Nationalist Liberation Alliance

The Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista, ALN), originally known as the Argentine Civic Legion (Legión Cívica Argentina, LCA) from 1931 to 1937,[1] the Alliance of Nationalist Youth (Alianza de la Juventud Nacionalista, AJN) from 1937 to 1943,[2] and then using its final name from 1943 to 1955, was a Nacionalista and fascist movement.[3]

The movement was heavily influenced by fascism, with its members utilizing the Roman salute, wearing fascist-style uniforms, and marching in military formation.[4] The movement's declaration of principles in 1931 attacked Marxism and democracy and declared support for the creation of a corporatist state like that of Fascist Italy.[5] It cooperated with the Argentine Fascist Party, particularly in the Córdoba region of Argentina.[6] In Córdoba in 1935, the local militia allied with the Argentine Fascist Party and Argentine Nationalist Action to form the Frente de Fuerzas Fascistas de Córdoba, which was replaced by the National Fascist Union in 1936. In 1936, its leader General Juan Bautista Molina reorganized the militia to be based upon the organization of the Nazi Party.[7] General Molina wanted an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.[8]

The movement called for "hierarchy and order" in society, various xenophobic and anti-Semitic themes, and the demand for "social justice" and "revolutionary" land reform to destroy the "oligarchy" in Argentina.[9] Juan Bautista Molina wanted the creation of an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.[10]

It was violently anti-Semitic, with its journal Combate issuing a "commandment" to its members: "War against the Jew. Hatred towards the Jew. Death to the Jew."[11]

Nationalist Liberation Alliance

Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista
Historical leadersJosé Félix Uriburu,
Juan Bautista Molina,
Juan Queraltó,
Guillermo Patricio Kelly
Founded1931
Dissolved1955
Preceded byArgentine Patriotic League
Succeeded byCivic Revolutionary Movement
HeadquartersBuenos Aires, Argentina
NewspaperCombate
Student wingUnión Nacionalista de Estudiantes Secundarios
IdeologyUltranationalism
Militarism
Nacionalismo
Antisemitism
Fascism (1931–1936)
National Socialism (1936–1955)
Political positionFar-right
ColoursBlack
Slogan"Hierarchy and order"

History

José Félix Uriburu
General José Félix Uriburu, President of Argentina (1930-1932), founder of the movement.

It was recognized as a political entity on 20 May 1931 and received juridical personality on 11 January 1932.[12] The movement was formed by Argentine President General José Félix Uriburu officially as a reserve for Argentina's armed forces.[13] The movement's members were authorized to receive military training.[14] The Legion declared itself to be made up of "patriotic men" who embodied "the spirit of the September revolution and who morally and materially were ready to cooperate in the institutional reconstruction of the country".[15] The Legion was the largest nationalist organization in Argentina in the early 1930s.[16] The movement is known to have committed acts of violence against its political opponents and tortured those that were captured.[17] It collapsed in 1955 after anti-Peronist forces seized control of Argentina with its leader fleeing the country.

It had a student wing called the Nationalist Union of Secondary Students (Unión Nacionalista de Estudiantes Secundarios, UNES).[18] Unlike other Argentine nationalist organizations of the time, the Legion had a women's section, while other nationalist groups excluded women from their organizations.[19] The Legion's women section called Agrupación Femenina de la LCA promoted women to love the armed forces and respect for order, authority, and hierarchy in the home and school.[20] These women were to provide aid to the poor to assist in establishing social peace.[21]

During the 1946 Argentine elections, the ALN was the largest Nacionalista movement but only gained 25,000 votes in a few areas in which it fielded candidates.[22] This coincided with the election of Juan Perón as President of Argentina.[23] Following the 1946 election, ALN members attacked the headquarters of several liberal and leftist newspapers, including La Hora, the Communist Party newspaper, as well as attacking a bar in downtown Buenos Aires that was frequented by Spanish republican refugeees.[24]

In 1953, the ALN condemned the nationalist newspaper La Prensa for publishing too many articles by Jewish writers.[25] ALN leader Juan Queraltó was ousted from leadership of the party in 1953.[26] Queraltó was succeeded by Guillermo Patricio Kelly.[27] Kelly sought to distance the party from its anti-Semitic past and met with Israel's ambassador to Argentina, Dr. Arie Kubovy during which Kelly informed Dr. Kubovy that the ALN had forsworn anti-Semitism.[28] In 1954, anti-Semitism was dropped from the party.[29] Kelly was arrested after the anti-Perónist Revolución Libertadora of 1955 by Argentine authorities for having used a forged passport, but managed to escape and flee the country in 1957.

Party symbols

ALN meeting
Congress of the Nationalist Liberation Alliance. The ALN symbol of the Andean condor clutching a hammer and a feather is on the background wall.

The Nationalist Liberation Alliance used the Andean condor as the symbol of the movement.[30] The Andean condor is a national symbol of Argentina.[31]

References

  1. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle (general editor). The Encyclopedia of Politics: the Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right. Thousand Oaks, California, USA; London, England, UK; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005. P. 525.
  2. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. P. 119.
  3. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle (general editor). The Encyclopedia of Politics: the Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right. Thousand Oaks, California, USA; London, England; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005. P. 525.
  4. ^ Paul H. Lewis. Guerrillas and generals: the "Dirty War" in Argentina. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Praeger Publishers, 2002. P. 5.
  5. ^ Paul H. Lewis. The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. University of North Carolina Press, 1990. P. 119.
  6. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. P. 210.
  7. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. P. 119.
  8. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. P. 119.
  9. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. P. 115.
  10. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. P. 119.
  11. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. P. 229.
  12. ^ Alberto Ciria. Partidos y poder en la Argentina moderna (1930-1946). English translation. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York, 1974. Pp. 130.
  13. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. P. 67.
  14. ^ Robert A. Potash. The Army & Politics in Argentina: 1928-1945; Yrigoyen to Perón. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1969. P. 67.
  15. ^ Alberto Ciria. Partidos y poder en la Argentina moderna (1930-1946). English translation. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York, 1974. P. 154.
  16. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. P. 201.
  17. ^ Paul H. Lewis. Guerrillas and generals: the "Dirty War" in Argentina. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Praeger Publishers, 2002. P. 5.
  18. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. p. 229.
  19. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. p. 236.
  20. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. p. 236.
  21. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. p. 236.
  22. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback Edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. P. 164.
  23. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback Edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. P. 164.
  24. ^ David Rock. Authoritarian Argentina: The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. Paperback edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1995. P. 164.
  25. ^ Institute of Jewish Affairs. Patterns of prejudice , Volumes 6-8; Volume 6. Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1972. P. 95.
  26. ^ Raanan Rein. Argentina, Israel, and the Jews: Perón, the Eichmann capture and after. University Press of Maryland, 2003. P. 68.
  27. ^ Alberto Ciria. Partidos y poder en la Argentina moderna (1930-1946). English translation. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York, 1974. P. 68.
  28. ^ Benno Varon. Professions of a lucky Jew. Cranbury, New Jersey, USA; London, England; Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Cornwall Books, 1992. P. 206.
  29. ^ Raanan Rein. Argentina, Israel, and the Jews: Perón, the Eichmann capture and after. University Press of Maryland, 2003. P. 68.
  30. ^ Jon Lee Anderson. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Revised text copyright edition. New York, New York, USA: Publishers Group West, 2010. P. 34.
  31. ^ Sujatha Menon. Mountain Creatures. New York, New York, USA: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 2008. P. 37.
ALN

ALN, AlN or Aln may refer to:

OrganizationsAção Libertadora Nacional, a Brazilian communist guerrilla movement

Africa Liberal Network, an organization composed of 44 political parties from 30 countries in Africa.

Alianza Liberal Nicaragüense, a political party in Nicaragua

Armée de Libération Nationale, the armed wing of the nationalist National Liberation Front of Algeria during the Algerian War

Nationalist Liberation Alliance (in Spanish Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista, ALN), Argentine fascist movement, founded 1937Science and technologyAln, a pre-metric Swedish measurement of length

Aluminium nitrideTransportationAlthorne railway station, from its National Rail code

Alton (Amtrak station), Illinois; Amtrak station code ALN

St. Louis Regional Airport, Bethalto, Illinois, from its IATA airport codeOtherAmericanLife TV Network

The River Aln, in the United Kingdom

Civic Revolutionary Movement (Argentina)

The Civic Revolutionary Movement (es: Movimiento Cívico Revolucionario) was an Argentine political party that was the successor of the Nationalist Liberation Alliance.

Deutsches Jungvolk

The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

Esoteric Nazism

Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.

Guillermo Patricio Kelly

Guillermo Patricio Kelly (b. Avellaneda, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1922 - d. Buenos Aires, July 1, 2005) was a politician and activist, the leader of the Nationalist Liberation Alliance (ALN) of Argentina from 1953 to 1955. He led the party to drop its former anti-semitism. Arrested after the military coup in 1955, Kelly escaped and fled the country. He later returned to Argentina and became active again in left-wing politics.

José Félix Uriburu

Lieutenant General José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu (July 20, 1868 – April 29, 1932) was the first de facto President of Argentina, ousting president Hipólito Yrigoyen by means of a military coup and declaring himself president. From September 6, 1930, to February 20, 1932, he controlled both the Executive and Legislative branches of government. Under the title of "President of the Provisional Government," he acted as the de facto Head of State of Argentina. His was the first of a series of successful coups d'état and unconstitutional governments that came to power in 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, and 1976.

Juan Bautista Molina

Brigadier General Juan Bautista Molina was an Argentine military commander and a pro-Nazi Argentine ultranationalist who led the Nationalist Liberation Alliance (ALN).Molina was involved in a number of plots to overthrow the Argentine liberal government of Agustín Pedro Justo in the 1930s. In order to contain Molina, President Justo appointed Molina as Argentina's military attaché in Germany in 1933 where Molina witnessed the Nazi regime that impressed him. Molina was promoted to brigadier general in 1937 and this was followed by his appointment as director general of the army engineers in 1938. Molina retired from army service in 1938 and devoted attention to his leadership of the AJN.In 1935, Molina called for the dissolution of the three powers of the national government, the abolition of political parties, the establishment of a military dictatorship, the enacting of press censorship, and actions to prevent "immorality", and changing the economic system to be led by guilds and the creation of a "consultative board [to] unite" workers and employers. In 1943, Molina led street demonstrations led by nationalist protestors against the Ramón Castillo government for its promotion of Argentine neutrality in World War II while Molina and his supporters were pro-Axis. During the protest, Molina's supporters shouted violent anti-American, anti-British, and anti-Semitic slogans, saying "Death to the British pigs" and "Death to the Jews".

List of Nazis

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of Nazis (A–E) : from Gustav Abb to Hanns Heinz Ewers (~ 247 names)

List of Nazis (F–K) : from Arnold Fanck to Kurt Küttner (~ 268 names)

List of Nazis (L–R) : from Bodo Lafferentz to Bernhard Rust (~ 232 names)

List of Nazis (S–Z) : from Ernst Sagebiel to Fritz Zweigelt (~ 259 names)

National Movement of Switzerland

The National Movement of Switzerland (German: Nationale Bewegung der Schweiz or NBS) was a Nazi umbrella-group formed in Switzerland in 1940.

The NBS had its roots in the 1938 foundation of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung by Rolf Henne after the more moderate Robert Tobler had removed Henne from the leadership of the National Front. In 1940, the Bund absorbed a number of tiny Nazi-supporting organisations to become the NBS under Henne and Dr. Max Leo Keller. Other groups absorbed included the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiterpartei and elements of the National Front. The new group also officially bore the French-language name Mouvement Nationale Suisse as an appeal to Francophone Swiss. Keller had worked with Heinrich Himmler and brought with him Andreas von Sprecher, whom the SS had trained, to run the new group's propaganda department.Keller, Jakob Schaffner and Ernst Hofmann, as representatives of the NBS, received an audience with the Swiss President Marcel Pilet-Golaz (in office throughout 1940) in which they demanded much closer relations with Nazi Germany, leading to eventual incorporation. This was followed by a Munich conference in October 1940 to which the Director of the Reich Main Security Office, Reinhard Heydrich and the Swiss doctor and SS-member Franz Riedweg invited the leaders of the NBS and of other Swiss groups in order to increase cohesion. Ultimately the meeting strengthened the hand of the NBS, as the remnants of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung as well as the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiter-Partei and Ernst Leonhardt's Nationalsozialistische Schweizerische Arbeitspartei agreed to be absorbed into the movement.Despite this strengthening the National Movement did not last long, as the Swiss Federal Council feared that annexation by Germany was just around the corner. In a series of moves against the most extreme groups, the NBS was closed down on 19 November 1940, by which time it had 160 cells and around 4000 members. The group continued to work underground for a time before a police crackdown which led to most of the leadership fleeing to Germany. Whilst in Germany Keller set up the Bund der Schweizer Nationalsozialisten as an émigré movement, although its influence remained limited; eventually he returned to Switzerland in 1941. Meanwhile, various NBS units continued underground activity secretly, mostly with help from the SS, until World War II ended in 1945.

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist Flyers Corps

The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).

During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.

National Socialist German Students' League

The National Socialist German Students' League (German: Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund, abbreviated NSDStB) was founded in 1926 as a division of the Nazi Party with the mission of integrating University-level education and academic life within the framework of the National Socialist worldview. Organized (as with other departments of the Nazi Party) strictly in accord with the Führerprinzip (or "leader principle") as well as the principle of Machtdistanz (or "power distance"), the NSDStB housed its members in so-called Kameradschaftshäusern (or "Fellowship Houses"), and (from 1930) had its members decked out in classic brown shirts and its own distinctive Swastika emblems.

After Germany's defeat in World War II, the Nazi Party along with its divisions and affiliated organisations were declared "criminal organizations" and banned by the Allied Control Council on October 10, 1945.

National Socialist League

The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.

National Unity Party (Canada)

The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Ossewabrandwag

The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.

Otto Strasser

Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.

His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.

Strasserism

Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.

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