National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty

The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, commonly known simply as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.

The trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for ever, for everyone".[2] The trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907. Historically, the trust tended to focus on English country houses, which still make up the largest part of its holdings, but it also protects historic landscapes such as in the Lake District, historic urban properties, and nature reserves. In Scotland, there is an independent National Trust for Scotland. The Trust has special powers to prevent land being sold off or mortgaged, although this can be over-ridden by Parliament.

The National Trust has been the beneficiary of many large donations and bequests. It owns over 350 heritage properties, which includes many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, and social history sites.[1] Most of these are open to the public, usually for a charge. Others are leased, on terms that manage to preserve their character. The Trust is one of the largest landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 247,000 hectares (610,000 acres; 2,470 km2; 950 sq mi) of land,[1] including many characteristic sites of natural beauty, most of which are open to the public free of charge.

The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees, legacies, and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties. It has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, and in recent years, the trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories, workhouses, and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon.[3]

In 2015, the trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure.[4] The review led to the downsizing of the council and limitation of tenure to two terms.[5]

National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
AbbreviationNational Trust
MottoFor ever, for everyone
Legal statusTrust
PurposeTo look after Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty permanently for the benefit of the nation across England, Wales and Northern Ireland
HeadquartersSwindon, Wiltshire
  • United Kingdom
Region served
England, Wales and Northern Ireland
5.1 million (2017)
Key people
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales
Hilary McGrady
Tim Parker
Main organ
Board of trustees
£494 million (2014–15)


The National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee. It was later incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, and 1971.[6] It is also a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006.[7]

Its formal purpose is:

The preservation for the benefit of the Nation of lands and tenements (including buildings) of beauty or historic interest and, as regards lands, for the preservation of their natural aspect, features and animal and plant life. Also the preservation of furniture, pictures and chattels of any description having national and historic or artistic interest.

The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill (1838–1912), Sir Robert Hunter (1844–1913) and Hardwicke Rawnsley (1851–1920), prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society.

Wicken Lode1
Wicken Fen, the National Trust's first nature reserve, acquired with help from Charles Rothschild in 1899

In the early days, the trust was concerned primarily with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; its first property was Alfriston Clergy House, and a decorative cornice there may have given the trust its sprig of oak symbol. The trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, and its first archaeological monument was White Barrow.

The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of property and money. From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is largely due to him, and it will perhaps never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm."[8] At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang; they wore masks and carried sacks of money, and their use of unusual pseudonyms such as Bill Stickers and Red Biddy caught the public's attention, bringing awareness to the increasing threat of urbanisation.[9]

The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties. The diarist James Lees-Milne is usually credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact simply an employee of the trust, and was carrying through policies already decided by its governing body.[10]

Stourhead garden
One of the most visited National Trust properties is Stourhead, with its classic landscape garden.

Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Cragside, Canons Ashby, Erddig and Kingston Lacy. The last is a particularly notable asset as it comprises an art collection, Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land.[11]

One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses. In response, the council asked Sir Henry Benson to chair an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions.

In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, and was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it did little to slow the growth in its membership numbers.

In 2005, the trust moved to a new head office in Swindon, Wiltshire. The building was constructed on an abandoned railway yard, and is intended as a model of brownfield renewal. It is named Heelis, taken from the married name of children's author Beatrix Potter, a huge supporter of, and donor to, the trust, which now owns the land she formerly owned in Cumbria.[12]


Causeway-code poet-4
The Giant's Causeway in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, the Trust's most popular site

The trust is an independent charity rather than a government institution. Historic England and its equivalents in other parts of the United Kingdom are government bodies that perform some functions which overlap with the work of the National Trust. At an operational level, the trust is organised into regions which are aligned with the official local government regions of the UK. Its headquarters are in Swindon. [13]

It was founded as a not-for-profit company in 1895 but was later re-incorporated by a private Act of Parliament, the National Trust Act 1907. Subsequent acts of Parliament between 1919 and 1978 amended and extended the trust's powers and remit. In 2005, the governance of the trust was substantially changed by the Charity Commission.[6]

The trust is governed by a twelve-strong board of trustees, appointed and overseen by a council of twenty-six people elected by the members of the trust, and twenty-six appointed by other organisations whose work is related to that of the trust, such as the Soil Association, the Royal Horticultural Society and the Council for British Archaeology.[14]

The members elect half of the council of the National Trust, and periodically (most recently, in 2006) vote on the organisations which may appoint the other half of the council.[15] Members may also propose and vote on motions at the annual general meeting, although these are advisory and do not decide the policy of the trust.[16]


National Trust headquarters, Swindon
The National Trust's headquarters in Swindon

It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom, with 5.1 million members as of 2017,[1] who enjoy free entry to open NT properties. For the year ended 28 February 2015, the trust's total income was £494 million, up from £460 million in 2013–14, making it one of the largest UK charities by income and assets. The largest sources of income were membership subscriptions (£161 million), direct property income (£145.1 million) and legacies (£50.5 million). In addition, the trust receives money from its commercial arm, National Trust Enterprises Ltd, which undertakes profit-making activities such as running gift shops and restaurants at NT properties. The organisation has cash and financial investments of £1.127 billion, a 7.5% increase on the previous year.[1]

Membership and volunteering

The trust is one of the largest membership organisations in the world, and annual subscriptions are its most important source of income. Membership numbers have grown from 226,200 when the trust celebrated its 75th anniversary in 1970 to 500,000 in 1975, 1 million in 1981, 2 million in 1990, and by 2015, membership had reached 4.24 million.[1] Members are entitled to free entry to trust properties that are open to the public for a charge.[17] There is a separate organisation called the Royal Oak Foundation for American supporters.[18]

The trust is heavily supported by volunteers, who, as of 2013, numbered approximately 70,000, contributing 3.77 million hours of work, worth an estimated £29.2 million.[19] Volunteering experiences are wide and varied, ranging from helping in its historic houses and gardens, to fund-raising and providing specialist skills.[20] The trust is a member of NCVYS in recognition of its work for the personal and social development of young people.[21]

National Trust properties

Historic houses and gardens

Barrington Court, one of the first two historic houses owned by the Trust.[10]

The trust owns 200 historic houses that are open to the public. The majority of them are country houses, and most of the others are associated with famous individuals. The majority of these country houses contain collections of pictures, furniture, books, metalwork, ceramics and textiles that have remained in their historic context. Most of the houses also have important gardens attached to them, and the trust owns some important gardens not attached to a house. The properties include some of the most famous stately homes in the country and some of the key gardens in the history of British gardening.

The trust acquired the majority of its country houses in the mid 20th century, when death duties were at their most punitive and many houses were being demolished. James Lees-Milne was secretary of the trust's Country House Committee in the key period either side of World War II. The arrangements made with families bequeathing their homes to the trust often allowed them to continue to live in the property.[10] Since the 1980s, the trust has been increasingly reluctant to take over large houses without substantial accompanying endowment funds, and its acquisitions in this category have been less frequent.[10]

In recent years, the trust has sought to broaden its activities and appeal, mainly by acquiring historic properties such as former mills (early factories), workhouses and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon.[10]

Some properties have individual arrangements, so for example Wakehurst Place is managed by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew and Waddesdon Manor by a private foundation; both are open to the public.[22]

Paintings and sculpture collection

Rembrandt self-portrait 1635.jpeg
The Rembrandt self-portrait at Buckland Abbey, painted 1635, formally attributed to him in March 2013

Since its founding in 1895, the trust has gradually expanded its collection of art, mostly through whole property acquisitions. Since 1956, there has been a Curator of Pictures and Sculpture.[23] The first was St John (Bobby) Gore, who was appointed "Adviser on Paintings" in 1956. He published catalogues of the pictures at Upton, Polesden Lacey, Buscot, Saltram, and Ascott.[24]

His successor in 1986 was Alastair Laing, who cared for the works of art at 120 properties and created the exhibition In Trust for the Nation, held at the National Gallery in 1995–96.[23] Since 2009, the curator has been David Taylor, who has approved photos of the trust's 12,567 oil paintings to be included in the Public Catalogue Foundation's searchable online archive of oil paintings, available since 2012.[25] Use of the publicly available website was probably instrumental in the discovery of Rembrandt's Self-portrait wearing a white feathered bonnet which is now displayed at Buckland Abbey near Yelverton in Devon.

This discovery is the second Rembrandt to have found its way into the collection; the first was the portrait of Catrina Hooghsaet at Penrhyn Castle, which was added to the collection after the Rijksmuseum in the Netherlands failed to acquire it in 2007.[26]

In 2015 the National Trust launched its contemporary art programme entitled Trust New Art with the idea of reaching new audiences who may not visit art galleries, museums or stately homes. One of the opening exhibits was “One and All – a digital voyage through sight, sound and sea”, making use of a virtual, interactive experience.[27]

Coastline and countryside

Worm's Head (Rhossili)
Cliffs and Worm's Head at Rhossili

The National Trust is the largest private landowner in the United Kingdom.[28] The trust's land holdings account for more than 610,000 acres (250,000 ha), or 985 square miles (2,550 km2), mostly of countryside, and covering nearly 1.5% of the total land mass of England, Wales and Northern Ireland.[29] A large part of this consists of parks and agricultural estates attached to country houses, but there are many countryside properties which were acquired specifically for their scenic or scientific value. The trust owns or has covenant over about a quarter of the Lake District;[28] it has similar control over about 12% of the Peak District National Park (e.g. South Peak Estate and High Peak Estate).[28] It owns or protects roughly one fifth of the coastline in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (775 miles (1,247 km)),[1] and has a long-term campaign, Project Neptune, which seeks to acquire more.[29]

Protection of National Trust property

The National Trust Acts grant the trust the unique statutory power to declare land inalienable. This prevents the land from being sold or mortgaged against the trust's wishes without special parliamentary procedure. The inalienability of trust land was over-ridden by Parliament in the case of proposals to construct a section of the Plympton bypass through the park at Saltram, on the grounds that the road proposal had been known about before the park at Saltram was declared inalienable.[30]

The Acts also give the trust the power to make bylaws to regulate the activities of people when on its land. All photography at National Trust properties, other than that for private and personal use or for entry into approved competitions, is strictly prohibited,[31][32] except for social networking sites such as Flickr.[33] Visitors are instead directed to request images from the National Trust Photo Library.[34]

In 2017, the National Trust was criticized by members for supporting the government's intention to build a 1.8-mile long tunnel under the Stonehenge World Heritage Site as part of the plans to upgrade the A303 motorway. The trust was accused of prioritizing government criteria like cost effectiveness and deliverability over cultural heritage and environmental preservation.[35]

Most visited properties

Cliveden, the third most visited National Trust property for which an admission charge is made as of 2018

The 2017–18 annual report lists the National Trust properties for which an admission charge is made that attracted more than 50,000 visitors.[1] The 10 most visited properties are:

# Property Location Visitors
1 Giant's Causeway County Antrim Increase 693,312
2 Clumber Park Nottinghamshire Increase 653,065
3 Cliveden Buckinghamshire Increase 490,708
4 Attingham Park Shropshire Increase 470,688
5 Belton House Lincolnshire Decrease 445,821
6 Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge County Antrim Increase 435,330
7 Waddesdon Manor Buckinghamshire Increase 467,756
8 Fountains Abbey Estate North Yorkshire Decrease 413,513
9 Anglesey Abbey Cambridgeshire Increase 392,646
10 Calke Abbey Derbyshire Increase 392,581

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "National Trust Annual Report 2017–18" (PDF). National Trust. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  2. ^ "What we do". National Trust. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  3. ^ "Beatles Childhood Homes, National Trust". Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Governance review". National Trust. Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  5. ^ "National Trust to review governance structure". Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  6. ^ a b "The National Trust Acts 1907–71" (PDF). National Trust. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 June 2013.
  7. ^ "The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty". Charity Commission. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  8. ^ "Mr John Bailey – The English Heritage", The Times, 30 June 1931, p. 16
  9. ^ Anna Hutton-North (2013). Ferguson's Gang – The Maidens behind the Masks. ISBN 978-1-291-48453-3.
  10. ^ a b c d e David Cannadine (May 2004). In Churchill's Shadow: Confronting the Past in Modern Britain. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517156-3.
  11. ^ "Sir Jack Boles". Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  12. ^ "Heelis". National Trust. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011.
  13. ^ "Former chief at Swindon-based National Trust recognised in New Year's honours". Swindon Advertiser. Retrieved 11 January 2019
  14. ^ "Council members". National Trust. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  15. ^ "Our Council". National Trust. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  16. ^ "The Charities (National Trust) Order 2005" (PDF). National Trust. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  17. ^ "Membership". National Trust. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  18. ^ "FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions". The Royal Oak Foundation. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
  19. ^ "National Trust Annual Report 2012–13" (PDF). National Trust. 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  20. ^ "Volunteering". National Trust. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  21. ^ "Our Members". NCVYS. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  22. ^ 2014–2015 Annual Report, p. 71 Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ a b de Vries, Annette. "An interview with Alastair Laing, retired Curator of Pictures and Sculpture at the National Trust, interviewed by Annette de Vries". Codart eZine. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  24. ^ "Obituary of St John Gore". The Telegraph. 13 May 2010.
  25. ^ "Paintings held by National Trust". BBC Your paintings.
  26. ^ Rijksmuseum in negotiations to buy £40m Rembrandt from private British collection on Codart
  27. ^ "Trust new Art: National Trust unveils its ambitious contemporary art programme | Culture24". Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  28. ^ a b c Ian D. Whyte (15 June 2013). A Dictionary of Environmental History. I.B.Tauris. p. 346. ISBN 978-1-84511-462-6.
  29. ^ a b "Coast & Countryside". National Trust. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  30. ^ "History of the National Trust: 1967–94". National Trust. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011.
  31. ^ "National Trust Images". National Trust. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  32. ^ Roy Nikon (15 May 2009). "National Trust Photography Persecution". Wild About Britain. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  33. ^ Chris Cheesman (20 May 2009). "National Trust: Photographers free to post on Flickr". Amateur Photographer. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  34. ^ "National Trust Images". National Trust. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  35. ^ [1] on The Telegraph

External links


Copac (originally an acronym of Consortium of Online Public Access Catalogues) is a union catalogue which provides free access to the merged online catalogues of many major research libraries and specialist libraries in the United Kingdom and Ireland, plus the British Library, the National Library of Scotland and the National Library of Wales. It has over 40 million records from around 90 libraries, representing a wide range of materials across all subject areas. Copac is freely available to all, and is widely used, with users mainly coming from Higher Education institutions in the United Kingdom, but also worldwide. Copac is valued by users as a research tool.Copac is searchable through with a web browser or Z39.50 client. It is also accessible through OpenURL and Search/Retrieve via URL (SRU) interfaces. These interfaces can be used to provide links to items on Copac from external sites, such as those used on the Institute of Historical Research website.Copac is a Jisc service provided for the UK community on the basis of an agreement with Research Libraries UK (RLUK). The service uses records supplied by RLUK members, as well as an increasing range of specialist libraries with collections of national research interest. A full list of contributors is available including the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the Middle Temple library and Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) Library.

Emmetts Garden

Emmetts Garden is an Edwardian estate located at Ide Hill, near Sevenoaks in Kent, UK. It is now owned by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty (National Trust).

Ferguson's Gang

Ferguson's Gang, formed in 1927, at Tothill Fields in London, was an anonymous and somewhat enigmatic group that raised funds for the National Trust during the period from 1930 until 1947.

Helen Ghosh

Dame Helen Frances Ghosh, DCB (/ɡəʊst/; GOST; born 21 February 1956) is a British civil servant who has been Master of Balliol College, Oxford since 2018. She was formerly Director-General of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, following her career as British civil servant, where until November 2012 was Permanent Secretary at the Home Office and was previously at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) until the end of 2010. On appointment at DEFRA, she was the only female permanent secretary to head a major department of the British Government. From April 2018, she is Master of Balliol College, Oxford.

Henry Herbert Symonds

The Reverend Henry Herbert Symonds (1885 – 28 December 1958) was an English Anglican priest, teacher and conservationist.

From 1909 to 1935 he followed a career as a teacher, first at Clifton College and Rugby School, and later as headmaster of The King's School, Chester and the Liverpool Institute High School. He was a classicist, but encouraged his pupils to broaden their education by studying English literature and the fine arts.

Symonds, who had a lifelong love of the countryside, retired at the age of 50, and devoted his life to the cause of national parks, and the Lake District in particular. He was one of the principal driving forces behind the legislation that introduced national parks to Britain after the Second World War.


The Herdwick is a breed of domestic sheep native to the Lake District of Cumbria in North West England. The name "Herdwick" is derived from the Old Norse herdvyck, meaning sheep pasture. Though low in lambing capacity and perceived wool quality when compared to more common commercial breeds, Herdwicks are prized for their robust health, their ability to live solely on forage, and their tendency to be territorial and not to stray over the difficult upland terrain of the Lake District. It is considered that up to 99% of all Herdwick sheep are commercially farmed in the central and western Lake District.The wool quality of a Herdwick has unique qualities relating to durability. Thick bristle type fibres will often protrude from garments forming a protective barrier layer in blizzards—most likely the same qualities that protect the sheep in similar conditions. They have been known to survive under a blanket of snow for three days while eating their own wool.Severely threatened by the 2001 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in England and Wales, the breed has survived due to the intent to preserve this unique animal as a crucial part of traditional Lakeland agriculture. Still far fewer in number than most commercial breeds, Herdwicks survive largely due to farming subsidies and the aid of the British National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty.

Lady Curzon's peacock dress

Lady Curzon's peacock dress was a gown made of gold and silver thread designed by Jean-Philippe Worth for Mary Curzon, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston to celebrate the 1902 Coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra at the second Delhi Durbar in 1903.

The gown was assembled from panels of chiffon that had been embroidered and embellished by Delhi and Agra craftsmen using the zardozi (gold wire weaving) method. It was then shipped to Paris, where the House of Worth styled the dress with a long train edged with white chiffon roses. The worked panels were overlapping peacock feathers that had a blue/green beetle wing at the center. Over time, the metal thread in the dress has tarnished but the beetle wings have not lost their luster.

The Viceroy, Lord Curzon, organized the second Delhi Durbar in 1903 to celebrate the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII, "the grandest pageant in history", which created a tremendous sensation. The dress was featured in a Chicago Tribune article because Lady Curzon was from Chicago. State portraits were ordered from the artist William Logsdail, but Lady Curzon's portrait was completed in 1909 after her death in 1906. The peacock dress is preserved, together with the Logsdail portrait, at Kedleston Hall.

Lady Curzon was instrumental in promoting the use of Indian embroidery in Western fashion, and many of her friends ordered gowns from Worth using such decorations, though they generally used much less metal threadwork which weighed her dress down. According to its entry at Kedleston Hall, the peacock gown weighs 10 pounds. Another of her embroidered court dresses, assembled by the House of Worth in 1903, is on display at the Fashion Museum, Bath.

List of National Trust properties in Northern Ireland

National Trust properties in Northern Ireland is a list of National Trust properties in Northern Ireland.

National Trust (typeface)

National Trust is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Paul Barnes for the National Trust of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It is a corporate font family and not available for licensing.

National Trust is based on an inscription dated around 1748 on the Stourhead estate, part-owned by the National Trust since 1946. The inscription on which the font is based is an epigram, The Nymph of the Spring, in the grotto beside the lake where a statue of a nymph sleeps, and is in a mostly sans-serif style, one of the first such uses of the style since classical antiquity.

The unusual style of the inscription came to the attention of historians, most famously James Mosley, whose work The Nymph and the Grot on early sans-serif lettering is named after it. Mosley has concluded that he cannot be certain of the source of the style and that it does not seem to have influenced successors, but that its unusual, simplified structure may be an "exercise in rusticity" related to the spirit of the construction, intended to imitate a natural cave. Unfortunately, the inscription was destroyed by mistake in 1967, and had to be replicated from Mosley's photographs.Being based on the Stourhead inscription makes National Trust a "stressed" or "modulated" sans-serif, with a clear difference between horizontal and vertical stroke widths. Other typefaces in this style include Optima (inspired by medieval inscriptions from Florence), Britannic and Radiant.

The four line poem, translated into English from Latin by Alexander Pope, was attributed to an inscription on a legendary Roman fountain with a statue of a sleeping nymph above the River Danube. The motif of a sleeping nymph besides a fountain was popular with Renaissance humanists and influential among neoclassical garden designers, but is now generally suspected to be a fifteenth-century forgery. In English, it runs:Nymph of the Grot, these sacred springs I keepAnd to the murmur of these waters sleepAh spare my slumbers, gently tread the caveAnd drink in silence, or in silence lave.

National Trust Magazine

National Trust Magazine is the members’ publication of National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. With a readership of over 4 million (ABC 2,165,142) it currently has the highest magazine circulation in Britain. Three issues are sent out every year - spring, summer and autumn – and are delivered as part of the National Trust members’ mailout, which includes local newsletters and other information for Trust members.

National trust

A national trust is an organisation dedicated to preserving the cultural heritage of a particular geographic region. Although the focus of a national trust may vary by region, the principal role is to ensure the preservation of historically significant items, and to conserve areas of natural beauty. National trusts generally operate as private non-profit organizations. The first such trust organisation, The Trustees of Reservations, originated in 1890 as a regional group serving the state of Massachusetts, USA. The first national trust, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, was founded in England in 1895 and operates as a charitable organisation serving England, Wales and Northern Ireland (it is commonly known in the UK as the National Trust). Other national trusts have since been set up around the world.In 2007 the International National Trusts Organisation (INTO) was established at a gathering in New Delhi, India, with a mandate to support collaboration and best practices among national trusts and similar associations. It has member organisations from over 50 countries.

One Day in History

One Day in History was a single-day initiative by several UK heritage organisations that aimed to provide a historical record of the everyday life of the British public in the early 21st century. Described as the "world's biggest blog", it encouraged UK citizens to write diary entries of 100–650 words of what they had done on 17 October 2006, and then upload them to the official website of the initiative. The project formed a part of History Matters: Pass It On, a history campaign led by several UK heritage organisations. Submissions were received until 1 November, and 46,000 entries were uploaded in this time, many of which were from students and celebrities. After being available to view on the History Matters website, the archive of the diary entries was moved to the UK Web Archive at the British Library and the library of the University of Sussex. The campaign received mixed reviews, with Institute of Historical Research's David Cannadine and The Guardian's Dave Hill speaking positively of it, whereas journalist John Plunkett termed it to be a "historical record of people with computers".


Porthtowan (Cornish: Porth Tewyn, meaning cove of sand dunes) is a small village in Cornwall, England which is a popular summer tourist destination. Porthtowan is on Cornwall's north Atlantic coast about 2 km (1.2 mi) west of St Agnes, 4 km (2.5 mi) north of Redruth, 10 km (6.2 mi) west of Truro and 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest of Newquay in the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape, a World Heritage Site.

Porthtowan is popular with surfers and industrial archaeologists; former mine stacks and engine houses dot the landscape.

Project Neptune (National Trust)

Project Neptune, also known as Enterprise Neptune, is a long-term project of the National Trust to acquire or put under covenant a substantial part of the Welsh, English and Northern Irish coastline. In 1999 it was relaunched as the Neptune Coastline Campaign. The Project currently looks after 710 miles (1,140 km) of British coastline. It is named for the Roman god of the sea.

The Project began in May 1965 with the acquisition of Whiteford Burrows in the Gower Peninsula. The aim was to protect the coastline from being developed or industrialised.By 1973 the project had reached its original £2 million fundraising target and looked after 338 miles (544 km) of coastline. By 1986 the National Trust had raised £8.75 million through Project Neptune. By its 50th anniversary in May 2015 the Trust had acquired 574 miles (924 km) of coastline through the project, bringing its total holding to 775 miles (1,247 km).The Project owns some of the UK's most iconic coast including land near the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) of the White Cliffs of Dover and The Needles. The project includes four World Heritage Sites and nine lighthouses. The Project has not been completely successful in achieving its ambitions, having had its £1 million bid for Land's End turned down in 1981.The Project is currently focussed on the maintenance of the coastline that it already owns, particularly with regard to coastal management.

Rosie Hails

Rosemary S. Hails is a British population ecologist and entomologist and the current Director of Science and Nature at the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. In 2000, she was made a Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE) for services to environmental research.

Secrets of the National Trust

Secrets of the National Trust is a television programme, anchored by Alan Titchmarsh, which first aired on Tuesday 7 February 2017 on Channel 5.

The Vyne Community School

The Vyne Community School, Basingstoke was created out of the merger of two pre-existing schools, Queen Mary's School for Boys, Basingstoke a selective Grammar School, also known as QMSB, and Charles Chute Secondary Modern School, which occurred in 1970. Initially the school was known as Queen Mary's & Charles Chute School, and was the result of the U.K. Government's policy in the 1960s to make all maintained (state funded) schools comprehensive. In the first instance the school remained a single sex institution, becoming coeducational in 1971-72. The name "Queen Mary's" was later transferred to the Queen Mary's College, a Sixth Form College, in Cliddesden Road, Basingstoke. The school was thereupon renamed The Vyne School, in commemoration of the links that both schools had to The Vyne, a property owned by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, former home of the Sandys and Chute families, just North of Basingstoke.

The school is a coeducational community school, for young people aged 11–16, and still occupies the site of the former Queen Mary's School for Boys, in Vyne Road, Basingstoke. It is a specialist school for the Performing Arts.

The Vyne is also the only school in Basingstoke to have a Combined Cadet Force (CCF).

White Park Bay

White Park Bay (also spelled Whitepark Bay) is a bay and three-mile long beach located near Ballycastle, County Antrim on the north coast of Northern Ireland, along the Giant’s Causeway Coastal Route. Sheep and cattle graze the hills and beach along the bay, which has been under the care of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty since 1938. It is situated in the townland of White Park. The bay is also home to the Whitepark Bay Youth Hostel.

A cairn above the beach is designated as a Scheduled Historic Monument at grid ref: D0225 4403.

Étienne Dumonstier

Étienne Dumonstier, also Nicholas Denizot, (1540–1603) was a French Renaissance portrait painter.

Not much is known about Dumonstier's life except through his works. He primarily painted portraits for the French Royal family. His style indicates that he was part of the workshop of François Clouet, which also included François Quesnel. He was patronized by Catherine de' Medici, and may have been close to her, since he was requested to carry out a diplomatic mission for her to Vienna around 1570. Dumonstier also painted for Henry II of France, other members of the House of Valois, and Henry IV of France. Only a few works have been attributed to him, but definitive attributions have been difficult due to the similarities between the artists of Clouet's workshop. One painting executed by Dumonstier A Lady in White is part of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty collection.

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