National Socialist Movement (United States)

The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a neo-Nazi organization based in Detroit, Michigan. It is a part of the Nationalist Front.[10] The Party claimed to be the "largest and most active" National Socialist organization in the United States. Although classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center, it refers to itself as a "white civil rights organization", and compares itself to the NAACP. The party also objects to being referred to as "racist", and "Neo-Nazi", stating that such descriptions of their goals are unflattering and inaccurate. Each state has members in smaller groups within areas known as "regions". The NSM holds national meetings and smaller regional and unit meetings.

In January 2019, the leadership of the group was turned over to James Hart Stern, a black activist, who announced his intention to undermine the group and "eradicate" it.[11][12][13] In March 2019 in a press release Schoep said that Stern “does not speak for the NSM and he holds no legal standing with the NSM” and in addition to him speaking out against Stern he also noted that he was leaving and giving his position to Burt Colucci.[14]

National Socialist Movement
LeaderBurt Colucci (disputed with James Hart Stern) [1]
Founded1974
Preceded byAmerican Nazi Party
HeadquartersDetroit, Michigan, U.S.
NewspaperNSM Magazine[2]
Youth wingViking Youth Corp[3]
Ideology
Political positionFar-right[8]
International affiliationWorld Union of National Socialists[9]
Colors     Black,      White,      Red,      Blue
Ethnic groupWhite Americans
Party flag
Flag of National Socialist Movement (United States) (2016)
Website
www.nsm88.org

History

The NSM was founded in 1974 in St. Paul, Minnesota, as the "National Socialist American Workers Freedom Movement" by Robert Brannen and Cliff Herrington, former members of the American Nazi Party before the decline of the ANP. In 1994 Jeff Schoep became the group's chairman,[15], a position he held until January 2019.[13]

The NSM was responsible for leading the demonstration which sparked the 2005 Toledo riot.[16] In April 2006, the party held a rally on the capitol steps in Lansing, Michigan, which was met by a larger counter-rally and ended in scuffles.[17] In 2007, some members left to join the now-defunct National Socialist Order of America, which was led by 2008 presidential candidate John Taylor Bowles.

National Socialist Movement Rally US Capitol
The NSM rally on the West lawn of the U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C., 2008

In January 2009, the party sponsored a half-mile section of U.S. Highway 160 outside of Springfield, Missouri, as part of the Adopt-A-Highway Trash Cleanup program.[18] The highway was later renamed the "Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel Memorial Highway" by the state legislature.[19]

In 2009, the NSM had 61 chapters in 35 states, making it the largest neo-Nazi group in the United States according to the Southern Poverty Law Center.[20] As of 2015, the NSM reports having direct organized presences in seven countries around the world, and other affiliations beyond that.[21]

On April 17, 2010, 70 members of the NSM demonstrated against illegal immigration in front of the Los Angeles City Hall, drawing a counter protest of hundreds of anti-fascist demonstrators.[6]

In May 2011, the NSM was described by The New York Times as being "the largest supremacist group, with about 400 members in 32 states, though much of its prominence followed the decay of Aryan Nation and other neo-Nazi groups".[22]

On May 1, 2011, Jeff Hall, a leader of the California branch of the NSM, was killed by his 10-year-old emotionally troubled son, who claimed he was tired of Jeff beating him and his stepmother.[23] Hall had run in 2010 for a seat on the board of directors of a Riverside County water board, a race in which he earned approximately 30% of the vote.[24]

The NSM held a rally on September 3, 2011 in West Allis, Wisconsin, to protest incidents at the Wisconsin State Fair on August 5, 2011 when a large crowd of young African-Americans allegedly targeted and beat white people as they left the fair around 11 p.m. Police claimed the incident began as a fight among African-American youths that was not racially motivated.[25][26] Dan Devine, the mayor of West Allis, stated on September 2, 2011, "I believe I speak for the citizens when I say they [the NSM] are not welcome here."[27]

In 2012, two former members of the NSM were arrested and sentenced to prison for drug trafficking, stockpiling weapons, and plotting terrorism against a Mexican consulate in the United States.[28]

As of March 2015, the organization had planned a return to Toledo, Ohio, for a rally focusing on crime in the area.

In June 2016, the group helped organize (with the Traditionalist Worker Party) the rally which turned into the 2016 Sacramento riot.[29][30] In November 2016, following the election of Donald Trump, the organization changed its logo, replacing the swastika with an Odal rune in an attempt to enter mainstream politics.[31][32]

The account of its leader, Jeff Schoep, was suspended by Twitter on December 18, 2017.[33][34]

Charlottesville suit against the NSM

After the August riot and violence rising from the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, two lawsuits targeting 21 racist "alt-right" and hate group leaders, including the NSM and leader Jeff Schoep, were filed in U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia and another in Virginia Circuit Court. Organizations named in both suits were the National Socialist Movement; Traditionalist Workers Party (TWP); League of the South (LOS), and Vanguard America, a two-year-old white supremacy group claiming 12 U.S. chapters. Two Ku Klux Klan groups, the Loyal White Knights and the East Coast Knights of the KKK, were named defendants in the federal suit.

The 96 page federal court filing accused the white supremacists of violating the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 and other statutes and seeks compensation and punitive damages. They also asked the courts to intervene with legal orders preventing a repeat of the deadly events that occurred in Charlottesville on August 11 and 12, and barring use of private militias at such events. Plaintiffs in the 96-page federal suit were described as "University of Virginia undergraduates, law students and staff, persons of faith, ministers, parents, doctors, and businesspersons – white, brown and black; Christian and Jewish; young and old". The City of Charlottesville, along with several businesses and neighborhood associations, were plaintiffs in the 81-page state suit.

The lawsuits claimed the August rally in Charlottesville was planned for weeks, with its organizers making extensive use of social media – coordinating everything from telling individuals to buy tiki torches to use of an internet-based communications system originally designed for gamers. The federal suit said "hundreds of neo-Nazis and white supremacists traveled from near and far to descend upon the college town ... in order to terrorize its residents, commit acts of violence, and use the town as a backdrop to showcase for the media and the nation a neo-nationalist agenda".

While the federal suit focused on civil rights violations, the state suit targeted what it describes as the illegality of using militia forces to protect alt-right and white nationalist demonstrations.[35][36][37][38]

Change of leadership

On February 28, 2019, the Associated Press reported that, according to Michigan corporate records, Jeff Schoep had been replaced as director and president of the NSM in January by James Hart Stern, a black activist. Stern became its leader after receiving a call for help from Schoep who wanted to get out of the organization due to the legal issues that were mounting against it,[13] and he has said that he wants to use his position to undermine the group. Stern had previously been instrumental in dissolving a chapter of the Ku Klux Klan in Michigan.[notes 1] Stern wrote in a blog post in February that he had worked with Schoep to replace the Nazi swastika as the group's symbol with an Odal rune, and that he would be meeting with Schoep to sign a proclamation in which the NSM would disavow white supremacy.[11][12]

Stern and Schoep began a relationship when Schoep called Stern in 2014 to ask about his connection with Edgar Ray Killen, the head of the Klan chapter that Stern dissolved. According to Stern, Schoep said that Stern was the first black man he had reached out to since Malcolm X. When Stern learned that Schoep was a white supremacist, he arranged for a meeting between the two. Since then the pair has engaged in debates over the Holocaust, the swastika, white nationalism, and the fate of the NSM, with Stern attempting to change Schoep's mind. This he was not able to do, but Schoep came to him in 2019 for advice about the group's legal problems. He felt that the NSM was an "albatross hanging around his neck" and wished to cut ties with the group in order to start a new organization that would be more appreciated in the mainstream of white nationalism. Stern then encouraged Schoep to turn over control to him, and Schoep agreed.[13]

Stern filed documents with a Federal court in Virginia, asking that it issue a judgment against the group before one of the pending Charlottesville-related lawsuits went to trial, but because the law does not allow a corporation to be its own attorney, Stern is looking for outside counsel to re-file the papers. Stern does not plan to dissolve the NSM in order to prevent any of its former members from reincorporating it. He plans to turn the group's website into a place for lessons about the Holocaust.[13]

The group's former community outreach director, Matthew Heimbach, commented that Schoep had been in conflict with the membership, who resisted the ideological changes Schoep wished to make, and wanted to remain "a politically impotent white supremacist gang". Heimbach estimated that the group had 40 dues-paying members as of last year. In a video posted on his blog, Stern took credit for "eradicating" the NSM.[11][12] Burt Colucci is currently the NSM's 'Commander,' a position disputed by many outside of the racist, neo-nazi group.

See also

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ Stern met Klan leader Edgar Ray Killen in prison while Stern was serving a 5 year sentence for wire fraud and the two shared a cell. Before he died, Killen gave Stern power of attorney and land rights, which Stern utilized to dissolve the Klan chapter. Palmer, Ewen (March 1, 2019) "Who is James Hart Stern? Black Man Who Leads Neo-Nazi Group Vows to Eradicate Them" Newsweek

Citations

  1. ^ "Neo-Nazi Allegedly Begged Black Activist to Take Over His Group: 'It's Affecting My Health'" (Press release). Daily Beast. 15 March 2019.
  2. ^ "NSM Party Magazine The Stormtrooper". Nsm88.org. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  3. ^ "Viking Youth Corp". Nsm88.org. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  4. ^ "You are being redirected". Adl.org. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  5. ^ Harmon, Christopher C. (2007). Terrorism Today. Taylor and Francis. p. 18. ISBN 0-203-93358-3. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  6. ^ a b Faturechi, Robert; Richard Winton (November 23, 1987). "White supremacist rally at L.A. City Hall draws violent counter-protest". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  7. ^ Staff (ndg). "25 Points of American National Socialism". National Socialist Movement. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2014. Only members of the nation may be citizens of the state. Only those of pure White blood, whatever their creed, may be members of the nation. Non-citizens may live in America only as guests and must be subject to laws for aliens. Accordingly, no Jew or homosexual may be a member of the nation.
  8. ^ Holthouse, David (April 19, 2006). "Nationalist Socialist Movement Building a Juggernaut". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  9. ^ "World Union of National Socialists Membership Directory : W.U.N.S". Nationalsocialist.net. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  10. ^ "The Nationalist Front Limps into 2017". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2017-11-06.
  11. ^ a b c Associated Press (February 28, 2019) "Neo-Nazi group's new leader is a black man who vows to dissolve it" NBC News
  12. ^ a b c Palmer, Ewen (March 1, 2019) "Who is James Hart Stern? Black Man Who Leads Neo-Nazi Group Vows to Eradicate Them" Newsweek
  13. ^ a b c d e Mettler, Katie (March 1, 2019). "How a black man 'outsmarted' a neo-Nazi group — and became their new leader". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  14. ^ Weill, Kelly (2019-03-16). "Neo-Nazi Allegedly Begged Black Activist to Take Over His Group: 'It's Affecting My Health'". Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  15. ^ "The National Socialist Movement". The Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  16. ^ "Police Chief On Toledo Riots". October 17, 2005. Cbsnews.com.
  17. ^ "Hundreds Protest Neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement in Lansing". Media Mouse. April 24, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  18. ^ "National Socialist Movement unit adopts section of Missouri highway". Missourian. January 22, 2009. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  19. ^ Cooper, Michael (2009-06-20). "In Missouri, a Free Speech Fight Over a Highway Adoption". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  20. ^ "National Socialist Movement". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  21. ^ "Units of the National Socialist Movement - America's Nazi Party". Nsm88.org. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  22. ^ McKinley, Jesse (2011-05-10). "Jeff Hall, a Neo-Nazi, Is Killed, and His Young Son is Charged". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  23. ^ "Jeff Hall, a Neo-Nazi, Is Killed, and His Young Son is Charged" by Jesse McKinley, The New York Times, May 10, 2011
  24. ^ "Neo-Nazi running for office in Riverside County" by Tony Barboza, Los Angeles Times, October 19, 2010
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-05. Retrieved 2011-10-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ Breann Schossow, "West Allis beefs up security outside State Fair", Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, Aug. 9, 2011.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-08-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Affidavit: 2 Men with supremacist ties had weapons". Fox News. 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  29. ^ "Several people stabbed during Neo-Nazi event in Sacramento". Fox News. 26 June 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  30. ^ "Stabbings amid chaos at Calif. "Nazi mega-rally"". CBS News. Associated Press. 26 June 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  31. ^ Kovaleski, Serge; Turkewitz, Julie; Goldstein, Joseph; Barry, Dan. "An Alt-Right Makeover Shrouds the Swastikas". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  32. ^ Schoep, Jeff (November 4, 2016). "National Socialist Movement: Announcement". National Socialist Movement. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  33. ^ Aja Romano (December 18, 2017). "At long last, Twitter has begun banning (some, not all) Nazis". Vox.
  34. ^ Christopher Mathias (December 18, 2017). "Twitter Has Started Its Messy 'Purge' Of Neo-Nazi And 'Alt-Right' Accounts". Huffington Post.
  35. ^ "'Summer of Hate' challenged in companion civil lawsuits". Hatewatch. Southern Poverty Center (October 19, 2017).
  36. ^ Legal Complaint against NSM and other alt.right groups filed in The City of Charlottesville Circuit Court. Georgetown University Law School, October 12, 2017
  37. ^ Dahlia Lithwick (October 12, 2017). "Lawyers vs. White Supremacists – Can the organizers of the Unite the Right rally be held responsible for the violence in Charlottesville?" Slate.
  38. ^ Brandi Buchman (October 12, 2017). "Charlottesville Lawsuit Aims to Stop White Nationalist Militias". Courthouse News Service.

External links

Australian National Socialist Party

The Australian National Socialist Party (ANSP) was a minor Australian Nazi (short for national socialist) party that was formed in 1962. It merged into the National Socialist Party of Australia, originally a splinter group, in 1968.

Austrian National Socialism

Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-German movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. The movement took a concrete form on November 15, 1903 when the German Worker's Party (DAP) was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Aussig (now Usti nad Labem in the Czech Republic). It was suppressed under the rule of Engelbert Dollfuss (1932–34), with its political organization, the DNSAP ("German National Socialist Workers' Party") banned in early 1933, but revived and made part of the German Nazi Party after the German annexation of Austria in 1938.

Black Order (Satanist group)

The Black Order or The Black Order of Pan Europa are a Satanist group formerly based in New Zealand. Political scientists Jeffrey Kaplan and Leonard Weinberg characterised the Black Order as a "National Socialist-oriented Satanist mail order ministry". However, in 1995, the anti-fascist Searchlight organization, following an investigation, described it as part of a functioning international Occult-Fascist Axis.

Hungarian National Socialist Party

The Hungarian National Socialist Party (Hungarian: Magyar Nemzeti Szocialista Párt) was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War.

List of Nazis

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of Nazis (A–E) : from Gustav Abb to Hanns Heinz Ewers (~ 247 names)

List of Nazis (F–K) : from Arnold Fanck to Kurt Küttner (~ 268 names)

List of Nazis (L–R) : from Bodo Lafferentz to Bernhard Rust (~ 232 names)

List of Nazis (S–Z) : from Ernst Sagebiel to Fritz Zweigelt (~ 259 names)

List of fascist movements by country U–Z

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

National Action (Australia)

National Action was a militant Australian white supremacist group founded by a convicted criminal and neo-Nazi, Jim Saleam and former neo-Nazi David Greason. Saleam co-founded the group on Anzac Day, 1982, after having been a member of the short-lived National Socialist Party of Australia as a teenager during the 1970s.Jim Saleam’s criminal convictions include property offenses and fraud in 1984 and being an accessory before the fact in regard to organising a shotgun attack in 1989 on African National Congress representative Eddie Funde. Saleam served jail terms for both crimes. He pleaded not guilty to both charges, claiming that he was set up by police. The group was disbanded following the murder of a member, Wayne "Bovver" Smith, in the group's headquarters at Tempe. Saleam became NSW chairman of Australia First Party, and stood as its endorsed candidate several times.

The National Action co-founder David Greason's book, I was a Teenage Fascist, tells of Greason's own time within the Australian neo-Nazi movement and the events behind the founding of National Action.

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist Flyers Corps

The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).

During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.

National Socialist League

The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.

National Socialist Liberation Front

The National Socialist Liberation Front was originally established as a youth wing of the National Socialist White People's Party in 1969. In 1974 it was reconstituted as a separate neo-Nazi organization after its leader Joseph Tommasi had been expelled by NSWPP leader Matt Koehl.

National Socialist Movement

National Socialist Movement may refer to:

National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962), a British neo-Nazi group

National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom), a British neo-Nazi group active during the late 1990s

National Socialist Movement (United States), a neo-Nazi organization based in Detroit, Michigan

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party

National Socialist Movement of Chile, a political movement in Chile

National Socialist Movement of Denmark, a neo-Nazi political party in Denmark

National Socialist Movement of Norway, a Norwegian neo-Nazi group

National Socialist Movement of Chile

Movimiento Nacional Socialista de Chile was a political movement in Chile, during the Presidential Republic Era, which initially supported the ideas of Adolf Hitler, although it later moved towards a more indigenous form of fascism. They were commonly known as Nacistas.

National Socialist Party of Australia

The National Socialist Party of Australia (NSPA) was a minor Australian neo-Nazi party that operated between 1967 and early 1970s. It was formed in 1967 as a more moderate breakaway from the Australian National Socialist Party (ANSP). The NSPA was led by Ted Cawthron.

Nazi symbolism

The 20th-century German Nazi Party made extensive use of graphic symbols, especially the swastika, notably in the form of the swastika flag, which became the co-national flag of Nazi Germany in 1933, and the sole national flag in 1935. A very similar flag had represented the Party beginning in 1920.

Nur für Deutsche

The slogan Nur für Deutsche (English: "Only for Germans") was during World War II, in many German-occupied countries, a racialist slogan indicating that certain establishments and transportation were reserved for Germans. Signs bearing the slogan were posted at entrances to parks, cafes, cinemas, theaters and other facilities.

Race-soul

In Nazi ideology, the race-soul, race soul or racial soul (German: Rassenseele) is a "[m]ystical racial psyche greater than any individual member of the German race". The race-soul was variously believed to be the source of such things as justice and poetry; non-Aryan and mixed races were believed to lack these qualities.

Strasserism

Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

World Union of National Socialists

The World Union of National Socialists (WUNS) is an organisation founded in 1962 as an umbrella group for neo-Nazi organisations across the globe.

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