National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark
Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti
|Founded||November 16, 1930|
|Dissolved||May 8, 1945 (banned)|
|Succeeded by||National Socialist Movement of Denmark|
|Religion||officially espousing Lutheranism|
The party was founded on 16 November 1930, after the success of the Nazis in the German Reichstag elections of that year. The party mimicked the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) in Germany, including the use of the swastika and Hitler salute, the naming of their fighting force as SA, and even the singing of a translated version of the Horst Wessel Song. The party was antisemitic, though not to the same degree as the German Nazis.
The party had other differences with the Germans; as Danish nationalists, they wanted the Danish border to grow to the south to take in the whole of the historical Duchy of Schleswig, a move which would have brought more ethnic Germans under Danish rule. The DNSAP considered the Germans of North and South Schleswig to be in reality Germanized Danes, who could be politically led back to their Danish origin. The Germans wanted to incorporate the northern portion of Schleswig into the German state. The DNSAP was also supportive of the principles of loyalty to the Danish monarchy and the Church of Denmark.
The party was initially led by Cay Lembcke, although they attracted no more than a few hundred members under his leadership and failed to gain even minor support in the elections of 1932.
Lembcke was replaced in 1933 by Frits Clausen, who concentrated the activities in his home territory of North Schleswig, where the bulk of support for the DNSAP was to come from. At the 1939 elections, with about 5000 members, the party won three seats in the Folketing (parliament), corresponding to 1.8% of the popular vote.
DNSAP supported Hitler's invasion and subsequent occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940. A transition to Nazi government in Denmark was considered by the German administrator, Cecil von Renthe-Fink, in the end of 1940, but due to the policy of co-operation with the legitimate Danish government, it was deemed better to wait until Germany had won the war, although DNSAP did receive some financial and political support from Germany. A major factor influencing Renthe-Fink's decision was the failure of the party's rally on 17 November 1940, planned to be the signal of the party's takeover of political power in Denmark. The rally was confronted by a huge and hostile crowd, outnumbering the participants several times, and the party members had to be protected by the Danish police. After the rally the police had to escort the participants to safety to save them from being attacked and beaten up by the bystanders.
A rare victory for the DNSAP was its role in organizing the recruitment for Waffen-SS and Frikorps Danmark (Free Corps Denmark). The DNSAP was not included in the wartime coalition government (1940–1943) and at the 1943 elections it barely improved on its pre-war performance, winning only 2.1% of the votes cast and three seats in the Folketing. The day after the election, the disappointed Clausen renounced German financial support, intending to take a more purely Danish national line.
After the end of the Second World War, the party was officially dissolved in May 1945, and lost almost all of its popular support. However, a few individuals continued their work under the old party name. The current National Socialist Movement of Denmark traces its origins back to the DNSAP.
|Folketing election||Number of votes||Share of votes (%)||Number of seats|
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|url=value (help) (in Danish).
Bovrup-kartoteket ("The Bovrup File") is a partial transcript of the member file of the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti; DNSAP) created in 1945 by Danish resistance members and published as a book in 1946. The transcript is named after Bovrup, the hometown of DNSAP's leader Frits Clausen who created the actual DNSAP member file.
The transcript is incomplete with 22,795 entries, while the actual DNSAP member file had 50,000 entries.
The year the Bovrup File was published, the court of Copenhagen classified the file leaving only historians with access to it.
In November 2018 an association of Danish genealogists published the subset of 5,265 entries for members born in 1908 or before, i.e. at least 110 years ago.Cay Lembcke
Cay Lembcke (15 December 1885 – 31 January 1965) was a co-founder of the Danish Boy Scouts Organization in 1910 and the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark in 1930. He was captain of the Danish Guard Hussars until his resignation in 1923, following public disagreement with the Danish government over budget cuts in the Danish defence.Lembcke was co-founder of the Danish Boy Scouts Organization (Det Danske Spejderkorps). He wrote a Danish adaptation of Robert Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys in December 1910, titled "Patrouilleøvelser for Drenge" (Patrol exercises for Boys). He left the Danish Boy Scout movement in 1923, after many years of disagreement because of his fascist tendencies.Following the success of the National Socialist German Workers' Party in the 1930 German federal election, Lembcke was the co-founder of National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (Danmarks National Socialistiske Arbejderparti) and the first leader of the party. After a disappointing 1932 Danish general election result, Lembcke was replaced as leader by Frits Clausen in July 1933.Christian Arhoff
Christian Hansen Arhoff (26 January 1893 in Horsens – 9 August 1973) was a Danish stage and film actor. Arhoff joined the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark in 1941.Christian Peder Kryssing
Christian Peder Kryssing (July 7, 1891 – July 7, 1976), commonly known as C.P. Kryssing, was a Danish collaborator with Nazi Germany during World War II. An artillery officer and an ardent anti-communist, he commanded the Free Corps Denmark from 1941 to 1942. He was not a member of the Danish Nazi party, the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark.
Kryssing became the first commander of the Free Corps Denmark June 29, 1941, but was discharged as commander on February 23, 1942, because of disagreements between him and officers in the unit who had Nazi leanings. His replacement was a pro-National Socialist Dane, Christian Frederik von Schalburg.
Kryssing was then transferred to other German units, first SS Division Totenkopf and later 5th SS Division Wiking. In February 1944 he became commander of SS-Kampfgruppe Küste but resigned in June the same year because of personal issues.
Kryssing was the highest ranked foreigner in Waffen-SS as a SS-Brigadeführer.
In May 1945 Kryssing surrendered to the British forces and was handed over to the Danish Police in June 1946. On October 27, 1947, he was sentenced to four years’ imprisonment for his membership of Waffen-SS but was released in May 1948. His two sons, Jens Effersøe Kryssing and Niels John Effersøe Kryssing, had been killed in battle against the Red Army in 1942 and 1944.Danish People's Defence
The Danish People's Defence (Danish: Dansk Folke Værn or Dansk Folkeværn) was the civilian arm of the Danish Schalburg Corps active from April 1943 to August 1944, in support of the German occupation of Denmark. It was made up of civilians, some of whom were expected to provide financial backing.
The founding of Dansk Folkeværn commenced in April 1943, with Knud Børge Martinsen among the first Dansk Folkeværn leaders. Dansk Folkeværn functioned as the political propaganda arm of the Schalburg Corps, and was open to both men and women. Dansk Folkeværn was formally working independently of the Schalburg Corps, though they shared the same address, and Dansk Folkeværn was described by one of its leaders as "Schalburg Corps' Group II".Many of Frits Clausen's former supporters in the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (DNSAP) were recruited. For example, a group led by Max Arildskov called Landstormen, which had broken away from the DNSAP after Clausen's poor results in the March 1943 election. In December, Arildskov put his men at the disposal of the Schalburg Corps as regular soldiers, but only around 50 were accepted. The others were put into the Danish People's Defence. In May 1944, DNSAP banned all DNSAP members who were also active in Dansk Folkeværn, Landstormen, Schalburg Corps, among other groups. In August 1944, Dansk Folkeværn was disbanded, and the members went on to join Dansk National Samling.Eidgenössische Sammlung
Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.Else Christensen
Else Christensen (1913–2005) was a Danish proponent of the modern Pagan new religious movement of Heathenry. She established a Heathen organisation known as the Odinist Fellowship in the United States, where she lived for much of her life. A Third Positionist ideologue, she espoused the establishment of an anarcho-syndicalist society composed of racially Aryan communities.
Born Else Ochsner in Esbjerg, Denmark, Christensen developed her anarcho-syndicalist sympathies while living in Copenhagen. From this position she moved toward the Strasserite National Bolshevik faction of the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, which brought together a far-right emphasis on race with a left-wing approach to economics. In 1937 she married fellow Danish Nazi activist Aage Alex Christensen, however because of their National Bolshevik allegiances they were placed under heavy scrutiny amidst the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. After the war they moved to England and then Canada, settling in Toronto in 1951. Corresponding with various far right activists, she came upon the writings of the American far right ideologue Francis Parker Yockey and the Australian Odinist Alexander Rud Mills, both of whom had a profound influence on her.
Christensen believed that Jews control the Western socio-political establishment, and felt that this would prevent the growth of any explicitly political movement to spread racial consciousness among those she deemed to be Aryan. Instead, she believed that Heathenry – a Pagan religion that she termed "Odinism" – represented the best way of spreading this racial consciousness. In 1969, Christensen and her husband founded a group called The Odinist Fellowship. Alex died in 1971, and Christensen continued her work, relocating to the United States. That year she began publication of a newsletter called The Odinist, which continued for many years. In 1993 she was imprisoned for drug smuggling, although maintained that she had been used as a drug mule without her knowledge. On release, she was deported to Canada, where she lived in Vancouver Island during her final years.
Christensen exerted a significant influence over the racially oriented Odinist movement, gaining the moniker of the "Grand Mother" within that community. Her life and activities have been discussed in a number of academic studies of Odinism and the far right in North America by scholars like Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Mattias Gardell, and Jeffrey Kaplan.Frits Clausen
Frits Clausen (12 November 1893 – 5 December 1947) was leader of the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (DNSAP) prior to and during World War II.
Born in Aabenraa, since 1864 a part of Prussia, Clausen served in the German Army during World War I. After the war, Clausen studied medicine in Heidelberg and became a doctor in 1924, after which he returned to Aabenraa, which had been voted back to Denmark in 1920, and set up a practice. Clausen initially became involved in politics as an advocate of Aabenraa once again becoming a part of Germany, but he eventually turned to Danish politics, advocating causes that favored the German minority in southern Jutland.
Clausen at first became a member of the conservative party, but he eventually resigned from the party and in 1931 joined the DNSAP. Two years later, Clausen ousted the leadership committee of the party (whose members were Einar Jørgensen, C. C. Hansen, and Cay Lembcke) from power and became the party's sole leader.
Under Clausen's direction, the party essentially espoused nationalism and called for a stronger relationship between Denmark and Nazi Germany. Clausen's policies were widely unpopular with the vast majority of Danes, and he essentially received what support he had from the German minority population in southern Jutland. At the height of its popularity, the DNSAP had about 20,000 members and 20,000 sympathizers. However, the party fared relatively poorly in the 1939 elections, winning only three seats in the Folketing. A year later, when Germany invaded Denmark, Clausen became a strong supporter of the German occupation and took credit for the lenient way in which Germany governed the country.
The Germans attempted to reward Clausen for his services by trying to persuade King Christian X to let Clausen and his followers have roles in the nation's government in 1940 and 1943, but the King opposed any such suggestions. Much to Clausen's chagrin, the German government was unwilling to forcibly put him in charge of Denmark for fear of angering its people, although there were talks of doing so in 1940 and 1942. The Germans did hope, however, that Clausen would legally seize power over the nation in the 1943 elections, but the DNSAP performed just as poorly in the elections as it did in 1939, once again winning only three seats in the Folketing.
After the elections, a bitter Clausen joined the German Army and saw active service on the Eastern Front as a surgeon, although he did not resign his position as chief of the DNSAP. Clausen returned to Denmark in the spring of 1944, after which time his political career was terminated.
Clausen's failure in the elections and his unwillingness to actively assist in forming a Danish branch of the Schutzstaffel alienated his German supporters, and as such SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Werner Best, the Plenipotentiary of the German Reich for Denmark, convinced Clausen to step down as leader of the party and replaced him with a three-man committee shortly after his return to Denmark.
After Germany's occupation of Denmark ended in May 1945, Clausen was captured and sent to Frøslev Prison Camp. He was later given a formal trial, but he died of a heart attack in the Vestre Fængsel, a prison in Copenhagen, before it could be completed.Kai Henning Bothildsen Nielsen
Kai Henning Bothildsen Nielsen (4 December 1919 – 9 May 1947) was a Danish national socialist who became a member of the Peter group in Denmark during the Second World War. He participated in numerous operations to murder and bomb civilians and public servants as collective punishment whenever the Danish resistance carried out an operation. Bothildsen was after the war convicted for 57 murders, 9 attempted murders and 116 sabotage events and given a death sentence which was eventually ratified by the Danish Supreme Court. He was executed on 9 May 1947 in Copenhagen.Bothildsen Nielsen was the son of coach driver Marius Bothildsen Nielsen and his wife Kirsten Marie Christoffersen. They lived in Absalonsgade 45 in Aarhus when their son was baptized. Bothildsen Nielsen grew up in a stable if modest household. He completed elementary school with good grades and marks but his later school years proved more difficult and when he was 16 years old, he dropped out.In 1938 Bothildsen joined the Danish National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark and their Sturmabteilung. In 1940 he applied to join the Waffen SS but was rejected for medical reasons. In January 1941 he tried again and was sent to an SS-academy in Sennheim, Germany. In March 1941 he was discharged for medical reasons. He opted to stay in Germany where he opened a paint shop which he ran until June 1943 when he was enrolled in Schalburgkorpset. In Schalburgkorpset he was assigned the Intelligence wing which had a special status as an autonomous unit increasingly used by the Germans to carry out various jobs. Bothildsen Nielsen worked for the Intelligence-units until April 1944 when he joined the Peter Group.In the Peter Group Bothildsen Nielsen quickly became one of the leaders. He was assigned the codename Perle (English: Pearl) and under that name he participated in a large number of actions aimed at punishing civilians. He participated in murders, bombings of buildings and trains and destruction of landmarks. When German forces in Denmark surrendered Bothildsen Nielsen attempted to go underground but on 12 May 1945 he was arrested by the police after a suicide attempt. Bothildsen Nielsen was sentenced for 57 murders, nine attempted murders, 116 sabotage-events, five train bombings and 3 robberies. On 14 April 1947 he was sentenced to death by shooting along with 6 others. The sentence was executed at 03:15 on 9 May 1947 on Bådsmandsstræde Barracks in Copenhagen.Knud Børge Martinsen
Knud Børge Martinsen (30 November 1905 – 25 June 1949) was a Danish officer and the third commander of Frikorps Danmark.List of fascist movements by country A–F
A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.Max Johannes Arildskov
Max Johannes Arildskov (17 February 1896 – 1986) was a Danish National Socialist political activist and collaborator prior to and during World War II.National Socialism (disambiguation)
National Socialism most often refers to Nazism, the ideology of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party, NSDAP) which existed in Germany between 1920 and 1945 and ruled the country from 1933 to 1945. The term "National Socialism" was used by a number of unrelated groups before the Nazis, but since their rise to prominence it has become associated almost exclusively with their ideas.
National Socialism may also refer to:
Ethnic German movements related to Nazism:
Austrian National Socialism, an early influence on the NSDAP
German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia) (Sudeten German, anti-Semitic)
Sudeten German Party (Sudeten German, pro-annexation-by-Germany, successor of the above)
Strasserism, a breakaway movement from German Nazism
Non-German groups drawing inspiration from Nazism and existing in the same historical period:
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Canadian National Socialist Unity Party (pro-Anglo-Canadian/French-Canadian)
National Socialist Movement of Chile (1930s)
National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
Greek National Socialist Party (Italian-style fascist, pro-Hitler)
Hungarian National Socialist Party (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
National Socialist Dutch Workers Party (1920s–1930s; favoured German annexation of the Netherlands)
National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (1930s–1940s; unlike the above, it nominally supported an independent Netherlands)
National Socialist Workers' Party of Norway (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
Nasjonal Samling (Norway) (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic, anti-Masonic)
National Socialist Party (Romania) (German-style Nazi)
Swedish National Socialist Freedom League (pro-Hitler, founded in 1924)
Swedish National Socialist Party (founded in 1930 through a merger of Nazi and fascist groups)
National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) (split from the above in 1933, became more Strasserite and independently Swedish before declining during World War II)
South African Gentile National Socialist Movement (1930s–1940s; pro-apartheid, white, anti-Semitic)
Neo-Nazism, a label for groups and ideologies after 1945 that are considered to be based on Nazism:
National Socialist Movement of Denmark (contemporary)
Iranian National Socialist Party, created in 1952 (pro-Hitler, anti-Semitic, anti-Arab, anti-Turk)
National Socialist Party of New Zealand (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
National Socialist Movement of Norway (contemporary)
Russian National Socialist Party (Russian nationalist, fascist, anti-immigrant, promoting Orthodox Christian theocracy)
Colin Jordan's National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962) of the United Kingdom
National Socialist Action Party (British, founded in 1982)
National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom) (contemporary)
National Socialist League (United States) (gay, "Aryan", pro-Hitler)
National Socialist Party of America (white, anti-Semitic, anti-black)
National Socialist Movement (United States) (contemporary)
Other unrelated ideologies and organizations, some of which were founded before the NSDAP and thus before "National Socialism" became associated with Nazism, while others exist in non-European contexts where Nazism is not widely known:
Ba'ath Party, an Arab national-socialist party in Iraq and Syria
Czech National Social Party, founded in Austria-Hungary in 1898 as a center-left party advocating Czech independence
National-Social Association, a small center-left Christian liberal party in Germany, founded by Friedrich Naumann in 1896
National Socialist Party (UK), a breakaway group from the British Socialist Party formed in 1916; historically Marxist, it reverted to a previous name as the Social Democratic Federation in 1919 and then merged with the Labour Party
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (National Socialist Party), a small socialist party in Bangladesh
National Socialist Council of Nagaland, a Maoist insurgent group in India
National Socialist Party of Tripura, a party advocating Tripuri self-determination in IndiaNational Socialist Bloc
National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.
The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.
NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.National Socialist Flyers Corps
The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).
During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.National Socialist Movement of Denmark
The National Socialist Movement of Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Bevægelse, DNSB) is a neo-Nazi political party in Denmark. The movement traces its origins back to National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (DNSAP, Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti), the Danish Nazi party founded in the mid-1930s, more or less as a copy of Adolf Hitler's German NSDAP. After the end of the Second World War, a few people continued under the original party name, and published the newspaper Fædrelandet (The Fatherland) during the period 1952-1972. The movement was dissolved, reformed, and renamed several times between 1972 and 1991. The current incarnation of Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Bevægelse was founded on 1 September 1991 by the current chairman, Jonni Hansen.
Under Hansen's leadership, the movement has resumed publication of Fædrelandet, and started the National Socialist local radio station, Radio Oasen, which can be received in an area around Greve south of Copenhagen, and is broadcast on the Internet. The radio station caused much controversy, since due to the liberal media laws of Denmark it was entitled to support from public funds. The broadcast license of Radio Oasen has been revoked several times after the radio station broadcast "racist statements", and the public funding was removed in May 2004. However, the radio station continues to broadcast 62 hours per week through funding received from private supporters.
The movement keeps its membership count secret, but it has been estimated at around 1,000 passive and around 150 active members.
DNSB has twice run for municipality council elections in Greve, Denmark, in 1997 and 2001. In the 1997 election, they gained 0.5% of the votes, and in 2001 0.23% (73 votes). These numbers fell far short of securing them representation on the municipality council.
DNSB ran for the Greve municipality council and Region Sjælland (region Zealand) regional council in the 15 November 2005 municipality and Regional Council elections. This represented the first time since the Second World War that the voters could elect a National Socialist candidate above the municipality level. Although they got only 73 votes in Greve (0.3%) and 611 votes in the region (0.1%), they were not the party to receive the fewest votes, and the event generated some media attention for the movement.National Unity Party (Canada)
The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.The Immortals (neo-Nazis)
The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.World Union of National Socialists
The World Union of National Socialists (WUNS) is an organisation founded in 1962 as an umbrella group for neo-Nazi organisations across the globe.