National church

A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state. The idea was notably discussed during the 19th century, during the emergence of modern nationalism.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, in a draft discussing the question of church and state around 1828 wrote that

"a National Church might exist, and has existed, without [Christianity], because before the institution of the Christian Church - as [...] the Levitical Church in the Hebrew Constitution, [and] the Druidical in the Celtic, would suffice to prove".[1]

John Wordsworth, Bishop of Salisbury, wrote about the National Church of Sweden in 1911, interpreting the Church of Sweden and the Church of England as national churches of the Swedish and the English peoples, respectively. Lake (1987) traces the development of Presbyterianism in 16th-century England from the status of a "godly minority" which saw itself surrounded by the corrupt or hostile mass of the population, into a "genuine national church".[2]

The concept of a national church remains alive in the Protestantism of England and Scandinavia in particular. While, in a context of England, the national church remains a common denominator for the Church of England, some of the Lutheran "folk churches" of Scandinavia, characterized as national churches in the ethnic sense as opposed to the idea of a state church, emerged in the second half of the 19th century following the lead of Grundtvig.[3] However, in countries in which the state church (also known as the established church) has the following of the majority of citizens, the state church may also be the national church, and may be declared as such by the government e.g. Church of Denmark,[4] Church of Greece,[5] Church of Iceland.[6]

Holte Kirke 2005
A Church of Denmark parish church in Holte, with the Dannebrog flying in its kirkyard

Countries with national churches

Country National Church Denomination
 Albania Orthodox Church of Albania Eastern Orthodox
 Armenia Armenian Apostolic Church[7] Oriental Orthodox
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Orthodox Church[8] Eastern Orthodox
 Cyprus Church Of Cyprus Eastern Orthodox
 Denmark Church of Denmark[9] Lutheran
 England Church of England[10] Anglican
 Egypt Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria[11] Oriental Orthodox
 Estonia Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church[12] Lutheran
 Ethiopia Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church[13] Oriental Orthodox
 Faroe Islands Church of the Faroe Islands[14] Lutheran
 Finland Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland[15] & Finnish Orthodox Church[16] Lutheran & Eastern Orthodox
 France Catholic Church in France Roman Catholic
 Georgia Georgian Orthodox Church[17] Eastern Orthodox
 Germany Evangelical Church in Germany[18] & Catholic Church[18] Protestant[a] & Roman Catholic
 Greece Church of Greece[19] Eastern Orthodox
 Iceland Church of Iceland[20] Lutheran
 Ireland, Northern Church of Ireland Anglican
 Ireland, Republic of Catholic Church in Ireland Roman Catholic
 Italy Catholic Church in Italy Roman Catholic
 Lebanon Maronite Church[21] Eastern Catholic
 Macedonia Macedonian Orthodox Church[22] Eastern Orthodox
 Norway Church of Norway[23] Lutheran Christian
 Portugal Catholic Church in Portugal Roman Catholic
 Romania Romanian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox
 Russia Russian Orthodox Church[24] Eastern Orthodox
 Scotland Church of Scotland[25] Reformed
 Serbia Serbian Orthodox Church[26] Eastern Orthodox
 Sweden Church of Sweden[27] Lutheran
 Tuvalu Church of Tuvalu[28] Reformed
 Ukraine Ukrainian Orthodox Church[29], Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic

Criticism

Karl Barth denounced as heretical the tendency of "nationalizing" the Christian God, especially in the context of national churches sanctioning warfare against other Christian nations during World War I.[30]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ United Protestant (Lutheran & Reformed), Lutheran, and Reformed

References

  1. ^ Samuel Taylor Coleridge. On the Constitution of the Church and State. Classic Books Company; 2001. ISBN 978-0-7426-8368-6. p. 59.
  2. ^ Peter Lake, Maria Dowling, Protestantism and the national church in sixteenth century England, Taylor & Francis, 1987, ISBN, 9780709916819, ch. 8 (193ff.)
  3. ^ Dag Thorkildsen, "Scandinavia: Lutheranism and national identity" in World Christianities, c. 1815-1914, vol. 8 of The Cambridge history of Christianity, eds. Sheridan Gilley, Brian Stanley, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-81456-0, pp. 342–358.
  4. ^ Shadid, W. A. R. (1 January 1995). Religious Freedom and the Position of Islam in Western Europe. Peeters Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 9789039000656. Denmark has declared the Evangelical Lutheran church to be that national church (par. 4 of the Constitution), which corresponds the fact that 91.5% of the population are registered members of this church. This declaration implies that the Danish State does not take a neutral stand in religious matters. Nevertheless, freedom of religion has been incorporated in the Constitution. Nielsen (1992, 77) gives a short description of the position of the minority religious communities in comparison to that of the State Church: The Lutheran established church is a department of the state. Church affairs are government by a central government ministry, and clergy are government employees. The registration of births, deaths and marriages falls under this ministry of church affairs, and normally speaking the local Lutheran pastor is also the official registrar. The other small religious communities, viz. Roman Catholics, Methodists, Baptists and Jews, have the constitutional status of 'recognised communities of faith'. ... Contrary to the minority religious communities, the Lutheran Church is fully financed by the Danish State.
  5. ^ Enyedi, Zsolt; Madeley, John T.S. (2 August 2004). Church and State in Contemporary Europe. Routledge. p. 228. ISBN 9781135761417. Both as a state church and as a national church, the Orthodox Church of Greece has a lot in common with Protestant state churches, and even with Catholicism in some countries.
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing. 1 January 2005. p. 283. ISBN 9780816069835. When Iceland obtained home rule in 1874, the new constitution, while granting religious freedom, maintained the Evangelical Lutheran Church as "a national church . . . supported by the State." This was reaffirmed in the 1944 constitution of the new independent Republic of Iceland. Democratic reforms were adopted early in the 20th century that allowed for some independent decision making in parish councils, and let congregations choose their own pastors. Under a 1998 law, the church became largely autonomous, though it is still designated established church, supported by government taxes. At the end of the 19th century, Lutherans who wanted freedom from the state church founded the Evangelical Free Church of Iceland, which now has in excess of 7,000 members. The majority of Icelanders are members of the state church. Almost all children are baptized as Lutheran and more than 90 percent are subsequently confirmed. The Church conducts 75 percent of all marriages and 99 percent of all funerals.
  7. ^ Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 9781438110257. The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes referred to as the Gregorian Armenian Church by Western scholars, serves as the national church of the Armenian people.
  8. ^ Hall, Richard C. (1 January 2012). The Modern Balkans: A History. Reaktion Books. p. 51. ISBN 9781780230061. While this did not restore the Ohrid patriarchate, it did acknowledge the separation between the Orthodox church in Constantinople and the Bulgarian Orthodox church, which was now free to develop as the Bulgarian national church.
  9. ^ Venbrux, Eric; Quartier, Thomas; Venhorst, Claudia; Brenda Mathijssen (September 2013). Changing European Death Ways. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 178. ISBN 9783643900678. Simultaneously the church tax, ministers being public servants, and the status of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark as the national church indicate that the state lends its support to the church.
  10. ^ Britannicus (1834). The Church of England. p. 17. Having, in my last, arrive at the great points which I wished to establish--the apostolicity, independence, and authority of the Church of England; and that she is necessarily the National Church, because Christianity is the National Religion. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  11. ^ Makari, Peter E. (2007). Conflict & Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt. Syracuse University Press. p. 42. ISBN 9780815631446. The Coptic Orthodox Church is the historic, and national, church of Egypt and is deeply tied to a monastic tradition of spiritual growth and preparation for ministry of monks and nuns, a tradition that continues to thrive.
  12. ^ Elvy, Peter (1991). Opportunities and Limitations in Religious Broadcasting. Edinburgh: CTPI. p. 23. ISBN 9781870126151. Denominationally Estonia is Lutheran. During the time of national independence (1918-1940), 80% of the population belonged to the Lutheran National Church, about 17% were Orthodox Christians and the rest belonged to Free Churches.
  13. ^ Lorance, Cody (2008). Ethnographic Chicago. p. 140. ISBN 9780615218625. Her findings show that the development of the national church of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which began in the fourth century and made Christianity the state religion of Ethiopia, was also a major contributor to national development in the fields of independence, social progress, national unity and empowerment, literary development, arts, architecture, music, publication, and declaration of a national language and leadership, both spiritually and military.
  14. ^ Proctor, James (13 May 2013). Faroe Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 19. ISBN 9781841624563. Religion is important to the Faroese and 84% of the population belongs to the established national church in the islands, the Evangelical—Lutheran Foroya Kirkja, which has 61 churches in the Faroes and three out of every four marriages are held in one.
  15. ^ Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Britanncia Educational Publishing. 1 June 2013. p. 77. ISBN 9781615309955. One of Finland's national churches is the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Evankelis—luterilainen—kirkko), or simply the Church of Finland.
  16. ^ Kaplan, Robert B.; Baldauf, Richard B. (2005). Language Planning and Policy in Europe. Multilingual Matters. p. 147. ISBN 9781853598111. Currently, a clear majority of the population belongs to the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church, and 1% of the population are members of the other national church, the Finnish Orthodox Church (see Table 7).
  17. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (21 September 2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. p. 1195. ISBN 9781598842043. The Georgian Orthodox Church (GOC) is the Eastern Orthodox Christian body that serves as the national church of the Caucasian country of Georgia. The great majority of Georgians are members of the church.
  18. ^ a b Gelder, Craig Van (2008). The Missional Church and Denominations. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 9780802863584. Germany's two churches (the National Church for the Protestants and the Roman Catholic Church) were “proper”with respect to their polities.
  19. ^ Miller, James Edward (2009). The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780807832479. The creation of a national church of Greece, which the patriarch reluctantly recognized in 1850, set a pattern for other emerging Balkan states to form national churches independent of Constantinople.
  20. ^ Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (1 September 2006). Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. p. 85. ISBN 9780761420743. The National Church of Iceland, formally called the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, is the state religion, and the president of Iceland is its supreme authority.
  21. ^ Ajami, Fouad (30 May 2012). The Syrian Rebellion. Hoover Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780817915063. The Maronite Church is a national church. Its creed is attachment to Lebanon and its independence. The founding ethos of the Maronites is their migration from the Syrian plains to the freedom and “purity” of their home in Mount Lebanon.
  22. ^ Rae, Heather (15 August 2002). State Identities and the Homogenisation of Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 9780521797085. The creation of a national Church was also central to building national identity, with the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC) established in 1967, much to the outrage of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
  23. ^ Cristofori, Rinaldo; Ferrari, Silvio (28 February 2013). Law and Religion in the 21st Century: Relations between States and Religious Communities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 194. ISBN 9781409497332. The State shall support all religious communities including the Church of Norway on an equal footing, but the Church of Norway shall 'remain the people's Church and is as such supported by the State', thereby upholding its function as a national Church.
  24. ^ Prizel, Ilya (13 August 1998). National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780521576970. Although nominally a national church, the Russian Orthodox Church developed from a defensive, nativist institution to the ideological foundation of an imperial idea.
  25. ^ Morton, Andrew R. (1994). God's Will in a Time of Crisis: A Colloquium Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Baillie Commission. Edinburgh: CTPI. p. 14. ISBN 9781870126274. In October 1929, the Established Church and the United Free Church were united to form the national Church of Scotland.
  26. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (1 January 1975). The Chetniks. Stanford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9780804708579. He also had the support of the Serbian Orthodox Church, which as a national church long identified with the national destiny and aspirations of the Serbian people was naturally inclined to identify itself with the movement that had the backing of the king and the Servian-dominated government-in-exile.
  27. ^ Gilley, Sheridan; Stanley, Brian (2006). The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8, World Christianities C.1815-c.1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 354. ISBN 9780521814560. The Church of Sweden could be characterised as 'national church' or 'folk church', but not as 'state church', because the independence of the church was expressed by the establishment of a Church Assembly in 1863.
  28. ^ West, Barbara A. (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 845. ISBN 9781438119137. A second important cultural feature of the Tuvaluan nation is the centrality of the national church, the Ekalesia o Tuvalu, or Church of Tuvalu, in which up to 97 percent of the population claims membership.
  29. ^ Velychenko, Stephen (1 January 1992). National History as Cultural Process: A Survey of the Interpretations of Ukraine's Past in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian Historical Writing from the Earliest Times to 1914. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780920862759. For this reason the Ukrainian Orthodox Church was the true democratic national church of the Ukrainian nation.
  30. ^ Barth, Ethnics, ed. Braun, transl. Bromiley, New York, 1981, p. 305.
  • William Reed Huntington, A national church, Bedell lectures, Scribner's, 1897.
Catholicos of All Armenians

The Catholicos of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) (Armenian: Ամենայն Հայոց Կաթողիկոս) is the chief bishop and spiritual leader of Armenia's national church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, and the worldwide Armenian diaspora. According to tradition, the apostles Saint Thaddeus and Saint Bartholomew brought Christianity to Armenia in the first century. Saint Gregory the Illuminator became the first Catholicos of All Armenians following the nation's adoption of Christianity as its official religion in 301 AD. The seat of the Catholicos, and the spiritual and administrative headquarters of the Armenian Church, is the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, located in the city of Vagharshapat.

The Armenian Apostolic Church is part of the Oriental Orthodox communion that do not subscribe to the Christological formulas of the Council of Chalcedon. It includes the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, and the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

The current Catholicos is Karekin II.

Christianity in Nigeria

Christians in Nigeria comprise an estimated 40% of the population. Christians are dominant in the southern (south-east/south-south)and central region in Nigeria. According to the Pew Research Center, Nigeria has the largest Christian population of any country in Africa, with more than 80 million persons in Nigeria belonging to the church with various denominations.

,

Church of Denmark

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark (Danish: Den Danske Folkekirke or Folkekirken, literally: "the People's Church" or "the National Church"), is the established, state-supported church in Denmark. The reigning monarch is the supreme secular authority in the church. As of 1 January 2019, 74.7% of the population of Denmark are members, though membership is voluntary.Catholic Christianity was introduced to Denmark in the 9th century by Ansgar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. In the 10th century, King Harald Bluetooth became a Catholic and began organizing the church, and by the 11th century, Christianity was largely accepted throughout the country. Since the Reformation in Denmark, the Church has been Evangelical Lutheran, while retaining much of its pre-Reformation liturgical traditions.

The 1849 Constitution of Denmark designated the church "the Danish people's church" and mandates that the state support it as such.The Church of Denmark continues to maintain the historical episcopate. Theological authority is vested in bishops: ten bishops in mainland Denmark and one in Greenland, each overseeing a diocese. There is no archbishop; the Bishop of Copenhagen acts as a primus inter pares.

Church of Hawaii

The Church of Hawaiʻi, originally called the Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church, was the state church and national church of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1862 to 1893. It was the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Hawaiʻi.

Church of Iceland

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland (Icelandic: Hin evangelíska lúterska kirkja), also called the National Church (Icelandic: Þjóðkirkjan), is the officially established Christian church in Iceland. The church professes the Lutheran faith and is a member of the Porvoo Communion.

The church is organised into one diocese headed by the Bishop of Iceland. The current Bishop of Iceland is Agnes M. Sigurðardóttir, the first woman to hold this position. The church also has two suffragan dioceses, Skálholt and Hólar, with their bishops being suffragans or assistant bishops to the Bishop of Iceland.

Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland (CoS; Scots: The Scots Kirk; Scottish Gaelic: Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. It is Presbyterian and adheres to the Bible and Westminster Confession; the Church of Scotland celebrates two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, as well as five other rites, such as confirmation and matrimony. It is a member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches.The Church of Scotland traces its roots back to the beginnings of Christianity in Scotland, but its identity is principally shaped by the Reformation of 1560. According to the Church of Scotland, in December 2013 its membership was 398,389, or about 7.5% of the total population, dropping to 380,164 by the end of 2014 and 336,000 by 2017.In the 2011 census 32.4% claimed allegiance to the church. According to a 2016 Household survey 24.0% of the Scottish population in 2016 (down from 34% in 2009) reported belonging to the Church of Scotland.

Church of Sweden

The Church of Sweden (Swedish: Svenska kyrkan) is an Evangelical Lutheran national church in Sweden. A former state church, headquartered in Uppsala, with 5.9 million baptised members at year end 2018 it is the largest Christian denomination in Sweden.

It is the largest Lutheran denomination in Europe and the third-largest in the world after the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania. A member of the Porvoo Communion, the Church professes the Lutheran branch of Christianity. It is composed of thirteen dioceses, divided into parishes. It is an open national church which, working with a democratic organisation and through the ministry of the church, covers the whole nation. The Primate of the Church of Sweden is the Archbishop of Uppsala — currently Antje Jackelén, Sweden's first female archbishop. Today, the Church of Sweden is an Evangelical Lutheran church.It is liturgically and theologically "high church", having retained priests, vestments, and the Mass during the Swedish Reformation. In common with other Evangelical Lutheran churches (particularly in the Nordic and Baltic states), the Church of Sweden maintains the historical episcopate. Some Lutheran churches have congregational polity or modified episcopal polity without Apostolic succession, but the historic episcopate is maintained in Sweden and the other Lutheran nations of the Porvoo Communion.

The Church of Sweden is known for its liberal position in theological issues, particularly the question of homosexuality. When Eva Brunne was consecrated as Bishop of Stockholm in 2009, she became the first openly lesbian bishop in the world.Despite a significant yearly loss of members (lately 2% annually), its membership of 5,899,242 people accounts for 57.7% (yearend 2018) of the Swedish population. Until 2000 it held the position of state church. The high membership numbers are because until 1996 all newborn children were made members, unless their parents had actively cancelled their membership. Approximately 2% of the church's members regularly attend Sunday services. According to a Gallup poll conducted in 2009, 17% of the Swedish population considered religion as an important part of their daily life.

Culture of Scotland

The culture of Scotland refers to the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with Scotland and the Scottish people. Some elements of Scottish culture, such as its separate national church, are protected in law, as agreed in the Treaty of Union and other instruments. The Scottish flag is blue with a white saltire, and represents the cross of Saint Andrew.

Dissenter

A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. In the social and religious history of England and Wales, and, by extension, Ireland, however, it refers particularly to a member of a religious body who has, for one reason or another, separated from the Established Church or any other kind of Protestant who refuses to recognise the supremacy of the Established Church in areas where the established Church is or was Anglican.Originally, the term included English and Welsh Roman Catholics whom the original draft of the Nonconformist Relief Act 1779 styled "Protesting Catholic Dissenters". In practice, however, it designates Protestant Dissenters referred to in sec. ii. of the Act of Toleration of 1689 (see English Dissenters). The term recusant, in contrast, came to refer to Roman Catholics rather than Protestant dissenters.

The term has also been applied to those bodies who dissent from the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which is the national church of Scotland. In this connotation, the terms "dissenter" and "dissenting", which had acquired a somewhat contemptuous flavor, have tended since the middle of the 18th century to be replaced by "nonconformist", a term which did not originally imply secession, but only refusal to conform in certain particulars (for example the wearing of the surplice), with the authorized usages of the Established Church.Still more recently, the term "nonconformist" has in its turn, as the political attack on the principle of a state establishment of religion developed, tended to give way to the style of "free churches" and "Free Churchman". All three terms continue in use, "nonconformist" being the most usual, as it is the most colourless.

Episcopal Church (United States)

The Episcopal Church (TEC) is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces. The presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position.

In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians.The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. The Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders. The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings, liturgies, and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship.

The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course. It has opposed the death penalty and supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr. The church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions.The Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, and the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first openly gay person ordained as a bishop.

Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Finnish: Suomen evankelis-luterilainen kirkko; Swedish: Evangelisk-lutherska kyrkan i Finland) is a national church of Finland. It is part of the Lutheran branch of Christianity.

Lutheran Church in Korea

The Lutheran Church in Korea or LCK (Korean: 기독교한국루터회) is a confessional Lutheran denomination in the Republic of Korea and the only Lutheran denomination in South Korea. Unusual for a confessional Lutheran church, the LCK is not just a member of the confessional International Lutheran Council but also the mainline Lutheran World Federation.

The LCK has 5,857 baptized members, 5,210 communicant members, 37 congregations, 42 active pastors and a seminary. The current president of the LCK is the Rev. Dr. Chul-Hwan Kim, first elected in 2013.

Lutheran Church in Singapore

The Lutheran Church in Singapore (LCS) is a Lutheran denomination in Singapore. Constituted in 1997, it currently has approximately 2,834 members in 7 congregations nationwide.The current bishop of the LCS is the Rt. Rev. Terry Kee Buck Hwa.

Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland

The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the minister or elder chosen to moderate (chair) the annual General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which is held for a week in Edinburgh every year. After chairing the Assembly, the Moderator then spends the following year representing the Church of Scotland at civic events, and visiting congregations and project in Scotland and beyond. Because the Church of Scotland is Scotland's national church, and a presbyterian church has no bishops, the Moderator is a prominent figure in the life of Scotland.

National Church Life Survey

National Church Life Survey Research is an Australian organisation that surveys Australian community attitudes and runs studies on churches in Australia every 5 years. NCLS Research has collaborated with the Christian Research Association and has conducted surveys on community values, well-being, and security.

Papal legate

A papal legate or apostolic legate (from the ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters.

The legate is appointed directly by the pope (the bishop of Rome, head of the Catholic Church and (historically) head of state of the papal states). Hence a legate is usually sent to a government, a sovereign or to a large body of believers (such as a national church) or to take charge of a major religious effort, such as an (ecumenical) council, a crusade to the Holy Land, or even against a heresy such as the Cathars.

The term legation is applied both to a legate's mandate and to the territory concerned (such as a state, or an ecclesiastical province). The relevant adjective is legatine.

St. Andrew's Church, Copenhagen

St. Andrew's Church (Danish: Sankt Andreas Kirke) is a Lutheran church on Gothersgade in Copenhagen, Denmark, which was designed by the architect Martin Borch and built from 1897 to 1901. It is a parish church within the Danish National Church.

The National Academy

The National Academy, formerly known as The National School, and also its official name The National Church of England Academy, is a Church of England secondary school on in the Ashfield district of Nottinghamshire, England. It is a D.A.L.P (Diverse Academic Learning Partnership) school and has ties with academies such as The Holgate Academy, The Queen Elizabeth Academy, Tuxford Academy, Retford Oaks Academy and the Hucknall Sixth Form Centre.

Uniting Church in Australia

The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was established on 22 June 1977 when most congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, about two thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia and almost all the churches of the Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union.

In 2018, the Uniting Church in Australia claimed it had 243,000 members. In the 2016 census, approximately 870,200 Australians identified a religious affiliation with the Uniting Church in Australia, compared to 1,065,796 at the 2011 census. The UCA is the third largest Christian denomination in Australia behind the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church. There are around 2,000 UCA congregations, and National Church Life Survey (NCLS) research in 2001 indicated that average weekly attendance was approximately 10 per cent of census numbers.The UCA is the largest non-government provider of community and health services in Australia. Its service network consists of more than 400 agencies, institutions, and parish missions throughout Australia, with areas of service including aged care, hospitals, children, youth and family, disability, employment, emergency relief, drug and alcohol, youth homelessness and suicide. Affiliated agencies include UCA’s community and health service provider network, affiliated schools, the Uniting Aboriginal and Islander Christian Congress, Frontier Services, UnitingWorld, and synods, presbyteries and congregations.

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