National Socialist Movement of Chile

Movimiento Nacional Socialista de Chile was a political movement in Chile, during the Presidential Republic Era, which initially supported the ideas of Adolf Hitler, although it later moved towards a more indigenous form of fascism. They were commonly known as Nacistas.[1]

National Socialist Movement of Chile

Movimiento Nacional Socialista de Chile
LeaderJorge González von Marées
Founded5 April 1932
Dissolved1938
Succeeded byPopular Socialist Vanguard
IdeologyNational Socialism
Corporatism
Fascism
Portalesism
Political positionFar-right
Party flag
Flag of National Socialist Movement of Chile

Development

The movement was formed in April 1932 by General Diaz Valderrama, Carlos Keller (the main ideologue of the group) and Jorge González von Marées, who became leader. The party initially followed the ideas of Nazism closely, stressing anti-Semitism. It received financial support from the German population of Chile and soon built up a membership of 20,000 people. The movement stressed what it saw as the need for one party rule, corporatism and solidarity between classes, and soon set up its own paramilitary wing, the Tropas Nacistas de Asalto.[2]

However support for Hitler was later abandoned, with González von Marées claiming by the late 1930s that the use of the name 'national socialist' had been an error on his part. Anti-semitism was also scaled back, with a more domestic form of fascism being offered instead.[2] Indeed the main ideological inspiration claimed by the group was Diego Portales and the choice of name had to an extent been inspired by the success the Nazis were enjoying in Europe and a desire to tap into their, at the time, high reputation.[1] Initial contact with the NSDAP/AO eventually ended when that group criticised the Nacistas for their lack of commitment to anti-Semitism.[1] Individual members (most notably, Miguel Serrano) continued to look to Adolf Hitler.

Mergers

The party obtained three deputies (3,5% of the votes) during the 1937 legislative elections.[3] It then merged in 1938 with the Unión Socialista (Socialist Union) to create the Alianza Popular Libertadora (APL) which supported General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo's candidacy for the 1938 presidential election. However, fascist elements attempted a coup in September 1938, which was ruthlessly put down at the Seguro Obrero massacre, and led Ibáñez to oppose the National Socialists' choice of Gustavo Ross, leading to indirect support of the Radical Party's candidate, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, who narrowly won the election.[4]

In 1939, some members of the APL created an offshoot, the fascist Vanguardia Popular Socialista, which failed to have any impact, and it was disbanded in 1941 whilst González von Marées was interned. On the other hand, the APL merged in 1945 with the Agrarian Party to form the Partido Agrario Laborista (PAL).

Of the former members of the party only Jorge Prat gained much influence. Publishing a weekly paper, Estanquero, between 1949 and 1954, he served as a cabinet minister in Carlos Ibáñez del Campo's government and attempted to run for President of Chile in 1964.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Max Paul Friedman, Nazis & Good Neighbours, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 52
  2. ^ a b Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism: 1914-1945, London: Routledge, 2001, p. 341
  3. ^ Cruz-Coke, Ricardo. 1984. Historia electoral de Chile. 1925-1973. Editorial Jurídica de Chile. Santiago
  4. ^ Payne, A History of Fascism, p. 342
  5. ^ S. Cerqueira in JP Bernard et al., Guide to the Political Parties of South America, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973, p. 245
Agrarian Labor Party

The Agrarian Labor Party (Spanish: Partido Agrario Laborista, PAL) was a Chilean political party supporting the candidacy of Carlos Ibáñez del Campo for the 1952 presidential election. Formed in 1945, it was dissolved in 1958.

It was formed in 1945 from the merger of the Agrarian Party, the Popular Freedom Alliance (an offshoot of the National Socialist Movement of Chile), the Movimiento Nacionalista de Chile and the Unión Nacionalista. Its foundational program, emphasising law and order, asserted the need to "secure public order in the country, on the functional basis that labour has not only obligations but also indisputable civil rights."

In 1951 the PAL proclaimed as its presidential candidate the former dictator Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who had, since his first term, somehow changed political orientation. After his election in 1952, it took part in his first cabinet, along with the Popular Socialist Party formed of dissidents of the Socialist Party. Starting in 1954, the PAL's influence on Ibáñez's cabinet declined, leading to an internal crisis and to the subsequent use of the PAL label by two different organizations.

Legally, the ownership of the PAL label was among the faction opposing Ibáñez, led by the senator Julio von Mühlenbrock. New divisions split the PAL for the 1958 presidential election, with the official faction supporting the candidate of the Christian Democrat Party, Eduardo Frei Montalva, while activists from Cautín and Biobío and dissidents who formed the Partido Agrario Laborista Recuperacionista (Recover Agrarian Labor Party) supported the right-wing candidate Jorge Alessandri, along with the United Conservative Party and the Liberal Party. The PAL subsequently dissolved itself in October 1958, merging with the National Party to create the PANAPO (Partido Nacional Popular, National People's Party).

The PANAPO itself was dissolved in 1961, a faction joining the Christian Democrats, while another merged with the PADENA (Partido Democrático Nacional, National Democratic Party) which joined the left-wing FRAP coalition. Finally, a third tendency attempted to maintain the original party, without any success.

A group tried to revive the PAL for the 1965 parliamentary election under the label of Partido Democracia Agrario Laborista, but did not manage in obtaining any political representation.

Carlos Keller

Carlos Keller Rueff (January 3, 1898–February 28, 1974) was a far-right Chilean writer, historian, and political figure.

Deutsches Jungvolk

The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

Esoteric Nazism

Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.

Jorge González von Marées

Jorge González von Marées (April 5, 1900 – March 14, 1962) El Jefe (Spanish: The chief, analogous to the Führer) was a Chilean political figure and author.

Born in Santiago of a German mother. He was ideologically influenced by Oswald Spengler. On April 5, 1932 he founded the Movimiento Nacional Socialista de Chile (MNS, National Socialist Movement of Chile) to oppose Democratism, Americanism, and Communism.

González von Marées organized a failed coup attempt on September 5, 1938, in which 58 young nacista members were shot to death by police, in what became known as the Seguro Obrero massacre. He was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment, but subsequently pardoned by President Aguirre.

Jorge Prat

Jorge Prat Echaurren (24 April 1918 – 20 December 1971) was a Chilean nationalist politician. Prat was a leading figure on the far right of Chilean politics for several decades, although he also served a brief spell as a cabinet minister in the 1950s.

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist Flyers Corps

The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).

During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.

National Socialist League

The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.

National Socialist Movement

National Socialist Movement may refer to:

National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962), a British neo-Nazi group

National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom), a British neo-Nazi group active during the late 1990s

National Socialist Movement (United States), a neo-Nazi organization based in Detroit, Michigan

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party

National Socialist Movement of Chile, a political movement in Chile

National Socialist Movement of Denmark, a neo-Nazi political party in Denmark

National Socialist Movement of Norway, a Norwegian neo-Nazi group

National Unity Party (Canada)

The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Ossewabrandwag

The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.

Otto Strasser

Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.

His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.

Popular Freedom Alliance

The Popular Freedom Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Popular Libertadora, APL) was a Chilean political party during the Presidential Republic Era, founded in 1938 for the coming presidential election.

It was created in 1938 as an electoral alliance by supporters of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who were members of the Unión Socialista (Socialist Union) and of the Movimiento Nacional Socialista de Chile (National Socialist Movement of Chile, MNS). They later merged to create the APL political party, which was nationalist and populist, and included Fascist elements of the MNS. Some of these MNS elements created an offshoot in 1939, the fascist Vanguardia Popular Socialista (Socialist Popular Avant-Garde, VPS).

Although they supported Ibáñez for the 1938 election, the latter was forced to resign after the Seguro Obrero Massacre which followed an attempted coup by the National Socialist Movement, and Ibáñez decided to oppose Gustavo Ross, whom the MNS had tried to put in power, leading to indirect support of the Radical candidate Pedro Aguirre Cerda, who was ultimately elected.

The APL merged in 1945 with the Agrarian Party to form the Partido Agrario Laborista (PAL).

Popular Socialist Vanguard

The Vanguardia Popular Socialista (VPS, Popular Socialist Vanguard) was a far-right Chilean political party created in 1938. It was the direct heir of the National Socialist Movement of Chile (MNS) and founded as a consequence of the failed fascist coup in 1938 and its repression. It included Jorge González von Marées and Miguel Serrano, while former MNS member Carlos Keller refused to join it. The VPS obtained 2,5% at the 1941 legislative elections, having two deputies elected

The VPS was dissolved in 1942, the majority of its members joining Juan Gómez Millas' Unión Nacionalista de Chile.

Seguro Obrero massacre

The Seguro Obrero massacre (Spanish: Matanza del Seguro Obrero, literally in English: Workers Insurance's Massacre) occurred on September 5, 1938, and was the Chilean government's response to an attempted coup d'état by the National Socialist Movement of Chile (MNSCh), whose members were known at the time as Nacistas. After a failed coup involving a stand-off and a shootout, about 60 Nacistas who had surrendered after being given assurances, were summarily shot.

Strasserism

Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.

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