the official language of the State of Hawaii, alongside English. The Hawaiian language has been promoted for revival most recently by a state program of cultural preservation enacted in 1978. Programs included the opening of Hawaiian language immersion schools, and the establishment of a Hawaiian language department at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. As a result, Hawaiian language learning has climbed among all races in Hawaiʻi.

In 2006, the University of Hawaii at Hilo established a masters program in the Hawaiian Language.[10] In fall 2006, they established a doctoral (Ph.D) program in the Hawaiian Language. In addition to being the first doctoral program for the study of Hawaiian, it is the first doctoral program established for the study of any native language in the United States of America. Both the masters and doctoral programs are considered by global scholars as pioneering in the revival of native languages.

Hawaiian is still spoken as the primary language by the residents on the private island of Niʻihau.[11]

Hawaiʻi Sign Language

Alongside ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi, some Maoli (Native Hawaiians) spoke Hawaiʻi Sign Language (or HSL). Little is known about the language by Western academics and efforts are being made to preserve and revitalize the language.


Hawaiian children are publicly educated under the same terms as any other children in the United States. In Hawaii, native Hawaiians are publicly educated by the Hawaiʻi State Department of Education, an ethnically diverse school system that is the United States' largest and most centralized. Hawaiʻi is the only U.S. state without local community control of public schools.

Under the administration of Governor Benjamin J. Cayetano from 1994 to 2002, the state's educational system established special Hawaiian language immersion schools. In these schools, all subject courses are taught in the Hawaiian language and use native Hawaiian subject matter in curricula. These schools were created in the spirit of cultural preservation and are not exclusive to native Hawaiian children.[9]

Native Hawaiians are eligible for an education from the Kamehameha Schools, established through the last will and testament of Bernice Pauahi Bishop of the Kamehameha Dynasty. The largest and wealthiest private school in the United States, Kamehameha Schools was intended to benefit indigents and orphans, with preference given to native Hawaiians. The Kamehameha Schools provides a quality education to thousands of children of whole and part native Hawaiian ancestry at its campuses during the regular school year, and also has quality summer and off-campus programs that are not restricted by ancestry. Kamehameha Schools' practice of accepting primarily gifted students, in lieu of intellectually challenged children, has been a controversial topic amongst the native Hawaiian community. Many 'rejected' families feel that the gifted students could excel at any learning institution, public or private. Thus, the Hawaiian community may be better served by educating children from high-risk, high-crime districts so that a greater proportion of disadvantaged youths may grow up to be responsible community contributors.

As with other children in Hawaiʻi, some native Hawaiians are educated by other prominent private academies in the Aloha State. They include: Punahou School, Saint Louis School, Mid-Pacific Institute, and Iolani School.

Native Hawaiian Ways of Learning

Native Hawaiians exemplify patterns of observational learning, a model that captures seven interrelated descriptions, or facets, of learning found in Indigenous communities in the Americas.[12] Native Hawaiian views on learning flow from three basic tenets that correspond directly to the observational learning model: “I ka nānā no a ʻike: by observing, one learns. I ka hoʻolohe no a hoʻomaopopo: by listening, one commits to memory. I ka hana no a ʻike: by practice one masters the skill.” [13]

Learner Incorporated and Contributing

Similar to the Indigenous communities of the Americas, Native Hawaiian children enthusiastically contribute alongside the adults, and the adult's presence is there to offer support. In most Native Hawaiian communities, household work tasks, such as ironing and cooking, etc., play a major role in contributing to the home life and children’s participation enhances their importance within the family.[14] Native Hawaiian children have shared aspirations to accomplish collaborative tasks, and they individually take initiative to work together.[15] Children absorb very early the community-wide belief that hana (work) is respected and laziness is shameful. The phrase “E hoʻohuli ka lima i lalo” (The palms of the hands should be turned down) was used to communicate the idea that idleness (associated with upturned palms) was to be avoided.[13]

Collaborative and Flexible Ensembles

Native Hawaiian children cooperate with flexible leadership to combine their skills, ideas, and abilities, like that found in observational learning in the Indigenous Communities of the Americas. Family organization is a “shared-function” system that includes flexible roles and fluid responsibility within the group. Basic family values include interdependence, responsibility for others, sharing of work and resources, obedience, and respect. Children assume important family responsibilities early and act as members of a sibling workforce that is held collectively responsible for completing tasks.[16]

Children also take initiative to help others in the classroom.[15] It has been observed that when children are working in a group with their peers and face difficulty, they will scan the room for an adult to assist or turn to their close fellows to either ask for help. Children also scan to provide help to others when necessary. In this way, children shift between the roles of assisted and assistant. Adults were present and available, but the children were more often found to take the initiative to learn from, and teach, one another how to perform tasks such as sweeping, homework, and caring for younger siblings.[15]

Learning to Transform Participation

Among Native Hawaiians, the goal of learning is to transform participation to encompass conscientious accountability as active contributing members of the community,[12] like that found in LOPI. For example, in some Native Hawaiian communities, parent(s) teach the older siblings the necessary skills of care taking. Sibling care-taking skills can relate to Indigenous American ways of learning by the children becoming considerate of their parents and taking on the responsibility when needed in case of a tragic incident with the parents.[17] Within the classroom and home settings, adults are present but are not always directly monitoring the children. Children ask for help when necessary, but adults appear to rarely interject. Children appeared to adapt to tasks and situations by observations and go off on their own to collectively work out how and what to do to complete the task.

Assuming and initiating care has been found across Polynesian cultures, and Native Hawaiian practices are in keeping with this trend. One study observed, interviewed, and evaluated families on the Polynesian Island Sikaiana and found that fostering children from other families within the community is a common shared endeavor that serves to construct relationships, support the community, and nurture compassion and sympathy (aloha).[18] As children mature within the family, they go through a process of having their needs attended and learn to provide and care for the younger children alongside the adults. Adolescent girls who are active caretakers are referred to as parents, even if there is no biological connection.[18]

Wide and Keen Attention for Contribution

The Hawaiians’ ways of learning include wide keen attention from the children while adults are available for guidance, also found in the model of Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Children were found to learn from adults by participating in group activities where they had the chance to observe the performance of more experienced participants as well as having errors in their own performance corrected by more seasoned group members.[16] Because the children learn through observation, and then are encouraged to practice among their peers, we can speculate the children have keen attention to events around them, which is an expectation of adults and community members who are there to assist when needed.[15] It has been observed that Hawaiian children were successful at completing tasks which greatly depend on visual and memory process skills, which coincides with Hawaiian mother’s frequent use of non-verbal communication.[19]

Coordination Through Shared Reference

In some Native Hawaiian communities, there is a constant use of “talk story” which plays an essential role in promoting solidarity in the community by not overpowering or making the members of the community feel inadequate for not understanding something. Talk story can consist of recalled events, folktales, and joking. Joking can be used to tease and guide the children about how to do a chore better or to avoid serious trouble.[20] Talk story relates to an Indigenous way of learning by providing conversations such as narratives and dramatizations with verbal and nonverbal communication between the elder and children.

Another example of verbal communication in the Native Hawaiian culture is through the use of chanting, which can allow a child to understand the relationship of their present experiences to those of their ancestors, both alive and deceased. Chanting also allows children to understand the connections of their chants to mother earth. For instance, chanting can voice the need for rain to produce plants and induce ponds to grow fish for harvest.[21]

A study comparing Midwestern and Hawaiian mother – Kindergartener pairs presented with a novel task,[16] found Hawaiian mothers to be much lower than their Midwestern counterparts in the use of verbal-control techniques and much higher in non-verbal communication, a finding which implies coordination through non-verbal and verbal means.[12][16] Aspects of togetherness, continuity, purpose, and significance are a part of learning and coincide with the Native Hawaiian’s spiritual connection to earth and environment.[21]

Feedback That Appraises Mastery and Support for Learning

There is verbal and nonverbal guidance from parents to children with chores and other activities. For example, a pat on the shoulder can communicate to the child that he/she is doing the activity at hand the correct way.[14] This example relates to the LOPI model by there being an appraisal from the parent(s) in order to support their progress in learning and contributing better in the community. As the child gradually advances towards more complex tasks, the goal of mastery and feedback on the adequacy of their contributions become more pronounced.

In the context of producing objects e.g. baskets, mats, or quilts, there was a belief that a child must produce a perfect end-product before moving on to learn the skills of producing something else. Perfection in these products was judged by more experienced craftspeople and was attained by repeated attempts interspersed with feedback. The perfected final products were kept as a special reminder and never used. Their production was seen as a necessary first step in “clearing the way” for other products to come; an indication of mastery for that skill set.[13] Throughout several research articles, it becomes clear that many of the Native Hawaiian ways of learning resemble the defining characteristics of LOPI, which is common in many Indigenous communities of the Americas.[12]

Hawaiian cultural revival

Native Hawaiian culture has seen a revival in recent years as an outgrowth of decisions made at the 1978 Hawaiʻi State Constitutional Convention, held 200 years after the arrival of Captain Cook. At the convention, the Hawaiʻi state government committed itself to a progressive study and preservation of native Hawaiian culture, history, and language.

A comprehensive Hawaiian culture curriculum was introduced into the State of Hawaiʻi's public elementary schools teaching: ancient Hawaiian art, lifestyle, geography, hula, and Hawaiian language vocabulary. Intermediate and high schools were mandated to impose two sets of Hawaiian history curricula on every candidate for graduation.

Statutes and charter amendments were passed acknowledging a policy of preference for Hawaiian place and street names. For example, with the closure of Barbers Point Naval Air Station in the 1990s, the region formerly occupied by the base was renamed Kalaeloa.

Office of Hawaiian Affairs

Another important outgrowth of the 1978 Hawaiʻi State Constitutional Convention was the establishment of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, more popularly known as OHA. Delegates that included future Hawaiʻi political stars Benjamin J. Cayetano, John D. Waihee III, and Jeremy Harris enacted measures intended to address injustices toward native Hawaiians since the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1893. OHA was established as a trust, administered with a mandate to better the conditions of both native Hawaiians and the Hawaiian community in general. OHA was given control over certain public lands, and continues to expand its land-holdings to this day (most recently with Waimea Valley, previously Waimea Falls Park).[22]

Besides purchases since its inception, the lands initially given to OHA were originally crown lands of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi used to pay the expenses of the monarchy (later held by the Provisional Government following the fall of the monarchy in 1893). Upon the declaration of the Republic of Hawaiʻi, they were officially designated as public lands. They were ceded to federal control with the establishment of the Territory of Hawaiʻi in 1898, and finally returned to the State of Hawaiʻi as public lands in 1959.

OHA is a semi-autonomous government body administered by a nine-member board of trustees, elected by the people of the State of Hawaiʻi through popular suffrage. Originally, trustees and the people eligible to vote for trustees were restricted to native Hawaiians. Rice v. Cayetano—suing the state to allow non-Hawaiians to sit on the board of trustees, and for non-Hawaiians to be allowed to vote in trustee elections—reached the United States Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of Rice on February 23, 2000, forcing OHA to open its elections to all residents of the State of Hawaiʻi, regardless of ethnicity.

Federal developments

Native American Programs Act

In 1974, the Native American Programs Act was amended to include native Hawaiians. This paved the way for native Hawaiians to become eligible for some, but not all, federal assistance programs originally intended for Continental Native Americans. Today, Title 45 CFR Part 1336.62 defines a Native Hawaiian as "an individual any of whose ancestors were natives of the area which consists of the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778".

There is some controversy as to whether or not native Hawaiians should be considered in the same light as Native Americans.[23][24]

United States apology resolution

On November 23, 1993, U.S. President Bill Clinton signed United States Public Law 103-150, also known as the Apology Resolution, which had previously passed Congress. This resolution "apologizes to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii".[25]

Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009

In the early 2000s, the Congressional delegation of the State of Hawaiʻi introduced the Native Hawaiian Federal Recognition Bill, beginning the process of recognizing and forming a Native Hawaiian government entity to negotiate with state and federal governments. The significance of the bill is that it would establish, for the first time in the history of the islands, a new political and legal relationship between a Native Hawaiian entity and the federal government. This Native Hawaiian entity would be a newly created one without any historical precedent in the islands, or direct institutional continuity with previous political entities (unlike many Native American Indian groups, for example).

This bill came under scrutiny by the Bush administration's Department of Justice, as well as the United States Senate Judiciary Committee. The political context surrounding the Akaka Bill is both controversial and complex. Proponents, who consider the legislation an acknowledgement and partial correction of past injustices, include Hawaiʻi's Congressional delegation, as well as the former Republican Governor, Linda Lingle. Opponents include the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, (who question the constitutionality of creating race-based governments), libertarian activists, (who challenge the historical accuracy of any claims of injustice), and other Native Hawaiian sovereignty activists, (who feel the legislation would thwart their hopes for complete independence from the United States).

A Ward Research poll commissioned in 2003 by the Office of Hawaiian Affairs reported that "Eighty-six percent of the 303 Hawaiian residents polled by Ward Research said 'yes.' Only 7 percent said 'no,' with 6 percent unsure ... Of the 301 non-Hawaiians polled, almost eight in 10 (78 percent) supported federal recognition, 16 percent opposed it, with 6 percent unsure."[26] A Zogby International poll commissioned in 2009 by the Grassroot Institute of Hawaii indicated that a plurality (39%) of Hawaiʻi residents opposed the Native Hawaiian Reorganization Act of 2009, and that 76% indicated that they were unwilling to pay higher taxes to cover any loss in tax revenues that might be incurred by the act.[27]

Ka Huli Ao: Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law

In 2005, with the support of Senator Daniel Inouye, federal funding through the Native Hawaiian Education Act created the Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa's William S. Richardson School of Law. A few years later, the program became known as Ka Huli Ao: Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law. The inaugural director of Ka Huli Ao is Honolulu attorney Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie. MacKenzie is also recognized as the chief editor of the Native Hawaiian Rights Handbook, which is a legal publication that describes Native Hawaiian law, a subset of laws of the State of Hawaiʻi. MacKenzie worked as a clerk to the school of lawʻs namesake, William S. Richardson, for four years, and also served as the Executive Director of the Native Hawaiian Legal Corporation for four years, then worked as a senior staff attorney for another six years.

Ka Huli Ao focuses on research, scholarship, and community outreach. Ka Huli Ao provides a monthly lunch-time discussion forum referred to as Maoli Thursday, which is free and open to the public. Ka Huli Ao maintains its own blog, as well as a Twitter account and a Facebook group. Ka Huli Ao also provides law students with summer fellowships. Law school graduates are eligible to apply for post-J.D. fellowships that last for one year.

Notable Native Hawaiians

In 1873 the first native Hawaiians were given permission from King Lunalilo (prior emigration of native Hawaiians was not allowed) to permanently emigrate to the United States (Salt Lake City, Utah) whose names were Kiha Kaawa, and Kahana Pukahi. Kiha was adopted by Mormon Missionary President George Nebeker immediately upon arrival making Kiha Kaawa (Nebeker) the first native Hawaiian to become a US citizen in 1873.

Culture and arts

Native Hawaiian man pounding taro into poi with two children by his sides., c. 1890s
Hawaiian man with his two children, circa 1890.

Several cultural preservation societies and organizations have been established over the course of the twentieth century. The largest of those institutions is the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, established in 1889 and designated as the Hawaiʻi State Museum of Natural and Cultural History. Bishop Museum houses the largest collection of native Hawaiian artifacts, documents, and other information available for educational use. Most objects are held for preservation alone. The museum has links with major colleges and universities throughout the world to facilitate research.

With the support of the Bishop Museum, the Polynesian Voyaging Society's double-hulled canoe, Hōkūle‘a, has contributed to rediscovery of native Hawaiian culture, especially in the revival of non-instrument navigation, by which ancient Polynesians originally settled Hawaiʻi.[28]

One of the most commonly known arts of Hawaii is hula dancing. It is an interpretive dance, famous for its grace and romantic feel, that expresses stories and feelings from almost any phase of life.

See also


  1. ^ a b Hixson, Linsday; Hepler, Bradford; Ouk Kim, Myoung (May 2012). 2010 Census Brief, The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010 (PDF) (Report). United States Census Bureau. p. 15. C2010BR-12. Retrieved March 10, 2019. "There were 156,000 people who reported Native Hawaiian with no additional detailed NHPI group or race group and an additional 371,000 people who reported Native Hawaiian in combination with one or more other races and/or detailed NHPI groups ... Thus, a total of 527,000 people reported Native Hawaiian alone or in any combination."
  2. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary Entry: native hawaiian". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fifth ed.). Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  3. ^ Kirch, Patrick Vinton; Green, Roger C (2001). Hawaiki, ancestral Polynesia : an essay in historical anthropology. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521783095. OCLC 57218655.
  4. ^ The best survey of these stories, all collected in the latter part of the 19th century, is found in Beckwith's Hawaiian mythology, pp. 321-336.
  5. ^ Schmitt, Robert C. (June 1971). "New Estimates of the Pre-censal Population of Hawaii". Journal of the Polynesian Society. Auckland, New Zealand: Polynesian Society. 80 (2): 237–243. ISSN 0032-4000. OCLC 557485930. Retrieved May 19, 2012. Contemporary estimates for the date of first contact ranged from 200,000 to 400,000, and retrospective guesses by later historians dipped as low as 100,000. Most modern authorities, however, seem to agree on a 1778 total close to 300,000, although on evidence of the flimsiest kind.closed access(subscription required)
  6. ^ Stannard, David E (1989). Before the horror : the population of Hawaiʻi on the eve of Western contact. Honolulu, HI, USA: Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii. pp. 78–80. ISBN 0824812328. OCLC 596521023. LCC GN 875 .H3 S731 1989. Retrieved May 19, 2012. The obvious conclusion, then, is that a population for Hawaiʻi of about 800,000 at the time of Western contact seems a restrained and modest figure.closed access(subscription required)
  7. ^ US Census Bureau - Population Division (September 13, 2002). "Table 26. Hawaii - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1900 to 1990" (PDF). Washington, DC, USA: U.S. Census Bureau. Second table. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  8. ^ U.S Census Bureau (sherr310) (May 25, 2010). "Table 3. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for Hawaii: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". U.S. Census Bureau. Cell M18. Archived from the original (MS-Excel) on May 24, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2012. Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander ancestry alone or in combination, both sexes, for 2000 Census
  9. ^ a b Warner, Sam L. (1996). "I ola ka 'olelo i na keiki: Ka 'apo 'ia 'ana o ka 'olelo Hawai'i e na keiki ma ke Kula Kaiapuni [That the Language Live through the Children: The Acquisition of the Hawaiian Language by the Children in the Immersion School.] (Ph.D. thesis; abstract visible here)". Retrieved May 1, 2018.(Subscription required.)
  10. ^ Master's Degree in Hawaiian,
  11. ^ Lyovin, Anatole V (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 258. ISBN 0-19-508116-1.
  12. ^ a b c d Rogoff, B. (2014). Learning by Observing and Pitching In to Family and Community Endeavors. Learning by Observing and Pitching In to Family and Community Endeavors: An Orientation, 4(57), 69-81. doi:10.2259/000356757
  13. ^ a b c Pukui, M. K., Haertig, E. W., Lee, C. A., & Queen Liliʻuokalani Children's Center. (1972). Nānā i ke kumu: Look to the source. Honolulu, HI: Hui Hanai.
  14. ^ a b Boggs, Joan. 1968. Hawaiian Adolescents And Their Families. Studies In A Hawaiian Community : Na Makamaka O Nanakuli. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Dept. of Anthropology. ; P. 66 & 72.
  15. ^ a b c d Weisner, T. S., Gallimore, R. and Jordan, C. (1988), Unpackaging Cultural Effects on Classroom Learning: Native Hawaiian Peer Assistance and Child-Generated Activity. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 19: 327–353. doi:10.1525/aeq.1988.19.4.05x0915e
  16. ^ a b c d G. Tharp, Cathie Jordan, Gisela E. Speidel, Kathryn Hu-pei Au, Thomas W. Klein, Roderick P. Calkins, Kim C. M. Sloat, Ronald Gallimore (2007). Education and Native Hawaiian Children: Revisiting KEEP. Hulili,4, 269-318, Retrieved from:
  17. ^ Cicirelli, V. (1994). Sibling Relationships in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Marriage and Family,56(1), 7-20. doi:10.2307/352697
  18. ^ a b Donner, W. W. (1999). Sharing and Compassion: Fosterage in a Polynesian Society. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30(4), autumn, 703-722. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  19. ^ Speidel, G. E., Farran, D. C., & Jordan, C. (1989). 6: On the Learning and Thinking Styles of Hawaiian Children. In Thinking Across Cultures (pp. 55-77). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  20. ^ Smith-Hefner, N. J. (1987), Speaking Relating and Learning: A Study of Hawaiian Children at Home and at School: Stephen T. Boggs. TESOL Quarterly, 21: 759–763. doi:10.2307/3586993
  21. ^ a b Meyer, Manu Aluli (1998) Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Sites of Empowerment and Resistance, Equity & Excellence in Education, 31:1, 22-28, DOI: 10.1080/1066568980310104
  22. ^ Boyd, Manu (July 3, 2006). "OHA gains Waimea Valley title". Honolulu, HI, USA: Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
  23. ^ Editors Report (August 13, 2001). "Native Hawaiian recognition is overdue". Indian Country Today. New York, NY, USA: Indian Country Today Media Network. ISSN 0744-2238. OCLC 61312545, 43291273. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved May 19, 2012. Native Hawaiians have rightfully demanded recognition of their aboriginal standing by the United States.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  24. ^ "Are kanaka maoli indigenous to Hawai'i?". Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  25. ^ s:US Public Law 103-150
  26. ^ Apoliona, Haunani (April 3, 2005). "Another Perspective: Scientific poll shows majority favors Hawaiian programs". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, HI, USA: Black Press Group Ltd. ISSN 0439-5271. OCLC 9188300, 433678262, 232117605, 2268098. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  27. ^ Korn, Cheryl (November 24, 2009). "Results from Zogby International interactive poll commissioned by the Grassroot Institute of Hawaii" (PDF). Zogby International. Honolulu, Hawaii: Grassroot Institute of Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 23, 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  28. ^ Unattributed (July 25, 2007). "Hawaiian Cultural Heritage". Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (in English and Hawaiian). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2008. Discusses Hōkūle‘a's Navigating Change voyage which also raised consciousness of the interdependence of Hawaiians, their environment, and their culture.

Further reading

External links

Akaka Bill

The Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009 S1011/HR2314 was a bill before the 111th Congress. It is commonly known as the Akaka Bill after Senator Daniel Akaka of Hawaii, who has proposed various forms of this bill since 2000.

The bill proposes to establish a process for US federal recognition of Native Hawaiians similar to an Indian tribe. However, the bill prohibits indigenous Native Hawaiians from gaming and other benefits available to federally recognized Indian tribes. The 2009 House version of the bill prohibited indigenous Native Hawaiians from pursuing their claims in the courts and arguably legitimizes past transfers of Hawaiian land that would not have been legitimate for Indian Tribes. The most updated Senate version however allows Native Hawaiians to pursue claims in court. On December 16, 2009, a Congressional House Committee passed an unamended version of the Akaka Bill. On the following day, the Senate Indian Affairs Committee approved the amendments in S. 1011, the Senate version of the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act. As of January 10, 2009, H.R. 2314 was not completely consistent with S. 1011.

Akaka said on the floor of the U.S. Senate in December 2010 that "misleading attacks" and "unprecedented obstruction" led to the failure of legislation in the 111th Congress.


Aloha (; Hawaiian: [əˈloːˌha]) is the Hawaiian word for love, affection, peace, compassion and mercy, that is commonly used as a simple greeting but has a deeper cultural and spiritual significance to native Hawaiians.

A greeting of love and compassion; also means "to be in the presence of the divinity" or in the presence of (alo) the "divine breath of life" (Ha). The Aloha Spirit law became official in 1986.

Apology Resolution

United States Public Law 103-150, informally known as the Apology Resolution, is a Joint Resolution of the U.S. Congress adopted in 1993 that "acknowledges that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and further acknowledges that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum" (U.S. Public Law 103-150 (107 Stat. 1510)). The resolution has been cited as a major impetus for the Hawaiian sovereignty movement, and has been the subject of intense debate.The resolution was adopted by both houses of the United States Congress on November 23, 1993. A joint resolution, it was signed by President of the United States Bill Clinton on the same day.

The resolution was passed in the Senate by a vote of 65–34. In the House, it was passed by a two-thirds voice vote. It was sponsored on January 21, 1993, as S.J.Res.19 by Daniel Akaka and co-sponsored by Daniel Inouye, both Democratic senators from Hawaii.

Culture of the Native Hawaiians

The culture of the Native Hawaiians is about 1,500 years old and has its origins in the Polynesians who voyaged to and settled Hawaii. These voyagers developed Hawaiian cuisine, Hawaiian art, and the Native Hawaiian religion.

Death of Cook

Death of Cook is the name of several paintings depicting the 1779 death of the first European visitor to the Hawaiian Islands, Captain James Cook at Kealakekua Bay.

Most of these paintings seem to go back to an original by John Cleveley the Younger, painted in 1784, although other versions, like that of John Webber, stood model for later copies too. Such artworks were reproduced in paint and engraving over the course of modern world history. The much more famous reproductions, like the one at the Honolulu Museum of Art (allegedly based on the Cleveley version), often depicted Cook as a peacemaker trying to stop the fighting between his sailors and the native Hawaiians that they had challenged in combat.

However, in 2004, the original Cleveley painting was discovered in a private collection belonging to a family since 1851. Cleveley's brother was a member of Cook's crew, and the painting is said to concur with eyewitness accounts. The original depicted Cook involved in hand-to-hand combat with the native Hawaiians. The discovery of the original painting has not changed the way most historians view Cook's relationship with the Hawaiians, as during his last voyage, Cook was reported by his contemporaries to have become irrationally violent.The original watercolour painting, together with three others in a series by Cleveley, was put up for auction by Christie's auction house in London in 2004. The lot of four paintings sold for £318,850 (USD 572,655).

Hawaii and the American Civil War

After the outbreak of the American Civil War, the Kingdom of Hawaii under King Kamehameha IV declared its neutrality on August 26, 1861. However, many Native Hawaiians and Hawaii-born Americans (mainly descendants of the American missionaries), abroad and in the islands, enlisted in the military regiments of various states in the Union and the Confederacy.


Hawaiian may refer to:

Hawaii state residents, regardless of ancestry

Native Hawaiians, the current term for the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants

the Hawaiian language

Things and people of the Kingdom of Hawaii, during the period from 1795–1893

Things and people of the Republic of Hawaii, the short period between the overthrow of the monarchy and U.S. annexation

Things and people of the Territory of Hawaii, during the period the area was a U.S. territory from 1898 to 1959

Things and people of the Sandwich Islands, the name used for the Hawaiian Islands around the end of the 18th century

Hawaiian Airlines, a commercial airline based in Hawaii

Hawaiian pizza, a style of pizza topped with bacon and pineapple

Hawaiian home land

A Hawaiian home land is an area held in trust for Native Hawaiians by the state of Hawaii under the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1921.

Hawaiian sovereignty movement

The Hawaiian sovereignty movement (Hawaiian: ke ea Hawaiʻi) is a grassroots political and cultural campaign to gain sovereignty, self-determination and self-governance for Hawaiians of whole or part Native Hawaiian ancestry with an autonomous or independent nation or kingdom. Some groups also advocate some form of redress from the United States for the 1893 overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani, and for what is described as a prolonged military occupation beginning with the 1898 annexation. The movement generally views both the overthrow and annexation as illegal. Palmyra Island and the Stewart Islands were annexed by the Kingdom in the 1860s and are regarded by the movement as being under illegal occupation along with the Hawaiian Islands. The Apology Resolution passed by the United States Congress in 1993 acknowledged that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 was an illegal act.Sovereignty advocates have attributed problems plaguing native communities including homelessness, poverty, economic marginalization, and the erosion of native traditions to the lack of native governance and political self-determination. They have pursued their agenda through educational initiatives and legislative actions. Along with protests throughout the islands, at the capitol itself as well as the places and locations held as sacred to Hawaiian culture, sovereignty activists have challenged United States forces and law.

Home Rule Party of Hawaii

As soon as the United States annexed the Hawaiian Islands and established the Territory of Hawaii, native Hawaiians became worried that both the Democratic Party of Hawai‘i and Hawai‘i Republican Party were incapable of representing them. In 1900, native Hawaiians and their supporters created the Hawaiian Independent Party (later renamed the Independent Home Rule Party).

Kanaka (Pacific Island worker)

Kanakas were workers from various Pacific Islands employed in British colonies, such as British Columbia (Canada), Fiji, and Queensland (Australia) in the 19th and early 20th centuries. They also worked in California and Chile (see Easter Island and Rapanui people as related subjects).

"Kanaka", originally referred only to native Hawaiians, from their own name for themselves, kānaka ʻōiwi or kānaka maoli, in the Hawaiʻian language. In the Americas in particular, native Hawaiians did make up the majority; but Kanakas in Australia were almost entirely Melanesian. In Australian English "kanaka" is now avoided outside of its historical context, as it has been used as an offensive term.


Kapa is a fabric made by native Hawaiians from the bast fibres of certain species of trees and shrubs in the orders Rosales and Malvales.

Libert H. Boeynaems

Libert H. Boeynaems, formally Libert Hubert John Louis Boeynaems, SS.CC., (August 18, 1857 – May 13, 1926), was the fourth vicar apostolic of the Vicariate Apostolic of the Hawaiian Islands — now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.

He was born in Antwerp, Belgium, the son of John and Leopoldina (Van Opstal) Boeynaems. He was educated at the Jesuit college of Antwerp and the Seminary at Mechelen and finished his scholasticate at the University of Leuven. Boeynaems was ordained to the priesthood as a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary on September 11, 1881.

As part of his missionary work, Boeynaems sailed to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i arriving in Honolulu on November 29, 1881, to become a pastor (in January 1882) to the fledgeling Catholic community of native Hawaiians on the island of Kaua‘i in the district encompassing Līhu‘e to Hanalei. He later ministered to those on Kaua‘i in the district encompassing Līhu‘e to Mana. During his first few years in Honolulu, Boeynaems was a witness to the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, proclamation of the Republic of Hawai‘i and establishment of the United States Territory of Hawai‘i. In 1895 he was transferred to Wailuku, Maui.In December, 1902, the Holy See appointed him Pro-Vicar. On April 8, 1903, he was appointed Vicar Apostolic and was subsequently consecrated titular Bishop of Zeugma in Syria by Archbishop Montgomery in Saint Mary's Cathedral in San Francisco on July 25, 1903. On April 11, 1915, Msgr. Boeynaems consecrated Saint Agnes-in-the-Palms at Kaka‘ako, a former Protestant church at the intersection of Kawaiahao and Kamani streets in Honolulu, to serve the growing population of Portuguese and native Hawaiians in the Kaka‘ako district. After his death, he was buried at the Honolulu Catholic Cemetery in downtown Honolulu near Thomas Square at the intersection of Ward Avenue and King Street.

List of Native Americans in the United States Congress

This is a list of Native Americans with documented tribal ancestry or affiliation in the U.S. Congress.

All entries on this list are related to Native American tribes based in the contiguous United States. No Alaska Natives have ever served in Congress. There are Native Hawaiians who have served in Congress, but they are not listed here because they are distinct from North American Natives.

Only two Native Americans served in the 115th Congress: Tom Cole (serving since 2003) and Markwayne Mullin (serving since 2013), both of whom are Republican Representatives from Oklahoma. On November 6, 2018, Democrats Sharice Davids of Kansas and Deb Haaland of New Mexico were elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and the 116th Congress, which commenced on January 3, 2019, has four Native Americans. Davids and Haaland are the first two Native American women with documented tribal ancestry to serve in Congress.

List of Native Hawaiians

This is a list of notable Native Hawaiians.

To be included in this list, the person must have an English Wikipedia article showing they have Native Hawaiian heritage or must have references showing they have Native Hawaiian heritage and are notable.

Isabella Abbott, educator and scientist

Duke Aiona, politician

Eddie Aikau, surfer

Daniel K. Akaka, politician

D. G. Anderson, politician

S. Haunani Apoliona, activist

Bernice Pauahi Bishop, philanthropist

Kealii Blaisdell, traditional Hawaiian entertainer, original traditional Hawaiian song composer, great-grandson of Hawaiian author Joseph

Travis Browne, mixed martial artist

Jeff Chang

Sam Choy, chef, restaurateur, and television personality

Marcus Coloma, actor

Auli'i Cravalho, actress and singer

Ron Darling, former MLB pitcher

William Heath Davis, merchant and trader

Frank De Lima, comedian

William De Los Santos, poet, screenwriter, director

Adriano Directo Emperado, co-founder of Kajukenbo self-defense system

Russell Doane, mixed martial artist

Faith Evans, US marshal

Patricia Ford, model

Brickwood Galuteria, entertainer and party chairman

Sunny Garcia, surfer

Brian Haberlin, comic book artist

Clayton Hee, politician

Kaui Hart Hemmings, author

Don Ho, entertainer

Hoku Ho, singer

Max Holloway, mixed martial artist

Mark Keali'i Ho'omalu, musician and kumu hula

Kelly Hu, actress

Curtis Iaukea, politician

John Papa ʻĪʻī, an ali'i, politician and historian

Anuhea Jenkins, musician

Dick Jensen, singer

Maren Jensen, actress

Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, Olympian and World Ambassador of Surfing

Natasha Kai, professional soccer player

Charles Kalani, Jr., professional athlete

Montgomery Kaluhiokalani, surfer

Samuel Kamakau, historian

Israel Kamakawiwoʻole, musician, entertainer, and activist

Kamehameha the Great, first king of Hawaii

George Kanahele, author of books about native Hawaiians

Jason Kapono, NBA forward

Gilbert Lani Kauhi, often credited as Zulu, actor

Princess Abigail Kawananakoa, descendant of aliʻi

Prince Quentin Kawananakoa, heir presumptive throne of Hawaii, lawyer, politician

Mary Kaye, musician and singer

James Kealoha, politician

Charles Kekumano, Roman Catholic priest and first papal chamberlain of native Hawaiian ancestry

Esther Kia'aina, politician

Al Kikume, actor and stuntman

Samuel Wilder King, politician

Helio Koaʻeloa, missionary and candidate for sainthood

Jesse Kuhaulua, sumo wrestler

Kūkahi, musician

Brook Mahealani Lee, Miss Universe 1997

Eric Lee, musician

Steve Leialoha, comic book artist

Liliʻuokalani, last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi

Agnes Lum, gravure idol, bikini model, actress and singer

Harry Maitey, first Hawaiian in Prussia

David Malo, historian

Jarah Mariano, model

Kevin Mawae, former president of the NFL Players Association

Maxine, model and professional wrestler

Michelle Maylene, adult film actress and model

Yancy Medeiros, mixed martial artist

Janet Mock, trans women's rights activist

Jason Momoa, actor

Leilani Munter, American race car driver and environmental activist

Don Muraco, professional wrestler

Kellye Nakahara, actress

Joseph Nawahi, politician and artist

Ruban Nielson, musician

Karl James Noons, mixed martial artist

Cheryl Moana Marie Nunes, musician and former Oakland Raiderette

David Nuuhiwa, surfer

Danny Ongais, race car driver

Dennis Pavao, Hawaiian Falsetto Singer and Musician

B. J. Penn, mixed martial artist

Herbert K. Pililaau, Medal of Honor recipient

Mary Kawena Pukui, scholar and educator

Keanu Reeves, actor

Rap Reiplinger, comedian

William S. Richardson, jurist

Marlene Sai, singer and actress

Nicole Scherzinger, singer

Ray Schoenke, former NFL player

Wini Shaw, actress

Micah Solusod, voice actor

Shannyn Sossamon, actress

David Strathairn, actor

Napua Stevens, entertainer, singer, hula dancer, musician, teacher, radio-TV personality, producer and author

Akebono, sumo wrestler

Freddie Tavares, helped design the Fender Stratocaster and other Fender products, steel guitarist

Nainoa Thompson, Polynesian navigator, Trustee for Kamehameha Schools

Kiana Tom, fitness trainer

Logan Tom, Olympic volleyball player

Haunani-Kay Trask, activist

Mililani Trask, activist

Brendon Urie, lead singer of Panic! at the Disco

Shane Victorino, professional baseball player for the Boston Red Sox

Kimo von Oelhoffen, former NFL player

John D. Waihee III, politician

Charlie Wedemeyer, athlete and author

Herman Wedemeyer, actor, football player, and politician

Robert William Wilcox, delegate to Congress

Jerome Williams, baseball player

Kailee Wong, professional football player

Kirby Wright, novelist and poet

Office of Hawaiian Affairs

The Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) is a semi-autonomous department of the State of Hawaii created by the 1978 Hawaii State Constitutional Convention.

Pacific Islands Americans

Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians). For its purposes, the U.S. Census also counts Indigenous Australians as part of this group.Pacific Islander Americans make up 0.5% of the U.S. population including those with partial Pacific Islander ancestry, enumerating about 1.4 million people. The largest ethnic subgroups of Pacific Islander Americans are Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Chamorros, Fijians, Marshallese and Tongans. Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros have large communities in Hawaii, California, Utah, American Samoa, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, with sizable communities in Washington, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, Florida, and Alaska. Fijians are predominantly based in California.

American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands are insular areas (U.S. territories), while Hawaii is a state.

Tongan Americans

Tongan Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry to Tonga, officially known as the Kingdom of Tonga. There are approximately 57,000 Tongans and Tongan Americans living in the United States, as of 2012. Tongans are considered to be Pacific Islanders in the United States Census, and are the fourth largest Pacific Islander American group in terms of population, after Native Hawaiians, Samoan Americans, and Guamanian/Chamorro Americans.

United States federal recognition of Native Hawaiians

Federal recognition of Native Hawaiians refers to proposals for the federal government of the United States to give legal recognition to Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka maoli), providing them with some form of indigenous sovereignty within a framework similar to that afforded to Native Americans and Alaska Natives.Native Hawaiians are the aboriginal people of the Hawaiian Islands. Since American involvement in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, federal statutes have been enacted to address conditions of Native Hawaiians, with some feeling these should be formalized in the same manner as other indigenous populations in the United States. However, some controversy surrounds the proposal for formal recognition – many Native Hawaiian political organizations believe recognition might interfere with Hawaii's claims to independence as a constitutional monarchy through international law.

Ethnic groups in Hawaii
Related ethnic groups
Related topics
Broad culture

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