National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands

The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (Dutch: Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland, Dutch pronunciation: [nɑtsjoːˈnaːl soːʃaːˈlɪstisə bəˈʋeːɣɪŋ ɪn ˈneːdərlɑnt], NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party that called itself a "movement". As a parliamentary party participating in legislative elections, the NSB had some success during the 1930s. It remained the only legal party in the Netherlands during most of the Second World War.

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands

Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland
LeaderAnton Mussert (1931–1945)
Founded14 December 1931
Dissolved6 May 1945 (banned)
HeadquartersUtrecht, Netherlands
NewspaperVolk en Vaderland ("People & Fatherland")
Youth wingNationale Jeugdstorm
Paramilitary wingWeerbaarheidsafdeling
IdeologyDutch nationalism
National Socialism
Political positionFar-right
International affiliationN/A
             (colors of the Prince's Flag)
Party flag


Party history


The NSB was founded in Utrecht in 1931 during a period when several nationalist, fascist and national socialist parties were founded. The founders were Anton Mussert, who became the party's leader, and Cornelis van Geelkerken. The party based its program on Italian fascism and German national socialism, however unlike the latter before 1936 the party was not anti-semitic and even had Jewish members.

In 1933, after a year of building an organization, the party organized its first public meeting, a Landdag in Utrecht which was attended by 600 party militants. Here the party presented itself. After that the party's support began to grow. In the same year the government forbade civil servants to be members of the NSB.

In the provincial elections of 1935 the party gained 8 percent of the votes and two seats in the Senate. This result was achieved against the background of the economic hardship of the Great Depression. Mussert's image as a reliable politician and his pragmatism allowed him to unite the different types of fascism and contributed to the party's success. This was bolstered by the party's strong organization and its political strategy, which was not oriented towards violent revolution but a democratic legal take over of the country. By 1936 the party had begun holding annual mass meetings near Lunteren in Gelderland, and in 1938 it built the Muur van Mussert there, a wall which was supposed to be one element in a set of buildings and monuments inspired by the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg.[4]

In 1936, under influence of Meinoud Rost van Tonningen the party became openly anti-semitic. Rost van Tonningen began to question Mussert's leadership with support of the German Nazi Party, raising internal divisions within the party. This led to decreased support for the party and a strong anti-fascist reaction of the political parties, trade unions and churches. In the 1937 general elections the party gained only 4 percent of the votes and four seats in the House of Representatives, however it increased its representation in the Senate to five seats. In parliament the NSB MPs showed little respect for parliamentary procedures and rules. Many NSB MPs were called to order by the chairman of parliament for physical and verbal violence. In the provincial election of 1939 the party also gained 4 percent of the votes.


After the Second World War broke out, the NSB sympathized with the Germans and advocated strict neutrality for the Netherlands. In May 1940, 800 NSB members and sympathizers were put in custody by the Dutch government,[5] after the German invasion. Soon after the Dutch defeat on 14 May 1940, they were set free by German troops. In June 1940, Mussert delivered a speech in Lunteren in which he called for the Netherlands to embrace the Germans and renounce the Dutch Monarchy, which had fled to London.

In 1940 the German occupation government had outlawed all socialist and communist parties; in 1941 it forbade all parties, except for the NSB. The NSB openly collaborated with the occupation forces. Its membership grew to about 100,000. The NSB played an important role in lower government and civil service; every new mayor appointed by the German occupation government was a member of the NSB. On the national level, Mussert had expected he would be made leader of an independent Dutch state allied to Germany; in reality, however, the Austrian national socialist Arthur Seyss-Inquart was in charge of an occupation government. Mussert had several meetings with Adolf Hitler in which he pleaded for an independent Netherlands, but he was unsuccessful. Although Seyss-Inquart had proposed that Mussert should be made Prime Minister of the Netherlands, he was only given the honorary title 'Leader of the Dutch People', and he was allowed to build a marginal State Secretariat, but he was given little or no actual power. His influence in the party waned at the expense of Rost van Tonningen and other more pro-German members. Beginning in the summer of 1943, many male members of the NSB were organized in the Landwacht, which helped the government control the population.

On 4 September 1944, the Allied forces conquered Antwerp and the NSB expected the fall of the Netherlands to come soon. On 5 September, most of the NSB's leadership fled to Germany and the party's organization fell apart, on what is known as Dolle Dinsdag (Mad Tuesday).

After the German surrender on 6 May 1945, the NSB was outlawed. Mussert was arrested the following day. Many of the members of the NSB were arrested, but only a few were convicted. Mussert was executed on 7 May 1946.

There were no attempts to continue the organization illegally.

WWII Dutch NSB cap
Dutch WWII NSB (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging ) cap
WWII Dutch NSB armband
WWII Dutch NSB (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging ) armband

Ideology and issues

The NSB started out as a classical fascist party, which based itself on the principles of leadership. It wanted a fascist state with a compliant government, fascist order and state control. It put the "national interest" above the individual interest and the interest of social groups, (pillars) that had characterized Dutch society. The party was anti-parliamentary and authoritarian. Its program, which was modeled on the program of the German Nazi Party, lacked reference to anti-semitic or racist ideology of the Nazi Party. After 1936, under the influence of Meinoud Rost van Tonningen, the party became more oriented towards the Nazi Party and took over its anti-semitic and racist ideas. It also began to sympathize with the aggressive foreign policy of Italy and Germany.[6]

Practical demands of the NSB were: abolition of individual voting rights, corporatism, a duty to work and serve in the army, limits on the freedom of the press, laws against strikes. It demanded a unification of the Netherlands with Flanders and French Flanders in a Greater Netherlands, which would also control a large colonial empire consisting of Belgian Congo, Dutch East Indies and perhaps South Africa.[7] This state would not be a part of Germany, but only an independent loyal ally to Germany.

Rituals and symbols

The NSB copied elements of the Italian Fascists and German Nazis. Like Mussolini's Fascists, the NSB uniforms included black shirts, and the Party adopted the Fascist salute. Since 1933 it used the salute "Hou Zee!", which, Anton Mussert said, connoted courage and referred to the glorious maritime history of the Dutch Republic. It also began using titles like Leider for Mussert (Leader; similar to Duce or Führer), Kameraad for men (comrade) and Kameraadske ('comradess', a neologism) for women. One party slogan was "Mussert or Moscow", evoking the Fascist defense against supposed Communist subversion.[8] Although the Party later adopted the Nazi red and black colors and the swastika symbol, the original NSB flag used the Prince's Flag. A blue wolfsangel (a hooked symbol of a wolf trap) on a white disc was set against an orange field.[9]

Leadership and support

This table shows the results of the NSB in elections to the House of Representatives (lower house), the Senate, the States-Provincial, and the party's political leadership: the fractievoorzitter, is the chair of the parliamentary party and the lijsttrekker is the party's top candidate in the general election, these posts are normally taken by the party's leader. The membership of NSB is also represented. The House of Representatives then had 100 members.

Year HoR S SP Fractievoorzitter Lijsttrekker Membership
1933 0 0 0 extra-parliamentary no elections 900
1934 0 0 0 extra-parliamentary no elections 21000
1935 0 2 44 Max de Marchant et d'Ansembourg** no elections 33000
1936 0 2 44 Max de Marchant et d'Ansembourg** no elections 52000
1937 4 5 44 Anton Mussert Anton Mussert 48000
1938 4 5 44 Anton Mussert no elections 39000
1939 4 5 21 Anton Mussert no elections 37000
1940 4 5 21 Anton Mussert no elections 32000
1941 German Occupation 90788
1942 German Occupation unknown
1943 German Occupation 99353
1944 German Occupation 101314

Municipal and provincial government

Before 1940 the NSB held seats in provincial and municipal legislatures, but did not cooperate in any governments. After 1940 these legislatures stopped functioning and the NSB's role in local and provincial legislatures expanded. All newly appointed mayors were member of the NSB.

The following figure shows the election results of the provincial elections of 1935 and 1939, per province. It shows the areas where the NSB was strong, namely in South Holland, North Holland and Gelderland. The NSB was the strongest in Drenthe and Limburg. In 1935, it became the second largest party in Limburg. The party was weaker in Friesland, North Brabant and Zeeland.

In 1939, on the eve of the Second World War, the party lost nearly half of its provincial seats.

Province Result 1935 (seats) Result 1939 (seats)
Drenthe 4 3
Friesland 1 0
Gelderland 5 2
Groningen 4 2
Limburg 5 2
North Brabant 2 1
North Holland 7 4
Overijssel 3 2
Utrecht 4 1
Zeeland 2 1
South Holland 7 3


The NSB drew its main support from the middle class: civil servants, farmers, business people and soldiers supported the party. Most of these people were not part of the strong pillarized organisations surrounding the socialist unions, and the Protestant and Catholic Churches, instead they were often a loose member of the weaker liberal pillar, which was very diverse. The NSB party scored particularly well in Drenthe, Gelderland and the towns of Limburg at the border with Germany.

Party members

Historians Lou de Jong and A.A. de Jonge have characterized NSB members as socially isolated opportunists who were motivated to join the NSB through a mix of opportunism, idealism and social connections.[10]


Organizational structure

The party was organized with Mussert serving as party chair and political leader. From September 1940 until its dissolution, Carolus Josephus Huygen served as Secretary General of the party. Yearly the party organized a Landdag, where Mussert held a political speech.

Associated organisations

The NSB was surrounded by several party organizations. It published a weekly newspaper, Volk en Vaderland ("People and Fatherland"). Between 1931 and 1935 the party had its own paramilitary organization, the black uniformed Weerbaarheidsafdeling (WA), similar to the Sturmabteilung of the Nazi Party. It was refounded in 1940.[11] It also founded its own youth organization, Nationale Jeugdstorm (Youthstorm); a farmers' organization; and a daily newspaper, Het Nationale Dagblad (The National Newspaper).

In 1940 the NSB formed the Nederlandsche SS (Dutch SS), it had up to 7,000 members.

The term "NSB'er" has become synonymous with traitor in the Netherlands and is used as an insult, especially in the context of ratting somebody out to authorities.

A grim joke after World War II, made by Dutch Resistance fighters, is that former NSB members insisted that their acronym actually stood for "Niet So [zo] Bedoeld" or "not meant like that" as they attempted to downplay their treachery.


NSB Meeting (Utrecht 1941)


NSB Meeting
(The Hague 1941)


(The Hague 1941)

Relationships to other parties

The NSB was methodically isolated by other parties. Before the war the socialist Social Democratic Workers' Party and Nederlands Verbond van Vakverenigingen (Dutch Association of Trade Unions) coordinated counter-demonstrations and propaganda with a separate organization 'Freedom, Labour and Bread'.

Electoral performance

Election Votes Seats Position Government
# % # ±
1937 171,137 4.2
4 / 100
Increase Increase 6th

See also



  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Paternotte, Bas (3 December 2015). "Mini-docu: De Muur van Mussert" (in Dutch). ThePostOnline. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  5. ^ Jong 1956, p73.
  6. ^ Orlow, Dietrich (2010). The Nazi Party 1919-1945: A Complete History. New York: Enigma Books. pp. 420–422. ISBN 978-0-9824911-9-5. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  7. ^ Kroener, Bernhard R.; Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Umbreit, Hans (2000). Germany and the Second World War:Organization and mobilization of the German sphere of power. Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources 1939-1941. Oxford University Press. p. 390. ISBN 0-19-822887-2.
  8. ^ "Mussert, Anton" in Current Biography 1941, p621.
  9. ^
  10. ^ Josje Damsma, and Erik Schumacher, "De strijd om Amsterdam," Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden (2009) 124#3, pp 329-348
  11. ^ "De WA (Weerbaarheidsafdeling) van de NSB". Europeana (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 September 2014.

General references

  • Jong, Loe de (1956). German Fifth Column In the Second World War. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Anton Mussert

Anton Adriaan Mussert (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɑntɔm ˈmʏsərt]; 11 May 1894 – 7 May 1946) was one of the founders of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) and its formal leader. As such, he was the most prominent Dutch fascist before and during World War II. During the war, he was able to keep this position, due to the support he received from the Germans. After the war, he was convicted and executed for high treason.

Black Front (Netherlands)

The Black Front (Dutch: Zwart Front) was a Dutch fascist movement active before the Second World War.

The Front grew out of the southern section of the General Dutch Fascist League, with regional organiser Arnold Meijer quarrelling with leader Jan Baars and leading his followers out in 1934. The Black Front emerged and soon took over a number of smaller movements, while also gaining some support among the poorer parts of society. Although similar to its parent movement, the Black Front emphasised a more Catholic line in tune with Meijer's own religious beliefs. Taking its cue in part from Italian fascism, it adopted that movement's black-shirted uniform while adding a unique emblem featuring a sword between a pair of ram horns.However, the group struggled to gain support from the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB); it was renamed the National Front in 1940. The National Front was ultimately banned by the Germans on 14 December 1941, along with all other Dutch political parties except for the NSB. The majority of its members switched to the NSB, although Meijer, disillusioned, left politics altogether.

Cornelis van Geelkerken

Cornelis van Geelkerken (Dutch pronunciation: [kɔrˈneːləs fɑŋ ˈɣeːlkɛrkə(n)] 19 March 1901 in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek – 29 March 1976 in Ede) was co-founder of the Dutch National Socialist Movement.

Cornelis van Geelkerken was born in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Belgium. In the 1920s he gravitated toward extreme nationalism. Proposing an authoritarian, anti-democratic movement to Anton Mussert they formed the National Socialist Movement. He became director of their youth corps, the Nationale Jeugdstorm. After the German invasion Geelkerken was appointed Inspector-General of the Nederlandsche Landwacht (home guard set up to combat the Resistance). After the war he was sentenced to life imprisonment but released in 1959. He died on 29 March 1976 in Ede.

Daniël de Blocq van Scheltinga

Jonkheer Daniël de Blocq van Scheltinga (Velp, 23 November 1903 – Düsseldorf, 26 June 1962) was a Dutch Nazi politician.

Folkert Posthuma

Folkert Evert Posthuma (20 May 1874, Leeuwarden – 3 June 1943, Vorden) was a Dutch politician.

During the first World War he was the Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Trade in the government of Cort van der Linden and as such responsible for the food distribution. Before and after his minstership he held a senior management position at the insurance company Centraal Beheer. In the 1930s he became a sympathiser, but not a member, of the NSB. In 1943 he was asked by NSB leader Anton Mussert to become his representative for agriculture but was assassinated later that year by the Dutch resistance.

Gejus van der Meulen

Ageaus Yme "Gejus" van der Meulen (Amsterdam, 23 January 1903 – Haarlem, 10 July 1972) was a Dutch football goalkeeper. One of the most popular Dutch sportsmen of the 1920s–1930s, he fell into disgrace in the late 1940s due to his collaboration with Nazi Germany.

Van der Meulen played 54 matches for the Netherlands national football team, which was the Dutch record for goalkeepers from 3 March 1928 (when he equalled the total of Just Göbel) until 21 June 1990 (when his total was surpassed by Hans van Breukelen). He made his debut on 27 April 1924, against Belgium. He played in the 1934 FIFA World Cup, where the Netherlands were eliminated in the first round against Switzerland. He also took part in two Olympic Games, in 1924 and 1928. He was a club player of HFC in Haarlem, the oldest club in The Netherlands.Van der Meulen's popularity in the Netherlands was such that his wedding made the Polygoon newsreel. Footage also exists of a celebration ceremony for Van der Meulen on 5 March 1933, the day he gained his 50th cap.In 1935, Van der Meulen retired from competitions and opened a pediatric clinic in Haarlem. He joined the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands and openly supported Hitler's compulsory sterilization laws. His views were strongly opposed by the parents of the children he treated, forcing him to close his clinic. After the German invasion, Van der Meulen joined the SS and served on the Eastern Front from 1942 onwards. He was arrested four days after the liberation of the Netherlands and tried in June 1947. He showed no remorse and stated that he did not know that the Netherlands was at war with Germany when he joined the SS. Van der Meulen was sentenced to eight years in prison. He was pardoned in August 1949 and opened a new medical clinic, but met a chilly treatment both in the medical and football worlds. His only clients were the former Nazi associates, and nobody wanted to talk to him when he went to see his son play at his former football club.

George Kettmann

George Wilhelm Kettmann or George Kettmann Jr. (12 December 1898 in Amsterdam – 10 February 1970 in Roosendaal) was a Dutch poet, writer, journalist and publisher who promoted Nazism in the Netherlands. With his wife, he founded the best known Dutch National Socialist publishing house, De Amsterdamsche Keurkamer. Until 1941 he was editor in chief of Volk en Vaderland (People and Fatherland), the weekly journal of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB), the movement of Anton Mussert.

H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont

Hugues Alexandre Sinclair de Rochemont (Hilversum, January 6, 1901 – March 13, 1942) was a Dutch fascist and later a collaborator with the Nazis.

Whilst studying Indology at Leiden University, he became associated with the rightist professor Gerardus Johannes Petrus Josephus Bolland (1854 - 1922). After leaving the university in 1924, he set up the country's first fascist movement, the Verbond van Actualisten, with Alfred Haighton. This group had stood in the 1925 general election but won only 0.08% of the vote. Alongside this, Sinclair de Rochemont worked as a journalist for De Vaderlander and as a strike breaker. In 1927, he began editing De Bezem (The Broom), a fascist journal aimed at the working classes and continued to publish under this name after 1930, when he split from Haighton.Having split from Haighton, Sinclair de Rochemont became associated with Joris Van Severen of Belgium, although most of his time was given over to his work as a civil servant and then as an antiquarian bookseller. He joined both the National Front and the National Socialist Dutch Workers Party in 1940, having become fully convinced of Nazism, even to the point of accepting the incorporation of the Netherlands into the Third Reich.After spells in prison for homosexuality and attempting to assassinate Anton Mussert, Sinclair volunteered for the Dutch legion of the Waffen-SS and was killed on active duty near Grisi in the Soviet Union.

Henk Feldmeijer

Johannes Hendrik Feldmeijer (Assen, 30 November 1910 – near Raalte, 22 February 1945) was a Dutch National Socialist politician and a member of the NSB.

Jan Hartman (Nazi collaborator)

Jan Hartman (1887–1969) was a Dutch fascist and collaborator during World War II. After the war, he was active in far-right politics, and was one of the two founders of the Stichting Oud Politieke Delinquenten ("Foundation of Former Political Delinquents"; abbreviated SOPD), a right-wing organization founded by and for formerly jailed and convicted war criminals and collaborators.

Klaas Carel Faber

Klaas Carel Faber (20 January 1922 – 24 May 2012) was a convicted Dutch-German war criminal. He was the son of Pieter and Carolina Josephine Henriëtte (née Bakker) Faber, and the brother of Pieter Johan Faber, who was executed for war crimes in 1948. Faber was on the Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of most wanted Nazi war criminals. Faber died in Germany in May 2012, having never been extradited.


Lunteren is a town in Gelderland, the Netherlands. It has a railway station on the line between Amersfoort and Ede.

It is well known for three conference centres in the vicinity, including Het Bosgoed, which mostly hosts academic conferences and De Werelt Congress Hotel.

It is also famous because the Geographical Center of the Netherlands is located northeast of the village, and because the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands ("NSB") held their annual Hagespraken (propagandistic open-air meetings) there between 1936 and 1940. In 1938, the NSB built what is known as the Muur van Mussert ("wall of Mussert") there, which was planned as the first step in a large conglomeration of buildings and monuments for the party.Lunteren was a separate municipality until 1818, when it was merged with Ede.

Meinoud Rost van Tonningen

Meinoud Marinus Rost van Tonningen (19 February 1894 – 6 June 1945) was a Dutch politician of the National Socialist Movement (NSB). During the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II, he collaborated extensively with the German occupation forces. He was the husband of Florentine Rost van Tonnigen.

National Socialist Dutch Workers Party

The National Socialist Dutch Workers Party (Dutch Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij (Dutch pronunciation: [naːʃoːˈnaːlsoːʃaːˈlɪstisə ˈneːdərlɑntsə ˈʔɑrbɛidərspɑrˌtɛi]) or NSNAP (Dutch pronunciation: [ɛnɛsɛnaːˈpeː])) was a minor Dutch national socialist party founded in 1931 and led by Ernst Herman van Rappard. Seeking to copy the fascism of others, notably Adolf Hitler, the group failed to achieve success and was accused by rivals such as the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) and the General Dutch Fascist League of being too moderate for a fascist movement.The group looked to the National Socialist German Workers Party for its inspiration, setting up its own Storm Trooper battalion in imitation of the Sturmabteilung and its own Holland Youth like the Hitler Youth, as well as copying the black swastika in a white circle on a red background as its emblem. Unlike its far right counterparts, who claimed to endorse Dutch patriotism, the NSNAP sought full incorporation of the Netherlands into the Third Reich, a policy which won it little support as the 998 votes which the party captured in the 1937 election demonstrated. Unlike the NSB, the NSNAP focused on anti-semitism, and denounced the NSB as a Jewish-dominated, pseudo-National Socialist organisation.Van Rappard was unable to hold the party together and before long three separate group were claiming the NSNAP name, one under Major Cornelis Jacobus Aart Kruyt and the other under Albert van Waterland (who had dropped his real surname of de Joode as it meant 'the Jew'). This factionalism in what was already a small party ensured that Alfred Rosenberg, who had considered the possibility of supporting the group with German money, lost interest and so the three NSNAPs faded from significance.The NSNAP did not gain from the German invasion of 1940 as the German authorities chose Anton Mussert of the rival NSB as their main beneficiary and Major Kruyt's version of the party merged into Mussert's movement in late 1940. The NSNAP finally disappeared altogether on December 14, 1941 when Arthur Seyss-Inquart banned all parties except the NSB. With van Rappard on active service with the Waffen-SS most of the remaining NSNAP members accepted the decision and switched their support to Mussert.

National Socialist Movement

National Socialist Movement may refer to:

National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962), a British neo-Nazi group

National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom), a British neo-Nazi group active during the late 1990s

National Socialist Movement (United States), a neo-Nazi organization based in Detroit, Michigan

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party

National Socialist Movement of Chile, a political movement in Chile

National Socialist Movement of Denmark, a neo-Nazi political party in Denmark

National Socialist Movement of Norway, a Norwegian neo-Nazi group

Paul van Tienen

Paul van Tienen (10 January 1921 – 1995 probably in La Manga del Mar Menor, Murcia, Spain) was a Dutch Nazi during World War II and a far-right politician after the war, convicted at least twice for his political activities.

Robert van Genechten

Robert van Genechten (25 October 1895 in Antwerp – 13 December 1945 in Scheveningen) was a Belgian-born Dutch politician and writer who was a leading collaborator during the German occupation of the Netherlands.

Tjapko van Bergen

Tjapko Antoon van Bergen (March 26, 1903 in Heiligerlee, Groningen – February 2, 1944 in Krakolye, Leningrad, Russia) was a Dutch rower. He competed at the 1928 Summer Olympics in the men's coxed pair with Cornelis Dusseldorp; their boat capsized in the first round and they did not finish.Van Bergen became a member of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB), the fascist and later national-socialist organization that collaborated with the German occupier during World War II. He joined the SS and attained the rank of Rottenführer; he died near Narva, in Estonia, on the Eastern Front.


The Weerbaarheidsafdeling (typically called WA) was the paramilitary arm of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (Dutch: NSB), the fascist political party that collaborated with the German occupiers of the Netherlands during World War II. The organization, roughly equivalent to the German SA, was founded in 1932 by Anton Mussert, co-founder of the NSB in 1931 and its leader until the end of the war. Members wore and marched in black uniforms and were thus called "blackshirts". In 1933 the Dutch government banned the wearing of uniforms (by civilians), and the WA was disbanded in 1935 in order to forestall the Dutch government's banning it. In 1940, after the German invasion, the WA became openly active again, and more ruthless than before. They specialized in violent attacks, particularly on the Dutch Jewish population.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.