National Transmission System

The United Kingdom's National Transmission System (NTS) is the network of gas pipelines that supply gas to about forty power stations and large industrial users from natural gas terminals situated on the coast and to gas distribution companies that supply commercial and domestic users.

History

Origins

The National Transmission System (NTS) originated in the construction during 1962-3 of the 200 mile (320 km) long high-pressure methane pipeline from Canvey Island to Leeds.[1] Imported liquified natural gas (LNG) from Algeria was regasified at the Canvey terminal and supplied to the pipeline, this provided eight of the twelve Area Boards with access to natural gas.[2] The gas was initially used to manufacture town gas either as a feedstock in gas reforming processes or to enrich lean gases such as that produced by the Lurgi coal gasification process.

The pipeline was 18-inch (460 mm) in diameter and operated at 1,000 pounds per square inch (69 bar). The pipeline had 150 miles (240 km) of spur lines, supplying gas to area boards.[3]

Methane pipeline spur lines
Area Board Supply to Diameter (inches) Length (miles)
North Thames Bromley/East Greenwich 'Tee' 14 15.5
Bromley 10 2.5
Slough (from Reading spur line)
South Eastern East Greenwich 12 3
Southern Reading 8 49
Eastern Hitchin 8 7
Dunstable 6 8.5
West Midlands Coleshill 14 10.5
East Midlands Sheffield 12 10
North Western Manchester 14 24
North Eastern Leeds 12 8

The Gas Council was responsible for this £10 million co-operative scheme and the construction details were a joint effort of the distribution engineers of the Area Boards.

LNG had first been imported to Canvey from Louisiana in February 1959 and piped to Romford gas works as feedstock to a reforming plant.[4]

UK natural gas

Natural gas was discovered on the UK continental shelf in 1965 and production started in 1967.[5] The development of offshore natural gas fields is shown in the following table. Shore terminals were built to receive, process, blend and distribute the gas.

UK sources of offshore natural gas, 1967-1985
Field Field type Licensee or operator Discovered First gas onshore Shore terminal
West Sole Gas BP September 1965 March 1967 Easington
Leman Gas Shell/Esso, Amoco/Gas Council, Arpet Group, Mobil April 1966 August 1968 Bacton
Hewett Gas Phillips Petroleum, Arpet group October 1966 July 1969 Bacton
Indefatigable Gas Shell/Esso, Amoco/Gas Council June 1966 October 1971 Bacton
Viking Gas Conoco/BNOC May 1968 July 1972 Viking (Theddlethorpe)
Rough Gas Amoco/Gas Council May 1968 October 1975 Easington
Forties Oil + associated gas BP October 1970 September 1977 St Fergus
Frigg (Norway) Gas Elf/Total June 1971 September 1977 St Fergus
Frigg (UK) Gas Elf/Total May 1972 September 1977 St Fergus
Piper Oil + associated gas Occidental group January 1973 November 1978 St Fergus
Tartan Oil + associated gas Texaco December 1974 January 1981 St Fergus
Brent Oil + associated gas Shell/Esso July 1971 1982 St Fergus
Morecambe Bay Gas + condensate Hydrocarbons (GB) September 1974 1985 Barrow

With the assured availability of natural gas a government White Paper on fuel policy[6][7] in November 1967 proposed that natural gas should be immediately and more extensively exploited The Gas Council and Area Boards began a ten-year programme to convert all users and appliances to operate on natural gas and consequently to discontinue the manufacture of town gas at local gasworks. In a pilot scheme users on Canvey Island had been converted to natural gas in 1966.[8]

Building the NTS

To exploit the availability of natural gas and to provide for more widespread distribution construction began of a major new transmission network which became the National Transmission System (NTS).[9]

Feeder pipelines - England

Gas from the West Sole field was first dispatched from the Easington terminal in July 1967, via Feeder No. 1 across the Humber to the East Midland Gas Board's gasworks at Killingholme. It was used to enrich low calorific value manufactured gas. Feeder No. 1 was extended to Totley near Sheffield where it connected to the 18-inch methane pipeline, UK natural gas first entered the NTS in July 1968.[10]

Feeder lines from the North Sea gas terminals to the spine of the NTS were laid and brought into use as the shore terminals were constructed.[11][12][13][14]

Initial feeder pipelines of the NTS
Feeder No. Diameter Length From To Operational
1 24-inch (600 mm) 90 miles (144 km) Easington terminal Scunthorpe and Totley near Sheffield, where it connected to the original methane pipeline. July 1967/ July 1968
2 36-inch (900 mm) 123 miles (197 km) Bacton terminal Brisley, Peterborough and Churchover near Rugby, where it connected to the original methane pipeline. August 1968
3 36-inch 107 miles (171 km) Bacton terminal Roudham Heath, Cambridge, Whitwell near Hitchin, where it connected to the original methane pipeline. October 1969
4 36-inch 154 miles (246 km) Bacton terminal Great Ryburgh, King's Lynn and Alrewas near Lichfield. Autumn 1970
5 36-inch Bacton terminal Yelverton, Diss, Chelmsford and Horndon, where it connected to the original methane pipeline Autumn 1971
6 30-inch (750 mm) 91 miles (146 km) Paull Pickering (see note), Westwood and Little Burden near Darlington Autumn 1971
7 36-inch Wisbech Hatton and Scunthorpe 1972
8 30-inch Former Viking (Theddlethorpe) terminal Hatton July 1972

The No. 6 feeder runs via Pickering which received gas from a treatment plant for the onshore Lockton gas field.[14]

Feeder pipelines - Scotland

North Sea gas first reached Scotland in Spring 1970 at Coldstream, this was via an extension of the Leeds-Newcastle pipeline. This pipeline was then extended to Glenmavis near Coatbridge Lanarkshire (Feeder No. 12) where a natural gas liquification plant was constructed.[14]

A major set of pipelines were constructed in Scotland in preparation for arrival of gas from the Frigg gas field in 1977. From the St Fergus terminal in Scotland, two 36-inch (900 mm) pipelines (Feeder No. 10 and No. 11) were laid via Bathgate to Partington and Bishop Auckland to connect to the NTS in England, a total pipeline length of 595 miles (950 km). These lines were commissioned in 1976 and cost £140 million. Initially these pipelines carried gas from southern England into Scotland until the Frigg field began production via St Fergus in September 1977. Compressor stations are provided at 40 mile (65 km) intervals along the pipelines. A third 36-inch pipeline from St Fergus (Feeder No. 12) was completed in 1978, and a fourth 40-inch (1050 mm) pipeline (Feeder No. 13) in 1982.[15]

Growth of the NTS

The NTS was extended from Leeds to Newcastle upon Tyne in early 1969.[14] This line was extended to Coldstream in Spring 1970 and then to Glenmavis near Coatbridge Lanarkshire.

The Wales Gas Board received natural gas supplies in 1969 from a 24-inch line from Churchover (Rugby) to Swansea via Wormington (an extension to Feeder No. 2). North Wales was also connected in 1969 via a 24-inch/18-inch pipeline from Audley Cheshire to Maelor near Wrexham (an extension to Feeder No. 4).[14]

The South Western Gas Board received natural gas at the end of 1970 from a 24-inch/20-inch pipeline from Wormington to Exeter (Feeder No. 14).[14]

A 30-inch/24-inch extension of Feeder No. 3 runs to the west of London via Slough to Mogador Surrey and was commissioned in 1970. An extension of the Feeder No. 5 runs from Horndon-on-the Hill, crosses the Thames at Tilbury and runs via Shorne to connect to Mogador, thus completing the South London ring main, this became operational in early 1972.[14]

In addition to these distribution pipelines in 1971 Area Boards began to supply natural gas directly to major consumers. For example, a 24-inch 17 mile 'spine' pipeline was constructed to ICI Ltd at Billingham (designated as part of Feeder No. 6), and the West Midlands Gas Board laid six similar 'spine' mains into industrial districts of Birmingham and the Black Country.[14]

Most of the NTS was built from the late 1960s to the early 1980s, the growth of the system is shown in the following table.[16]

Growth of the NTS 1966-1983
Years NTS mileage Operational Gas Terminals Compressor stations
1966/7 320 Canvey 0
1968/9 688 Canvey Easington Bacton 0
1970/1 1898 Canvey Easington Bacton 1
1972/3 2199 Canvey Easington Bacton Theddlethorpe 4
1974/5 2308 Canvey Easington Bacton Theddlethorpe 9
1976/7 2915 Canvey Easington Bacton Theddlethorpe St. Fergus 10
1978/9 3047 Canvey Easington Bacton Theddlethorpe St. Fergus 11
1983 3200 Canvey Easington Bacton Theddlethorpe St. Fergus 14

Later (post-1983) feeder mains not described above include.[17]

NTS Feeder pipelines built after 1983
Feeder No. From To Year commissioned
9 Easington East Ilsley 1983-86
15 Longtown Warburton 1984
16 Barrow Lupton 1983
17 Theddlethorpe Hatton 1988
18 Peterborough Cambridge 1988-94
Isle of Grain Gravesend 2008
Matching Green Tilbury 1990
19 Easington Paull 1991
20 Ilchester Choakford 1989
21 Mawdesley Alrewas 1992-2001
Carnforth Burscough 1992
Elworth Deeside power station 1994
22 Goxhill Peterborough 1993
23 Churchover Honeybourne 1998-2001
Peterstow Gilwern 2000
Wormington Corse 2000
24 St Fergus Lochside 2001
Easington Paull 2010
Hatton Silk Willoughby 2001
25 Bridge Farm Mickle Trafford 2001
26 Huntingdon Steppingley 2001
27 Bacton Kings Lynn 2003
Cambridge Matching Green 2002
28 Herbrandston Corse 2007
29 Easington Nether Kellett 2006-08

The NTS now comprises over 7,600 km of welded steel gas pipelines. The Canvey to Leeds line is no longer part of the NTS.

LNG storage sites

In addition to the Canvey Island Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) import terminal, further NGL storage sites were constructed from the late 1960s.[18] These were peak-shaving facilities used to support the NTS at times of high demand, and to ensure security of gas supplies at strategic locations. When demand was high liquefied natural gas was pumped from storage tanks, heated in vapourisers to a gaseous state and delivered into the NTS. When demand was low, gas was withdrawn from the NTS and liquefied by cryogenic cooling to minus 162 °C to replenish the storage tanks.

NTS Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Sites
Site LNG storage tank capacity Commissioned Decommissioned Operations
Canvey Island, Essex 6 × 4,000 tonnes, 2 × 1,000 tonnes, 4 × 21,000 tonnes[19] (underground) 1959, 1964, 1968, 1975 1984[20] Import of LNG from Arzew Algeria, original contract for 1 billion m3 of gas a year (c.100 MMSCFD). Liquefication 205 tonnes/day, vapourisation 6 × 50 tonnes/hour.[21]
Ambergate, Derbyshire 5,000 tonnes (1 × 12,000 m3) [22][21] 1967-1970[19] 1985[23] Import of LNG by road tanker from Canvey, output 72 MMSCFD (2.04 million m3/d)[24]
Glenmavis, Lanarkshire 20,000 tonnes (2 × 47,800 m3),[22][21] 1972, 1974[21] 2012 Liquefication 100 tonnes per day, vapourisation 250 MMSCFD (7 million m3/day)
Partington, Cheshire 4 × 20,000 tonnes (4 × 49,800 m3)[22][21] 1972[19] 1972, 1974[21] March 2012 Liquefication 10 MMSCFD (283,000 m3/day),[25] vapourisation 8 × 75 tonnes/hour[21]
Dynevor Arms, (Hirwaun) Rhondda Cynon Taf 2 × 20,000 tonnes[22] 1972 March 2009 Liquefication 10 MMSCFD (283,000 m3/day),[25] vapourisation 2 × 75 tonnes/hour[21]
Avonmouth, Bristol 3 × 50,000 m3 1974-1980;[19] 1978, 1979, 1983[21] April 2016[26] Short-term storage, liquefication 205 tonnes/day, vapourisation 6 × 75 tonnes/hour[21]
Isle of Grain, Kent 4 × 50,000 m3, 4 × 190,000 m3 1980-2010 Operating Vapourisation 58 million m3/day. See Grain LNG Terminal

High-pressure gas storage

In addition to LNG storage for peak-shaving, several sites had storage facilities for high pressure gas that could be released into, and pressurised from, the NTS. The following sites were operational by 1972.[27]

  • Isle of Grain, six 'bullets', 12 ft (3.6 m) diameter, 250 ft (76.2 m) long, capacity 8 million cubic feet (226,000 m3) of gas, operating at up to 1,000 psi (69 bar).
  • Beckton gas works, eight 'bullets', 13.5 ft (4.1 m) diameter, 263 ft (80.1 m) long, capacity 5 million cubic feet (142,000 m3) of gas, pressure cycle 350-100 psi (24-6.9 bar).
  • South Western Gas Board, for Bristol and Cheltenham, eleven ‘bullets’, 13 ft 6 in (4.1 m) diameter, 311 ft 8 in (95 m) long, total capacity 13 million cubic feet (368,000 m3), pressure cycle 450-40 psi (31-2.76 bar).
  • Biggin Hill Kent, seventeen, 42-inch (1.07 m) diameter buried pipes, 1,040 ft (317 m) long, capacity 10 million cubic feet (283,000 m3), operating up to 1,000 psi (69 bar).

Operation

NTS is the starting point for UK gas distribution. The pipeline system for houses is not part of the NTS, but is part of the Gas Distribution Network of Local Distribution Zones, the two systems combine to form the UK's gas distribution network.

The two types of gas pipelines in the UK are: large diameter high-pressure (up to 85[28] bar and 1050 mm[28] diameter) pipelines - the type that the NTS uses, and smaller diameter lower pressure pipelines that connect to users who burn gas for heat. The wall thickness of the high pressure pipelines is up to 0.625-inches (18mm).

Entry

Gas currently enters the NTS from a number of sources:

  • Offshore oil and gas fields on the UK continental shelf. These deliver gas via five (formerly six) UK coastal gas terminals (five in England: CATS Teesside; Easington/Dimlington; Bacton; Rampside Barrow and the former Theddlethorpe terminal and one in Scotland: St Fergus). Gas from the Liverpool Bay (Douglas) field formerly entered the NTS at Burton Point terminal in Cheshire, this terminal is now identified by National Grid as a NTS offtake to Connah's Quay power station.
  • Onshore gas fields such as Saltfleetby Lincolnshire (production was via the former Theddlethorpe terminal); and Wytch Farm Dorset.
  • Continental Europe. From Norway via the Langeled pipeline and the Easington terminal; from the Netherlands via the BBL pipeline; from Belgium via the Interconnector UK pipeline, both of the latter through Bacton gas terminal.
  • Imported LNG. Gas is delivered from import terminals at the Isle of Grain LNG; Milford Haven (South Hook and Dragon). The Canvey Island gas terminal ceased importing LNG in 1984.[20]
  • Storage facilities. These include a mixture of salt cavity storage, onshore LNG storage sites, depleted onshore gas fields and the depleted offshore gas field at Rough (via Easington terminal). Storage facilities include: Holford Cheshire; Garton/Aldborough East Yorkshire; Hornsea East Yorkshire; Stublach Cheshire; Holford Cheshire; Hole House Farm Cheshire; Saltfleetby Lincolnshire; Hatfield Moor South Yorkshire; and Barton Stacey/Humbly Grove Hampshire. The NTS was formerly supplied by the following decommissioned LNG sites: Ambergate Derbyshire (closed 1985); Dynevor Arms Merthyr Tydfil (closed 2009); Glenmavis Lanarkshire (closed 2012); Partington Greater Manchester (closed 2012); and Avonmouth Bristol (closed April 2016).[26]
  • There is a salt cavity storage facility at Hornsea, East Yorkshire. Seven cavities at a depth of 1800 m each store up to 60 million m3 of gas at a maximum pressure of 240 bar. The releasable volume of gas is about half of the gross volume. During periods of low demand gas is compressed into the cavities by electrically driven compressors and fed back onto the NTS at times of peak demand.[21]

Gas specification and composition

The specification of gas transported within the NTS is typically within the following parameters.[29][30][31][32]

Specification of gas in the NTS
Content or Characteristic Value
Gross Calorific Value 37.0 – 44.5 MJ/m3
Wobbe Number* 47.2 – 51.41 MJ/m3
Water Dewpoint <-10 °C @ 85barg
Hydrocarbon Dewpoint <-2 °C
Hydrogen Sulphide content* ≤5 mg/m3
Total Sulphur content (including H2S)* ≤50 mg/m3
Hydrogen content* ≤0.1% (molar)
Oxygen content* ≤0.2% (molar)
Carbon Dioxide content ≤2.0% (molar)
Nitrogen content <5.0% (molar)
Total Inerts <7.0%
Incomplete Combustion Factor* ≤0.48
Soot Index* ≤0.60

Parameters marked * are specified in the Gas Safety (Management) Regulations 1996.

The composition of natural gas in the NTS is typically as follows.[33]

Composition of natural gas
Component Volume %
Methane 93.63
Ethane 3.25
Propane 0.69
Butane 0.27
Other hydrocarbons 0.20
Nitrogen 1.78
Carbon Dioxide 0.13
Helium 0.05

Compressor stations

There are twenty five (mostly gas turbine driven) compressor stations and over 25 pressure regulators. Gas moves through the NTS at speeds up to 25 mph (40 km/h) depending on pressures and pipeline diameters. Compressor stations generally operate at a pressure ratio of 1:1.4, this ratio is a balance between maintaining pressure and hence flow, and the capital and running cost of the compressors. It also ensures that the temperature rise across the compressors is not high enough to require after-coolers to prevent damage to the pipeline protective coatings. On the pipelines from St Fergus, compressor stations are provided at 40 mile (65 km) intervals; each compresses the gas from about 48 bar at 5 °C to 65 bar at 45 °C.[34]

Compressor stations include:

Initial NTS compressor stations[21]
Station Gas turbines Power rating (MW) Commissioned
Alrewas 2 Rolls-Royce Avons 21.6 1970
Peterborough 3 Rolls-Royce Avons 35.4 1972
Churchover 3 Orendas 18.4 1972
Scunthorpe 2 Rolls-Royce Avons 23.6 1973
Chelmsford 2 Rolls-Royce Avons 23.0 1973
King's Lynn 4 Rolls-Royce Avons 47.2 1973
Cambridge 2 Rolls-Royce Avons 23.0 1974
Bishop Auckland 2 Orendas 14.4 1974
Kirriemuir 4 Rolls-Royce Avons 47.2 1977
Bathgate 4 Rolls-Royce Avons 47.2 1977
Diss 3 Rolls-Royce Avons 34.5 1977
St Fergus I 4 Rolls-Royce Avons 47.2 1977
St Fergus II 2 Rolls-Royce Maxi Avons, 3 Rolls-Royce RB211s 65.3 1978
Moffat 2 Rolls-Royce RB211s 38.6 1980
Wisbech 1 Rolls-Royce RB211, 1 Rolls-Royce Maxi Avon 32.6 1980

Offtakes

Offtakes from the NTS include those supplying industrial users, local distribution networks, storage sites and export pipelines.

  • Offtakes to about 71 large users such power stations and industry either those on multi-business sites such as Billingham and Runcorn or to individual companies such as INEOS Teesside.
  • NTS offtakes to inland storage sites (see 'Entry') and to the offshore Rough field storage site via the Easington gas terminal.
  • The NTS supplies the Irish interconnectors; the 24-inch 135 km Scotland-Northern Ireland Pipeline (SNIP) to Ballylumford Northern Ireland and the two 24-inch UK-Eire Interconnectors to Dublin, they are supplied from an NTS offtake at Moffat. Gas can also be exported to Belgium and the Netherlands via the Interconnector UK and the BBL pipelines both via the Bacton terminal.
  • Offtakes to the Gas Distribution Network of Local Distribution Zones.[35]
NTS Gas Distribution Network offtakes
National Grid Area Number of LDZ offtakes
Scotland 19
Northern 15
South West 13
East Midlands 13
West Midlands 12
North West 11
East Anglia 11
North East 9
Southern 8
North Thames 5
South East 5
Wales 3
Total 124

Gas distribution network

Companies that own part of this gas network, also known as the Local Transmission System (LTS), are known officially as Gas Transporters. Gas enters this network via the NTS through a pressure reduction station to the twelve gas distribution zones in England, Scotland and Wales within eight distribution networks. The network covers 275,000 km (171,000 mi). The LTS is managed from Hinckley, Leicestershire (former headquarters of the NTS). Financial transactions between gas transporters are managed by Xoserve, based in Solihull. It was formerly an internal department of National Grid and then became an independent company.

For retail distribution, Cadent owns the network in North West England, the West Midlands, the East Midlands, the East of England and North London. In the North of England, local distribution is owned by Northern Gas Networks; in the Wales and West by Wales and West Utilities; and in Southern England and Scotland by SGN.

Ownership of the NTS

The changing ownership of the NTS reflects developments and corporate changes in the UK gas and energy industries.

  • Gas Council and Area Boards, 1962 - 31 December 1972
  • British Gas Corporation, 1 January 1973 – 24 August 1986
  • British Gas plc, 24 August 1986 - 1994
  • Transco plc, part of British Gas plc, 1994 - 17 February 1997
  • Transco plc, part of BG plc,17 February 1997 - 1999
  • Transco plc, part of BG Group plc, 1999 - 23 October 2000
  • Transco plc, part of Lattice Group plc, 23 October 2000 – 21 October 2002
  • Transco plc, part of National Grid Transco plc, 21 October 2002 – 10 October 2005
  • National Grid Gas plc, part of National Grid plc, 10 October 2005 - date (2016)

NG is administratively based in Warwick. NG owns and operates the gas transmission system in all of Great Britain; in comparison it only owns the electrical transmission system in England and Wales but operates it for all of Great Britain.

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is not part of the NTS per se and gets its gas via the Scotland-Northern Ireland pipeline (SNIP) owned by Premier Transmission and built between 1994 and 1996. The gas network in Northern Ireland is split, with one area owned by Phoenix Natural Gas and the other by Firmus Energy.

See also

References

  1. ^ Williams, Trevor I. (1981). A History of the British Gas Industry. Oxford University Press. p. 147.
  2. ^ "Origins and growth of the British Gas Plant Operations Department" (PDF).
  3. ^ Wilson, D. Scott (1969). The Modern Gas Industry. Edward Arnold Ltd. p. 43.
  4. ^ Falkus, Malcolm (1988). Always under Pressure: A History of North Thames Gas since 1949. Macmillan. pp. 63 & 74.
  5. ^ Falcus, Malcolm (1988). Always under Pressure: A history of North Thames Gas since 1949. Macmillan. pp. 76 & 108.
  6. ^ Fuel Policy, Cmnd. 3438, HMSO, London (1967).
  7. ^ Williams, Trevor I. (1981). A History of the British Gas Industry. Oxford University Press. pp. 210–11.
  8. ^ Williams, Trevor I. (1981). A History of the British Gas Industry. Oxford University Press. pp. 182–9.
  9. ^ John Ellis 'The Origins and Growth of the British Gas Plant Operations Department', 2014.
  10. ^ Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconsfield: Scientific Press Ltd. pp. 216, 221, 222.
  11. ^ "Origins and growth of the British Gas Operations Department" (PDF).
  12. ^ Williams, Trevor I. (1981). A History of the British Gas Industry. Oxford University Press. pp. 177–8.
  13. ^ Wilson, D Scott (1974). North Sea Heritage: the story of Britain's natural gas. British Gas. p. 27.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconsfield: Scientific Press Ltd. pp. 221–2.
  15. ^ Cassidy, Richard (1979). Gas: Natural Energy. London: Frederick Muller Limitted. pp. 39–47.
  16. ^ Williams, Trevor I. (1981). A History of the British Gas Industry. Oxford University Press. pp. 225–30.
  17. ^ "NTS feeder mains".
  18. ^ Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconsfield: Scientific Press Ltd. pp. 159, 183, 224.
  19. ^ a b c d "Whessoe LNG tanks".
  20. ^ a b "Methane gas terminal Canvey Island".
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McHugh, J (1983). "The engineering of the national transmission system of the British Gas Corporation". Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 197A: 179–96.
  22. ^ a b c d Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconfield: Scientific Press Ltd. p. 183.
  23. ^ "Testing of redundant LNG tank" (PDF).
  24. ^ Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconfield: Scientific Press Ltd. p. 162.
  25. ^ a b Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconsfield: Scientific Press Ltd. p. 224.
  26. ^ a b "UK's Avonmouth LNG storage site to stop operations on April 30".
  27. ^ Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconsfield: Scientific Press Ltd. p. 174.
  28. ^ a b http://nationalgrideducation.com/_assets/downloads/education_resources/ngrid_be-the-source_how-gas-produced.pdf
  29. ^ "Gas Safety (Management) Regulations, 1996".
  30. ^ "Shell Bacton Infrastructure" (PDF).
  31. ^ "Perenco Bacton & Dimlington Infrastructure" (PDF).
  32. ^ "Gas Ten Year Statement (GTYS) | National Grid". www2.nationalgrid.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  33. ^ Cassidy, Richard (1979). Gas: Natural Energy. London: Frederick Muller Limited. p. 14.
  34. ^ Cassidy, Richard (1979). Gas: Natural Energy. London: Frederick Muller Limited. pp. 46–47.
  35. ^ "Gas Transportation Charges Tables 3&5".

External links

ADMIE

Independent Power Transmission Operator S.A. (IPTO or ADMIE from "ΑΔΜΗΕ" - Ανεξάρτητος Διαχειριστής Μεταφοράς Ηλεκτρικής Ενέργειας A.E. in Greek) is the Transmission System Operator for the Hellenic Electricity Transmission System. The mission of the Company is the operation, control, maintenance and development of the national transmission system of Greece to ensure the reliable and efficient electricity supply, as well as the operation of the electricity market following the principles of transparency and equality.

Since February 2012 it is independent in operation and management, retaining the necessary independence required for compliance with 2009/72/EC EU Directive.

Till the end of June 2017 it was a wholly owned subsidiary of Public Power Corporation of Greece (PPC S.A.).

As of June 20, 2017 ADMIE follows the model of proprietary separated Administrator (Ownership Unbundling) and is fully harmonized with the Directive 2009/72/EC.

The current shareholder structure of ADMIE is as follows:

51% ADMIE HOLDINGS Inc.,

25% DES ADMIE S.A.,

24% State Grid Europe Limited.

Until 31 January 2012, ADMIE was a joint company with the Hellenic Electricity Market Operator S.A. (now called LAGIE S.A. from "ΛΑΓΗΕ" - Λειτουργός Αγοράς Ηλεκτρικής Ενέργειας A.E. in Greek) under the name "Hellenic Transmission System Operator S.A." (HTSO or DESMIE from "ΔΕΣΜΗΕ" - Διαχειριστής Ελληνικού Συστήματος Μεταφοράς Ηλεκτρικής Ενέργειας Α.Ε. in Greek).ADMIE's compliance with the requirements applicable to the model of the Independent Transmission Operator was certified by the Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE) in December 2012.

As of 30 June 2012, the Hellenic Electricity Transmission System comprised 11.303 km of transmission lines and 291 Substations with a total installed capacity of 50.749 MVA :

2632 km of 400 kV lines (overhead and underground)

267 km of D.C. 400 kV lines (overhead and submarine)

8349 km of 150 kV lines (overhead, submarine and underground)

55 km of 66 kV lines (overhead, submarine and underground)ADMIE S.A. is a member of ENTSO-E (the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity).

Beltoft

Beltoft is a hamlet in the civil parish of Belton , North Lincolnshire, England. The village lies within the Isle of Axholme, and 4 miles (6 km) south-east from Crowle.

There is a gas offtake from the National Transmission System at Beltoft, which is run by Scottish Power. It is connected by a 9.3-mile (15.0 km) pipeline to a gas compression station on Hatfield Moor, which pumps gas into a depleted natural gas field located 1,450 feet (440 m) below the moor. When more gas is required, the gas is extracted again, and re-enters the National Transmission System at Beltoft.The only public building in the village is the Methodist Chapel. In the 18th century, the Quakers were quite active in the area, and they had their own burial ground in the village. This site was reused by the Methodists, who built the first chapel there in 1833. That building was demolished and a new chapel built in 1904, and the premises were extended in 1923, when a Sunday School was added. The building sits in a wide plot, with a grassed area to the east of it, which was the former burial ground.Beltoft was one of the first villages to benefit from the third phase of the Northern Lincs Broadband initiative, a programme designed to ensure that rural communities were not left out in the provision of super-fast and ultra-fast broadband services. The multi-million pound programme uses Fibre-to-the-Premises (FTTP) technology, which involves running fibre-optic cables from the telephone exchange into the business premises or homes of customers. Many other parts of North Lincolnshire will have a Fibre-to-the-Cabinet (FTTC) service, which provides super-fast broadband, but not the ultra-fast service available in Beltoft. The scheme is funded by North Lincolnshire Council, and benefitted from £2.9 million saved by efficiencies during the first phase of the programme.

British Energy Efficiency Federation

The British Energy Efficiency Federation (or BEEF) was founded in 1996 by the United Kingdom Government to provide a forum for consultation between existing industry associations in the energy sector.

Cadent Gas

Cadent Gas owns, operates and maintains the largest gas distribution network in the UK, transporting gas to 11 million homes and businesses across West Midlands, North West England, East of England and North London.50% of UK gas customers are served by their pipeline system. The company does not produce or own the gas that passes through their pipeline networks.

In 2017/18 Cadent Gas Limited replaced and improved 1,625 km of mains pipe.

Cadent Gas Limited represents four of the eight gas distribution networks in the United Kingdom. Following production and importation, all gas in the UK passes through National Grid’s national transmission system, before entering the distribution networks. The distribution network providers, one of which is Cadent Limited, are responsible for the safe and efficient transportation of the gas to the end consumer, on behalf of the chosen supplier.

The company also manages the national gas emergency service free phone line on behalf of the gas industry in the UK, taking calls and giving safety advice on behalf of the industry. In 2017/18 1.5 million gas emergency calls were answered.

The company invests in raising awareness of the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning through community and school initiatives as well as improving services to protect and support customers in vulnerable situations.

In 2017, the company launched a two-year fundraising partnership with Alzheimer’s Society and committed to creating 1,000 Dementia Friends and also raising £100,000 companywide for the charity. Cadent Gas Limited also sponsor ‘EmployAbility - Let’s Work Together’ scheme which changes young disabled peoples’ lives for the better. It is founded on relationships with local schools, Dorothy Goodman in Leicestershire and Oakwood, Woodlands and Exhall Grange in Warwickshire. It is an employee-led supported internship scheme for young people aged 17 to 19. Since the scheme began in 2014 an average of 71% of interns gained paid employment either with them or with other local companies, compared to the national average of 6%. The company was recently awarded ‘Most Supportive Employer’ by the National Autistic Society.In 2018, Cadent Gas Limited were awarded for being the top UK Company for apprentices to work and amongst the top 20 companies for Graduates.

Central Area Transmission System

The Central Area Transmission System (known as CATS) is a natural gas transportation and processing system that transports gas through 404 kilometres of pipeline from the Central North Sea to a reception and processing terminal at Teesside in the North East of England.

Churchover

Churchover is a small village and civil parish in Warwickshire, England. The population of the parish in the 2001 census was 230, increasing to 251 at the 2011 census.It is located around 4 miles (7 km) north of Rugby, and is administratively part of the borough of Rugby.

The village lies just west of the A426 road, and just north of the M6 motorway on the border with Leicestershire.

Within the parish boundaries is Coton House, a mansion house dating from 1787.

The village contains the Holy Trinity Church which dates partly from the 15th century and is a Grade II* listed building.A major gas compression station and a pipeline pigging and transfer compound, both part of the National transmission system, are located to the south-west of the village.

Elektromreža Srbije

Elektromreža Srbije (abbr. EMS; Serbian Cyrillic: Електромрежа Србије) is a Serbian national transmission system operator company with the headquarters in Belgrade, Serbia.

It was founded in 2005 after being split from Elektroprivreda Srbije and it is specialized in the transmission of electrical power. It is a member of the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.

Elering

Elering AS (former name: OÜ Põhivõrk) is a national transmission system operator for electricity and natural gas with headquarters in Tallinn, Estonia. The managing director of Elering is Taavi Veskimägi.

Energinet

Energinet is the Danish national transmission system operator for electricity and natural gas. It is an independent public enterprise owned by the Danish state under the Ministry of Climate and Energy. Energinet has some 1150 employees, and its headquarters are located in Erritsø near Fredericia in Jutland. The gas division is located in Ballerup near Copenhagen.

The main tasks are to ensure efficient operation and development of the national electricity and gas infrastructure as well as ensuring equal access for all users of the infrastructure. Energinet also plays a role in developing a carbon dioxide free energy system in Denmark.

Energy Retail Association

The Energy Retail Association (ERA) was a trade association which promoted the interests of electricity and gas retailers in the domestic market in Great Britain, formed in 2003. In April 2012 it merged with the Association of Electricity Producers and the UK Business Council for Sustainable Energy to become Energy UK.

Franco-British Nuclear Forum

The first meeting of the Franco–British Nuclear Forum was held in Paris in November 2007, chaired by the Minister for Energy and the French Industry Minister. The working groups are focusing on specific areas for collaboration. A follow-up meeting on the issue in London was planned for March 2008,[1] but did not take place.[2]

Hatton, Lincolnshire

Hatton is a small village and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 3 miles (5 km) east from the town of Wragby, 6 miles (10 km) north-west from the town of Horncastle, and just north from the A158 road.

Neighbouring villages are Sotby, Panton and Great Sturton.

Hatton Wood, a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), lies 1 mile (1.6 km) to the south-west of the village. It forms part of the Bardney Limewoods National Nature Reserve. Hatton Meadows, a nature reserve belonging to the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust, lies to the north of Hatton Wood.The National Transmission System has one of its twenty six compressor stations, driven by three gas turbines, just off the A158 west of the village at Hatton Bridge.

Hatton church is dedicated to Saint Stephen, and is a Grade II listed building dating from the 13th century, rebuilt in 1870 by James Fowler.The deserted medieval village (DMV) of Schankeston was in or near the village.A public house on the A158, The New Midge, is now open

National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in Warwick, United Kingdom. Its principal activities are in the United Kingdom and Northeastern United States. It has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange, and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.

New Electricity Trading Arrangements

New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) is the system of market trading arrangements under which electricity is traded in the United Kingdom's wholesale electricity market as of 27 March 2001. The arrangements provided that parties could trade off their imbalances close to real time.

Northern Powergrid

Northern Powergrid Holdings Company (formerly CE Electric UK Funding Company) is an electrical distribution company based in Newcastle Upon Tyne in England. It is the owner of Northern Powergrid (Northeast) Limited (formerly Northern Electric Distribution Limited (NEDL)) and Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) plc (formerly Yorkshire Electricity Distribution plc (YEDL)) which are the Distribution Network Operators for the North East England and Yorkshire regions and the North Lincolnshire area.

Point of Ayr Gas Terminal

The Point of Ayr Gas Terminal is a gas terminal situated on the Point of Ayr in Flintshire, Wales. It takes gas from eni's Liverpool Bay Development.

Regal Petroleum

Regal Petroleum plc is a petroleum company based in London with assets in Romania, Ukraine, Greece, and Egypt. It was founded by Frank Timiş in November 1996, and is listed on the London Alternative Investment Market.

UK Power Networks

UK Power Networks is a distribution network operator for electricity covering South East England, the East of England and London. It manages three licensed distribution networks (Eastern Power Networks PLC, South Eastern Power Networks PLC and London Power Networks PLC) which together cover an area of 30000 square kilometres and approximately eight million customers.

In 2014 UK Power Networks was awarded £25 million from the electricity regulator Ofgem's Low Carbon Networks Fund for the Low Carbon London project. In 2011 it was awarded £6.7 million by Ofgem for another project, Flexible Plug and Play, which is researching new ways, technical and commercial, to connect renewable energy to the distribution network in Cambridgeshire.

As well as the three distribution arms UK Power Networks also operates UK Power Networks Services Holdings Limited, which develops and maintains electrical networks for clients including London Underground, Heathrow and Stansted airports, Docklands Light Railway and Canary Wharf.

Western Power Distribution

Western Power Distribution is the trading identity of four electricity distribution companies - WPD South West (operating in South West England), WPD South Wales (operating in South Wales) and WPD Midlands (operating in East Midlands and West Midlands). All of the companies act as the distribution network operator for their respective regions, and are registered in Bristol, England. Western Power Distribution serves approximately 7.7 million customers over its combined distribution areas.

Western Power Distribution is a subsidiary of the American utility corporation PPL.

It should not be confused with WPD, a wind farm company in north-western Europe, or Western Power Corporation, an electricity distributor in Australia.

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