National accounts

National accounts or national account systems (NAS) are the implementation of complete and consistent accounting techniques for measuring the economic activity of a nation. These include detailed underlying measures that rely on double-entry accounting. By design, such accounting makes the totals on both sides of an account equal even though they each measure different characteristics, for example production and the income from it. As a method, the subject is termed national accounting or, more generally, social accounting.[1] Stated otherwise, national accounts as systems may be distinguished from the economic data associated with those systems.[2] While sharing many common principles with business accounting, national accounts are based on economic concepts.[3] One conceptual construct for representing flows of all economic transactions that take place in an economy is a social accounting matrix with accounts in each respective row-column entry.[4]

National accounting has developed in tandem with macroeconomics from the 1930s with its relation of aggregate demand to total output through interaction of such broad expenditure categories as consumption and investment.[5] Economic data from national accounts are also used for empirical analysis of economic growth and development.[1][6]


National accounts broadly present output, expenditure, and income activities of the economic actors (households, corporations, government) in an economy, including their relations with other countries' economies, and their wealth (net worth). They present both flows (measured but it is over a period) and stocks (measured at the end of a period), ensuring that the flows are reconciled with the stocks. As to flows, the national income and product accounts (in U.S. terminology) provide estimates for the money value of income and output per year or quarter, including GDP. As to stocks, the 'capital accounts' are a balance-sheet approach that has assets on one side (including values of land, the capital stock, and financial assets) and liabilities and net worth on the other, measured as of the end of the accounting period. National accounts also include measures of the changes in assets, liabilities, and net worth per accounting period. These may refer to flow of funds accounts or, again, capital accounts.[1]

There are a number of aggregate measures in the national accounts, notably including gross domestic product or GDP, perhaps the most widely cited measure of aggregate economic activity. Ways of breaking down GDP include as types of income (wages, profits, etc.) or expenditure (consumption, investment/saving, etc.). Measures of these are examples of macro-economic data.[7][8][9][10] Such aggregate measures and their change over time are generally of strongest interest to economic policymakers, although the detailed national accounts contain a source of information for economic analysis, for example in the input-output tables which show how industries interact with each other in the production process.

National accounts can be presented in nominal or real amounts, with real amounts adjusted to remove the effects of price changes over time.[11] A corresponding price index can also be derived from national output. Rates of change of the price level and output may also be of interest. An inflation rate (growth rate of the price level) may be calculated for national output or its expenditure components. Economic growth rates (most commonly the growth rate of GDP) are generally measured in real (constant-price) terms. One use of economic-growth data from the national accounts is in growth accounting across longer periods of time for a country or across to estimate different sources of growth, whether from growth of factor inputs or technological change.[12]

The accounts are derived from a wide variety of statistical source data including surveys, administrative and census data, and regulatory data, which are integrated and harmonized in the conceptual framework. They are usually compiled by national statistical offices and/or central banks in each country, though this is not always the case, and may be released on both an annual and (less detailed) quarterly frequency. Practical issues include inaccuracies from differences between economic and accounting methodologies, lack of controlled experiments on quality of data from diverse sources, and measurement of intangibles and services of the banking and financial sectors.[13]

Two developments relevant to the national accounts since the 1980s include the following. Generational accounting is a method for measuring redistribution of lifetime tax burdens across generations from social insurance, including social security and social health insurance. It has been proposed as a better guide to the sustainability of a fiscal policy than budget deficits, which reflect only taxes minus spending in the current year.[14] Environmental or green national accounting is the method of valuing environmental assets, which are usually not counted in measuring national wealth, in part due to the difficulty of valuing them. The method has been proposed as an alternative to an implied zero valuation of environmental assets and as a way of measuring the sustainability of welfare levels in the presence of environmental degradation.[15]

Macroeconomic data not derived from the national accounts are also of wide interest, for example some cost-of-living indexes, the unemployment rate, and the labor force participation rate.[16] In some cases, a national-accounts counterpart of these may be estimated, such as a price index computed from the personal consumption expenditures and the GDP gap (the difference between observed GDP and potential GDP).[17]

Main components

The presentation of national accounts data may vary by country (commonly, aggregate measures are given greatest prominence), however the main national accounts include the following accounts for the economy as a whole and its main economic actors.

  • Current accounts:
production accounts which record the value of domestic output and the goods and services used up in producing that output. The balancing item of the accounts is value added, which is equal to GDP when expressed for the whole economy at market prices and in gross terms;
income accounts, which show primary and secondary income flows - both the income generated in production (e.g. wages and salaries) and distributive income flows (predominantly the redistributive effects of government taxes and social benefit payments). The balancing item of the accounts is disposable income ("National Income" when measured for the whole economy);
expenditure accounts, which show how disposable income is either consumed or saved. The balancing item of these accounts is saving.
  • Capital accounts, which record the net accumulation, as the result of transactions, of non-financial assets; and the financing, by way of saving and capital transfers, of the accumulation. Net lending/borrowing is the balancing item for these accounts
  • Financial accounts, which show the net acquisition of financial assets and the net incurrence of liabilities. The balance on these accounts is the net change in financial position.
  • Balance sheets, which record the stock of assets, both financial and non-financial, and liabilities at a particular point in time. Net worth is the balance from the balance sheets (United Nations, 1993).

The accounts may be measured as gross or net of consumption of fixed capital (a concept in national accounts similar to depreciation in business accounts).

Notably absent from these components, however, is unpaid work, because its value is not included in any of the aforementioned categories of accounts, just as it is not included in calculating gross domestic product (GDP). An Australian study has shown the value of this uncounted work to be approximately 50% of GDP, making its exclusion rather significant.[18] As GDP is tied closely to the national accounts system,[19] this may lead to a distorted view of national accounts. Because national accounts are widely used by governmental policy-makers in implementing controllable economic agendas,[20] some analysts have advocated for either a change in the makeup of national accounts or adjustments in the formulation of public policy.[21]


The original motivation for the development of national accounts and the systematic measurement of employment was the need for accurate measures of aggregate economic activity. This was made more pressing by the Great Depression and as a basis for Keynesian macroeconomic stabilisation policy and wartime economic planning. The first efforts to develop such measures were undertaken in the late 1920s and 1930s, notably by Colin Clark and Simon Kuznets. Richard Stone of the U.K. led later contributions during World War II and thereafter. The first formal national accounts were published by the United States in 1947. Many European countries followed shortly thereafter, and the United Nations published A System of National Accounts and Supporting Tables in 1952.[1][22] International standards for national accounting are defined by the United Nations System of National Accounts, with the most recent version released for 2008.[23]

Even before that in early 1920s there were national economic accounts tables. One of such systems was called Balance of national economy and was used in USSR and other socialistic countries to measure the efficiency of socialistic production.Economic theory.[24]

In Europe, the worldwide System of National Accounts has been adapted in the European System of Accounts (ESA), which is applied by members of the European Union and many other European countries. Research on the subject continues from its beginnings through today.[25]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Nancy D. Ruggles, 1987. "social accounting," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 4, pp. 377–82.
  2. ^ United Nations, The System of National Accounts and National Accounts Data.
  3. ^ Joel S. Demski, 2008. "accounting and economics," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Abstract.
  4. ^ Graham Pyatt and Jeffery I. Round, ed., 1985. Social Accounting Matrices: A Basis for Planning, World Bank.
  5. ^ John Maynard Keynes, 1936. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, Macmillan.
  6. ^ Mankiw, N. Gregory; Romer, David; Weil, David N. (1992). "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 107 (2): 407–437. doi:10.2307/2118477.
  7. ^ Referred to in the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes under JEL: C8 - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology and JEL: E01 - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth.
  8. ^ T. P. Hill (2001). Macroeconomic Data. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. pp. 9111–9117.
  9. ^ Lequiller, François; Blades, Derek (2006). Understanding National Accounts. OECD.
  10. ^ Understanding National Accounts - Lequiller François, Derek W. Blades - Google Boeken. Retrieved 2013-03-25.
  11. ^ Amartya Sen, 1979. "The Welfare Basis of Real Income Comparisons: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, 17(1), p p. 1–45.
       • D. Usher, 1987. "real income," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 4, p. 104.
  12. ^ From The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2008, 2nd Edition, with Abstract links:
       • "economic growth" by Peter Howitt and David N. Weil
       • "growth accounting" by Francesco Caselli.
  13. ^ Oskar Morgenstern, 1963. On the Accuracy of Economic Observations, 2nd ed. ch. 16. Princeton.
       • H. O. Stekler, 1964. [Review], Journal of the American Statistical Association, 59(307), pp. 965-967.
       • J. Steven Landefeld, Eugene P. Seskin, and Barbara M. Fraumeni. 2008. "Taking the Pulse of the Economy: Measuring GDP." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), pp. 193–216. PDF link (press +).
       From The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition, with Abstract links:
      • "intangible capital" by Daniel E. Sichel
       • "national income" by Thomas K. Rymes.
  14. ^ The Economist, Economics A-Z, "Generational Accounting." Accessed 9 Aug. 2010.
       • Jagadeesh Gokhale, 2008. "generational accounting." The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract and uncorrected proof.
       • Laurence J. Kotlikoff, 1992. Generational Accounting: Knowing Who Pays, and When, for What We Spend. Free Press. Review extract.
  15. ^ From The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2008, 2nd Edition, with Abstract links:
       • "green national accounting" by Sjak Smulders
       • "sustainability' by Daniel W. Bromley
       • National Research Council, 1994. Assigning Economic Value to Natural Resources, National Academy Press. Chapter links.
  16. ^ • Robert Topel, 2008. "unemployment," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
      • Katharine Bradbury, 2008. "unemployment measurement," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
  17. ^ Robert J. Gordon and Peter K. Clark, 1984, "Unemployment and Potential Output in the 1980s," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, (2), pp. 537-568 Archived 2016-05-21 at the Portuguese Web Archive.
  18. ^ Blades, François Lequiller, Derek (2006). Understanding national accounts (Reprint. ed.). Paris: OECD. p. 112. ISBN 978-92-64-02566-0.
  19. ^ Blades, François Lequiller, Derek (2006). Understanding national accounts (Reprint. ed.). Paris: OECD. ISBN 9264025669. GDP lies at the heart of the system of national accounts.
  20. ^ "National Income Accounting and Public Policy" (PDF).
  21. ^ "National Accounts: A Practical Introduction" (PDF).
  22. ^ André Vanoli, 2008. "national accounting, history of," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
  23. ^ United Nations, System of National Accounts 2008-2008 SNA.
  24. ^ Economic theory , [1].
  25. ^ National Bureau of Economic Research Book Series, 1937-2010. Studies in Income and Wealth, 71 v.

External links

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Portuguese: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. IBGE performs a decennial national census; questionnaires account for information such as age, household income, literacy, education, occupation and hygiene levels.

IBGE is a public institute created in 1936 under the name National Institute of Statistics. Its founder and chief proponent was statistician Mário Augusto Teixeira de Freitas. The current name dates from 1938. Its headquarters are located in Rio de Janeiro, and its current president is Roberto Olinto. It was made a federal agency by Decree-Law No. 161 on February 13, 1967, and is linked to the Ministry of Planning, Budget, and Management.

Distribution (economics)

In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital). In general theory and the national income and product accounts, each unit of output corresponds to a unit of income. One use of national accounts is for classifying factor incomes and measuring their respective shares, as in national Income. But, where focus is on income of persons or households, adjustments to the national accounts or other data sources are frequently used. Here, interest is often on the fraction of income going to the top (or bottom) x percent of households, the next x percent, and so forth (defined by equally spaced cut points, say quintiles), and on the factors that might affect them (globalization, tax policy, technology, etc.).

GDP deflator

In economics, the GDP deflator (implicit price deflator) is a measure of the level of prices of all new, domestically produced, final goods and services in an economy in a year. GDP stands for gross domestic product, the total monetary value of all final goods and services produced within the territory of a country over a particular period of time (quarterly or annually).

Like the consumer price index (CPI), the GDP deflator is a measure of price inflation/deflation with respect to a specific base year; the GDP deflator of the base year itself is equal to 100. Unlike the CPI, the GDP deflator is not based on a fixed basket of goods and services; the "basket" for the GDP deflator is allowed to change from year to year with people's consumption and investment patterns.

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time, often annually.

GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations.

Gross value added

In economics, gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy. In national accounts GVA is output minus intermediate consumption; it is a balancing item of the national accounts' production account.


An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source. The party bringing in the good is called an importer. An import in the receiving country is an export from the sending country. Importation and exportation are the defining financial transactions of international trade.

In international trade, the importation and exportation of goods are limited by import quotas and mandates from the customs authority. The importing and exporting jurisdictions may impose a tariff (tax) on the goods. In addition, the importation and exportation of goods are subject to trade agreements between the importing and exporting jurisdictions.

Input–output model

In economics, an input–output model is a quantitative economic model that represents the interdependencies between different branches of a national economy or different regional economies. Wassily Leontief (1906–1999) is credited with developing this type of analysis and earned the Nobel Prize in Economics for his development of this model.


Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale (or repair).Inventory management is a discipline primarily about specifying the shape and placement of stocked goods. It is required at different locations within a facility or within many locations of a supply network to precede the regular and planned course of production and stock of materials.

The concept of inventory, stock or work-in-process has been extended from manufacturing systems to service businesses and projects, by generalizing the definition to be "all work within the process of production- all work that is or has occurred prior to the completion of production." In the context of a manufacturing production system, inventory refers to all work that has occurred – raw materials, partially finished products, finished products prior to sale and departure from the manufacturing system. In the context of services, inventory refers to all work done prior to sale, including partially process information.


The scope of inventory management concerns the balance between replenishment lead time, carrying costs of inventory, asset management, inventory forecasting, inventory valuation, inventory visibility, future inventory price forecasting, physical inventory, available physical space, quality management, replenishment, returns and defective goods, and demand forecasting. Balancing these competing requirements leads to optimal inventory levels, which is an ongoing process as the business needs shift and react to the wider environment.

Inventory management involves a retailer seeking to acquire and maintain a proper merchandise assortment while ordering, shipping, handling and related costs are kept in check. It also involves systems and processes that identify inventory requirements, set targets, provide replenishment techniques, report actual and projected inventory status and handle all functions related to the tracking and management of material. This would include the monitoring of material moved into and out of stockroom locations and the reconciling of the inventory balances. It also may include ABC analysis, lot tracking, cycle counting support, etc. Management of the inventories, with the primary objective of determining/controlling stock levels within the physical distribution system, functions to balance the need for product availability against the need for minimizing stock holding and handling costs.

List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP (PPP)

This is a list of Latin American and Caribbean countries by gross domestic product at purchasing power parity in international dollars according to the International Monetary Fund's estimates in the October 2018 World Economic Outlook database.

The Latin American countries Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina accounted for over two-thirds of the region's total gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2019, while Caribbean and North Atlantic nations represented just over 1% of the region's total GDP (PPP). The Bahamas had the region's highest GDP (PPP) per capita, whereas Haiti had the lowest.

Cuba is not included in the list due to lack of economic data. Puerto Rico is not listed since it is a U.S. territory.

List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP (nominal)

This is a list of Latin American and Caribbean countries by gross domestic product (nominal) in USD according to the International Monetary Fund's estimates in the October 2018 World Economic Outlook database.

Cuba is not included in the list due to lack of economic data. Puerto Rico is not listed since it is a U.S. territory.

List of countries by current account balance

This is a list of countries by current account balance.

Measures of national income and output

A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion). All are specially concerned with counting the total amount of goods and services produced within the economy and by different sectors. The boundary is usually defined by geography or citizenship, and it is also defined as the total income of the nation and also restrict the goods and services that are counted. For instance, some measures count only goods & services that are exchanged for money, excluding bartered goods, while other measures may attempt to include bartered goods by imputing monetary values to them.

National Income and Product Accounts

The national income and product accounts (NIPA) are part of the national accounts of the United States. They are produced by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the Department of Commerce. They are one of the main sources of data on general economic activity in the United States.

They use double-entry accounting to report the monetary value and sources of output produced in the country and the distribution of incomes that production generates. Data are available at the national and industry levels.

Seven summary accounts are published, as well as a much larger number of more specific accounts. The first summary account shows gross domestic product (GDP) and its major components.

The table summarizes national income on the left (debit, revenue) side and national product on the right (credit, expense) side of a two-column accounting report. Thus the left side gives GDP by the income method, and the right side gives GDP by the expenditure method.

The GDP is given on the bottom line of both sides of the report. GDP must have the same value on both sides of the account. This is because income and expenditure are defined in a way that forces them to be equal (see accounting identity). We show the 2003 table later in this article; we present the left side first for convenient screen display.

The U.S. report (updated quarterly) is available in several forms, including interactive, from links on the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) NIPA ([1]) page. Other countries report based on their own adopted system of National accounts which are frequently based on the U.S. NIPAs, the widely adopted United Nations System of National Accounts, or their own custom approach. The level of detail (granularity) accounted for internally, and reported publicly, varies widely across countries. Likewise, a nation's system of accounts, (analogous to a firm's Chart of accounts) are typically gradually revised and updated on their own individual schedule. The U.S. NIPAs are prepared by the staff of the Directorate for National Economic Accounts within the BEA. The source data largely originate from public sources, such as government surveys and administrative data, and they are supplemented by data from private sources, such as data from trade associations (BEA 2008: 1–6).

Net material product

Net Material Product (NMP) was the main macroeconomic indicator used for monitoring growth in national accounts of socialist countries during the Soviet era. These countries included the USSR and all the Comecon members. NMP is the conceptual equivalent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the United Nations System of National Accounts, although numerically the two measures are calculated differently.

NMP is calculated for the material production sectors only, and excludes most of the service sectors, which are part of GDP. The material production sectors include manufacturing industries, agriculture and forestry, construction, wholesale and retail trade, supply of material inputs, road maintenance, freight transport (but not passenger transport), communication and information services supporting material production, and other material production activities. It is calculated by subtracting the value of all production costs (including the cost of material inputs, depreciation, and labor in production) from the value of output produced in the material production sectors.

For comparison with GDP, it is necessary to add back to NMP the value of fixed asset depreciation (which is not subtracted in GDP calculations) and the total value of all services classified as "non-productive" in the socialist system of national accounts (which are part of GDP). These "non-productive" services include health care, education, housing, public utilities, consumer services, communication in the non-productive sector, passenger transport, financial services (banking, credit, insurance), government services, the defense establishment, and social organizations. The tax components subtracted in the calculation of GDP should also be added back to obtain NMP.

The economic term that corresponds to Net Material Product in Russian is Национальный доход (literally: national income). None of the accepted meanings of national income in English matches the meaning in Russian, and Net Material Product was introduced into English usage as the best alternative.

Non-departmental public body

In the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, Treasury, the Scottish Government and the Northern Ireland Executive to quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisations). NDPBs are not an integral part of any government department and carry out their work at arm's length from ministers, although ministers are ultimately responsible to Parliament for the activities of bodies sponsored by their department.

The term includes the four types of NDPB (executive, advisory, tribunal and independent monitoring boards) but excludes public corporations and public broadcasters (BBC, Channel 4 and S4C).

Primary sector of the economy

An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing. A company in a primary industry can also be involved in turning natural resources into products.

Primary industries are also known as agriculture sector.

Primary industry tends to make up a larger portion of the economy of developing countries than they do for developed countries.

The primary sector is concerned with the extraction of raw materials. It includes fishing, farming and mining.Primary industry is a larger sector in developing countries; for instance, animal husbandry is more common in countries in Africa than in Japan. Mining in 19th-century South Wales provides a case study of how an economy can come to rely on one form of activity.In developed countries the primary industry has become more technologically advanced, for instance the mechanization of farming as opposed to hand picking and planting. In more developed countries, additional capital is invested in primary means of production. As an example, in the United States' corn belt, combine harvesters pick the corn, and sprayers spray large amounts of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, producing a higher yield than is possible using less capital-intensive techniques. These technological advances and investment allow the primary sector to require less workforce and, this way, developed countries tend to have a smaller percentage of their workforce involved in primary activities, instead having a higher percentage involved in the secondary and tertiary sectors.Developed countries are allowed to maintain and develop their primary industries even further due to the excess wealth. For instance, European Union agricultural subsidies provide buffers for the fluctuating inflation rates and prices of agricultural produce. This allows developed countries to be able to export their agricultural products at extraordinarily low prices. This makes them extremely competitive against those of poor or underdeveloped countries that maintain free market policies and low or non-existent tariffs to counter them. Such differences also come about due to more efficient production in developed economies, given farm machinery, better information available to farmers, and often larger scale.

System of National Accounts

The System of National Accounts (often abbreviated as SNA; formerly the United Nations System of National Accounts or UNSNA) is an international standard system of national accounts, the first international standard being published in 1953. Handbooks have been released for the 1968 revision, the 1993 revision, and the 2008 revision. The System of National Accounts, in its various released versions, frequently with significant local adaptations, has been adopted by many nations. It continues to evolve and is maintained by the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Statistical Office of the European Communities

The aim of SNA is to provide an integrated, complete system of accounts enabling international comparisons of all significant economic activity. The suggestion is that individual countries use SNA as a guide in constructing their own national accounting systems, to promote international comparability. However, adherence to an international standard is entirely voluntary, and cannot be rigidly enforced. The systems used by some countries (for example, France, United States and China) differ significantly from the SNA. In itself this is not a major problem, provided that each system provides sufficient data which can be reworked to compile national accounts according to the SNA standard.

Value added

In business, the difference between the sale price and the production cost of a product is the unit profit. In economics, the sum of the unit profit, the unit depreciation cost, and the unit labor cost is the unit value added. Summing value added per unit over all units sold is total value added. Total value added is equivalent to revenue less intermediate consumption. Value added is a higher portion of revenue for integrated companies, e.g., manufacturing companies, and a lower portion of revenue for less integrated companies, e.g., retail companies. Total value added is very closely approximated by compensation of employees plus earnings before taxes. The first component is a return to labor and the second component is a return to capital. In national accounts used in macroeconomics, it refers to the contribution of the factors of production, i.e., capital (e.g., land and capital goods) and labor, to raising the value of a product and corresponds to the incomes received by the owners of these factors. The national value added is shared between capital and labor (as the factors of production), and this sharing gives rise to issues of distribution.

Outside of economics, value added refers to "extra" feature(s) of an item of interest (product, service, person etc.) that go beyond the standard expectations and provide something "more", even if the cost is higher to the client or purchasor. Value-added features give competitive edges to companies with otherwise more expensive products.

Value-added methods and measurements are also being utilized in education as part of a national movement towards teacher evaluation and accountability in the United States. This type of measure is known as a value added modeling or measures.


A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done. Payment may be calculated as a fixed amount for each task completed (a task wage or piece rate), or at an hourly or daily rate (wage labour), or based on an easily measured quantity of work done.

Wages are part of the expenses that are involved in running a business.

Payment by wage contrasts with salaried work, in which the employer pays an arranged amount at steady intervals (such as a week or month) regardless of hours worked, with commission which conditions pay on individual performance, and with compensation based on the performance of the company as a whole. Waged employees may also receive tips or gratuity paid directly by clients and employee benefits which are non-monetary forms of compensation. Since wage labour is the predominant form of work, the term "wage" sometimes refers to all forms (or all monetary forms) of employee compensation.

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