Nationale Jeugdstorm

The Nationale Jeugdstorm (English: National Youth Storm; NJS) was a Dutch youth movement that existed from 1934 to 1945, organized as the Dutch equivalent of the German Hitlerjugend and as a Nazi counterpart of Scouting Nederland.

National Youth Storm
Nationale Jeugdstorm (NJS)/Vereniging Nationale Jeugdstorm (VNJ)
LeaderCornelis van Geelkerken
FoundedMay 1, 1934 (NJS)
February 1, 1936 (VNJ)
DissolvedFebruary 1, 1936 (NJS)
1945 (VNJ)
HeadquartersUtrecht, Netherlands
IdeologyFascism
Nazism
Mother partyNational Socialist Movement in the Netherlands
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Meisjes van de Nationale Jeugdstorm brengen de groet TMnr 60029589
Girls of the Nationale Jeugdstorm in Dutch East Indies, 1937, Tropenmuseum.

Formation

The organization was formally separate, but had very close links with the NSB. The director was the leading NSB member Cornelis van Geelkerken. On May 1, 1934, Van Geelkerken was dismissed as a government official because NSB membership was deemed incompatible with employment with the government. On that same day, he founded the Nationale Jeugdstorm. On February 1, 1936, the Nationale Jeugdstorm was shut down as a result of a Supreme Court ruling. An immediate restructuring followed, with a new 'democratic' organisation and a small name change (Vereniging Nationale Jeugdstorm, VNJ). Soon after the German invasion, the old name was re-adopted.

Nearly all members of the Nationale Jeugdstorm were children of NSB members.[1] Before the occupation, the Nationale Jeugdstorm had around 2,000 members; a number that increased during WWII to over 12,000. Members were between 10 and 17 years old, and had to be Dutch. The members called meeuwen (seagulls) and meeuwkes (gulls) (10–13 years) and stormers and stormsters (stormers) (14–17 years). Boys and girls formed separate groups within the organization. When they became 18, the boys were conscripted to the Nederlandse Arbeidsdienst (Dutch Labour Service) (NAD) or the Waffen SS.

References

  1. ^ Verzetsmuseum Amsterdam
  • Nazi Rule and Dutch Collaboration: The Netherlands under German Occupation, 1940-45 by Gerhard Hirschfeld (ISBN 0-85496-146-1)
Cornelis van Geelkerken

Cornelis van Geelkerken (Dutch pronunciation: [kɔrˈneːləs fɑŋ ˈɣeːlkɛrkə(n)] 19 March 1901 in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek – 29 March 1976 in Ede) was co-founder of the Dutch National Socialist Movement.

Cornelis van Geelkerken was born in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Belgium. In the 1920s he gravitated toward extreme nationalism. Proposing an authoritarian, anti-democratic movement to Anton Mussert they formed the National Socialist Movement. He became director of their youth corps, the Nationale Jeugdstorm. After the German invasion Geelkerken was appointed Inspector-General of the Nederlandsche Landwacht (home guard set up to combat the Resistance). After the war he was sentenced to life imprisonment but released in 1959. He died on 29 March 1976 in Ede.

Florentine Rost van Tonningen

Florentine Sophie Rost van Tonningen (née Heubel; 14 November 1914 – 24 March 2007) was the wife of Meinoud Rost van Tonningen, the second leader of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) and President of the National Bank during the German occupation (1941–1945). Because she continued to support and propagate the ideals of National Socialism after World War II and the death of her husband, she became known in the Netherlands as the "Black Widow".

Hendrik Koot

Hendrik Evert Koot (5 April 1898 – 14 February 1941) was a Dutch collaborator with the German occupying forces during World War II. A member of the WA, the paramilitary wing of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB), he was beaten up by members of a local knokploeg ("action group") in Amsterdam on 11 February 1941. His injuries were so severe that he died a few days later. His death was seized by the German authorities to start raids in the Jodenbuurt, the Amsterdam Jewish quarters, which in turn led to the February strike. Another element of Nazi retaliation was the installation of a Judenrat in Amsterdam.

Hitler Youth

The Hitler Youth (German: Hitlerjugend , often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany. Its origins dated back to 1922 and it received the name Hitler-Jugend, Bund deutscher Arbeiterjugend ("Hitler Youth, League of German Worker Youth") in July 1926. From 1933 until 1945, it was the sole official youth organisation in Germany and was partially a paramilitary organisation; it was composed of the Hitler Youth proper for male youths aged 14 to 18, the German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth (Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend or "DJ", also "DJV") for younger boys aged 10 to 14, and the League of German Girls (Bund Deutsche Mädel or "BDM").

With the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the organisation de facto ceased to exist. On 10 October 1945, the Hitler Youth and its subordinate units were outlawed by the Allied Control Council along with other Nazi Party organisations. Under Section 86 of the Criminal Code of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hitler Youth is an "unconstitutional organisation" and the distribution or public use of its symbols, except for educational or research purposes, is illegal.

Jan van Hoof

Jan Jozef Lambert van Hoof (Nijmegen, 7 August 1922 – Nijmegen, 19 September 1944) was a member of the Dutch resistance in World War II, where he cooperated with Allied Forces during Operation Market Garden, and was executed in action. Before and during the war, Van Hoof was a Rover Scout, and the Scouting medal the Nationale Padvindersraad was named in his honour. He is credited with disabling German explosives placed to destroy a vital bridge to delay allied liberation.

Levente (organization)

Levente Associations (Hungarian: Leventeszervezetek) or simply "levente" were paramilitary youth organizations in Hungary in the interwar period and during the Second World War. It was established in 1921 with the declared purpose of physical and health training. Since mid-1930s they have de facto become an attempt to circumvent the ban for conscription imposed by the Treaty of Trianon and over the time it had openly become a pre-military organization under the leadership of veterans. Since 1939, by the Act of Defense, all boys of ages 12–21 were required to take part in levente.It is usually compared to Hitler Jugend of Nazi Germany and Opera Nazionale Balilla of Italy. While having a common trait of military training with the latter two, levente was neither openly fascist nor particularly politicized, although it was not isolated of political influences of the time.Levente had also a smaller female branch, Leventelányok ("Levente Girls") initiated as a voluntary association in June 1942. Under the rule of Ferenc Szálasi installed by Nazis in Hungary in October 1944 obligatory levente duties were imposed unto girls of ages 12–19 despite the strong opposition of the Catholic Church. However the latter was not actually implemented because of the advance of the Red Army.By the end of World War II Levente members had to actually serve in auxiliary forces.

During the Soviet occupation many levente activists were tried by Soviet tribunals, convicted of "anti-Soviet activities" and deported to the Soviet Union for penal labor.

Meinoud Rost van Tonningen

Meinoud Marinus Rost van Tonningen (19 February 1894 – 6 June 1945) was a Dutch politician of the National Socialist Movement (NSB). During the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II, he collaborated extensively with the German occupation forces. He was the husband of Florentine Rost van Tonnigen.

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands

The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (Dutch: Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland, Dutch pronunciation: [nɑtsjoːˈnaːl soːʃaːˈlɪstisə bəˈʋeːɣɪŋ ɪn ˈneːdərlɑnt], NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party that called itself a "movement". As a parliamentary party participating in legislative elections, the NSB had some success during the 1930s. It remained the only legal party in the Netherlands during most of the Second World War.

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