National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise

The National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (German: Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, abbreviated NSRL), was the umbrella organization for sports and physical education in Nazi Germany. The NSRL was known as the German League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (German: Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, abbreviated DRL) until 1938. The organization was expanded to Austria after that country's annexation by Nazi Germany.

The NSRL was led by the Reichssportführer, who after 1934 was at the same time presiding over the German National Olympic Committee. The NSRL's leaders were Hans von Tschammer und Osten (1933–1943), Arno Breitmeyer (1943–1944) and Karl Ritter von Halt (1944–1945).

National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise
Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen
Flag of the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen
Flag of the NSRL
Olympics in Berlin 1936

Monument at Pariser Platz in Berlin, 1936. The promotion of sports during the Nazi regime went hand-in-hand with theatrical nationalistic triumphalism.
Agency overview
FormedJuly 27, 1934
Preceding agency
  • Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA)
Dissolved31 May 1945
TypeSports governing body
Jurisdiction Nazi Germany
Occupied Europe
52°31′0″N 13°14′19″E / 52.51667°N 13.23861°E
Agency executives
Parent agency Nazi Party


Preliminary organizations: Effects of the Nazi takeover

The 1916 Summer Olympics had been awarded to Berlin, but were canceled because of the duration of World War I. The Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Olympische Spiele (DRA or DRAfOS) "German Imperial Commission for Olympic Games", was the German Olympic Sports organization at that time. In 1917 the "German Imperial Commission for Olympic Games" was renamed Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA), (sometimes also DRL or, more rarely, DRAfL) ("German Imperial Commission for Physical Exercise"). The name change reflected Germany's protest against the fact that Germany and other Central Powers were being excluded from the "Olympic family" which was dominated by the Entente Powers.[1]

The Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen was led by Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem was its Secretary General. Even though it saw itself as the pan-German umbrella organization for sports, it did not represent all types of sports and sports associations of Germany. A great number of sport clubs, especially those stemming from industrial workers' background, had not joined the DRA.

Berlin olympiastadion main entrance olympic rings dec 2004
Berlin, gate of the Olympic Stadium
DRL membership booklet cover. The German eagle became the emblem of the DRL after the 1936 Olympic Games.
The idea of a "master race" was propagated along with the promotion of physical exercises to look after one's own body and to prepare oneself to be a warrior for the volk
The Gaue of Greater Germany. As Nazi Germany expanded, the annexed territories of Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia came under the sphere of the NSRL
Nazi Propaganda - V-Deutschland Siegt An Allen Fronten
War propaganda: "Germany wins on all fronts." War-related triumphalism spelt doom for the once mighty NSRL
Olympic Fire in Berlin 1936
Many of the modern improvements of sports events by the DRL/NSRL are still in use. Carl Diem's idea: The Olympic fire in Berlin

After the Enabling Act, which legally gave Hitler dictatorial control of Germany in March 1933, all sports organizations connected to the Social Democratic Party, the Communist Party, and even to the church, were banned. This ban affected especially the sports clubs of industrial workers, most of which were called to split up on their own (Selbstauflösung) before the first semester of 1933 was over. The more conservative nationalistic and bourgeois clubs were allowed to subsist into the following year.

On April 12, 1933 Theodor Lewald gave in to the Nazi authorities and resigned as leader of the German Sports Office after it was revealed his paternal grandmother was Jewish.[2] The Nazi minister of the interior, Wilhelm Frick, interfered with the process of the election of a new Sports leader, and the decision was made by a hurriedly instituted three-man commission. Thus, in April 1933, Hans von Tschammer und Osten, a figure formerly unknown in German sports, was named Reichskommissar für Turnen und Sport (Commissioner for Gymnastics and Sports of the Reich). Von Tschammer, however, would keep his predecessor in a high position in the sports body, and years later he would appoint Theodor Lewald as president of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games.

Hans von Tschammer und Osten was a SA group leader and promoter of Nazism. In the name of gleichschaltung he disbanded the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen on May 5, 1933 (officially on May 10). Von Tschammer was then elevated to Reichssportführer on July 19 and the whole sports sphere in Germany was placed under his power.

Sports and propaganda in Nazi Germany: The Aryan ideal

The Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (DRL) was established on July 27, 1934, as the official Sports governing body of Nazi Germany. It would quickly become a formidable system within the German nation.

After the DRL's foundation all other German sport associations gradually lost their freedom and were coopted into the DRL as mere units ("Fachämter"). Even the most prestigious ones, like the German Football Association (DFB) lost their independence.[3][4] Von Tschammer's goal was to build a formidable Nazi sports body to which all German sports associations would be submitted. His vision was that physical exercise would "improve the morale and productivity of German workers" as well as making sports a source of national pride for the Germans. Sporting skills were made a criterion for school graduation as well as a necessary qualification for certain jobs and admission to universities.[5] Among the controversial measures taken by the Sports Office of the Reich at the time, the staging of the massive Reichssportfest event on Trinity Sunday was a decision that shocked devout Catholics.[6]

In 1935 journalist Guido von Mengden, was named public relations officer of the Reich Sports Office. He became the personal advisor and consultant of the Reichssportführer in 1936. A committed Nazi, von Mengden became the chief editor of NS-Sport, the official organ of the Reich Sports Office.[7] Other DRL/NSRL publications included Dietwart, a sports magazine with excellent illustrations and Sport und Staat (Sports and State), a massive four-volume Nazi propaganda report on the organized sports activities in Nazi Germany. Sport und Staat was made by Arno Breitmeyer and Hitler's personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann. This lavishly illustrated work had many pictures and information about the various Nazi organizations, i.e. SA, NSKK, Bund Deutscher Mädel, Hitler Jugend, etc. Printed in 1934 by the publishing house of the German Sports Aid Funds, a branch of the DRL, only volume one and two of a planned series of four volumes were published.[8]

The aims of the promotion of sports in Nazi Germany included hardening the spirit of every German as well as making German citizens feel that they were part of a wider national purpose. This was in line with the ideals of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the "Father of physical exercises", who connected the steeling of one's own body to a healthy spirit and promoted the idea of a unified, strong Germany.[9] A more controversial aim was the demonstration of Aryan physical superiority.[10]

Von Tschammer's impressively staged events of sports pageantry not only enhanced the physical activity, but also the nationalism of Germans. Nordic aesthetic beauty and commitment to Germanic ideals of race went hand in hand during the Nazi era, and von Tschammer und Osten implemented a policy of racial exclusion within sports. Athletes of Jewish origin were excluded from participation in relevant sporting events.[11]

1936 Olympic Games: Zenith of the Nazi Sports Office

In 1936 Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as the head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, played a major role in the structure and coordination of the Summer Olympics in Berlin. The Olympic Games, the first in history to have live television coverage, provided an ideal setting to showcase the Nazi regime and what Hitler deemed to be his exploits.

As Secretary General of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games, Carl Diem, the former secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA), the forerunner of the DRL/NSRL, became the chief organizer of the Berlin Olympic Games. Diem held high posts in the Reichs Sports office even after the Olympics, being named leader of the Foreign Department of the Nationalsocialist Sports Office in 1939 by the Reichssportführer. As such Carl Diem was responsible for the issues of German athletes in foreign countries, as well as for the international affairs of the NSRL.[12]

Von Tschammer trusted the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen to Karl Ritter von Halt, whom he named President of the Committee for the organization of the Winter Games. As a result of the prestige acquired in this event, Karl Ritter von Halt would be elected member of the Executive Committee of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1937, a post von Tschammer craved but was not able to obtain.

The German eagle with the swastika on the chest,[13] worn as a badge by the athletes of the 1936 German Olympics team, became the official symbol of the Nazi Sports Body; "the swastika on the eagle's chest displays ... the ideology of the DRL" ("Das Hakenkreuz aber, welches der Adler in seinen Schwingen trägt, bekennt, aus welcher Gesinnung ... im DRL gearbeitet wird).[14] The verbal salutation "Heil Hitler!" was introduced by von Tschammer on December 12, 1936 as the official formal salutation by members of German sport organisations in the sport events that would be organized from that date onwards. The Nazi salute had already been introduced three years before by Josef Klein. On March 17, 1937, all German athletes were called by Hans von Tschammer und Osten to join the Hitler Youth.

In 1937 two cricket (Germanized into "Kricket" by the DRL) matches between a German team and a British team from Worcester took place in Berlin.[15]

Expansion of Germany: Beginning of the decline

Austria's annexation by Germany in March 1938 brought the budding Austrian Nationalliga to an early end. Numerous football teams were disbanded and some players fled the country. All Austrian sports associations were absorbed by the system of the DRL as Gau XVII section under Gaufachwart Hans Janisch. The Hitler salute was introduced as compulsory before and after every game. Finally, the operation of junior sports teams was handed over to the local Hitlerjugend units.[16]

Despised by Nazis as unworthy of a true German, professionalism in sports was outlawed by the DRL in May 1938. Felix Linnemann, the German Football Association (DFB) president, was one of the greatest campaigners for amateurism in sports in Nazi Germany. In 1940, the already powerless German Football Association was finally wound up.[17]

Following the 1938 Munich Agreement and the liquidation of Czechoslovakia as a state, the ethnic Sudeten German football teams played in the Gauliga Sudetenland. The NSRL formed two groups in 1939, which were raised to three in 1941. None of these teams were able to make it to the final stages of the German football champions. Czech clubs continued to play their own Bohemia/Moravia championship[18] A separate Gauliga for the Czech teams of the territories occupied by Germany, Gauliga Böhmen und Mähren, was formed by the NSRL in 1943.

The last big sports event organized in its trademark grandiose style by the NSRL was the Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest (German Gym and Sports Celebration) in Breslau (now Wrocław) in July 1938. This highly nationalistic sports event commemorated the 125th anniversary of the German Wars of Liberation against Napoleon and the first award of the Iron Cross in the city of Breslau itself in 1813.

On December the 21st 1938, a decree was issued by Adolf Hitler changing the name of the Reich Sports Body to Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (NSRL), thereby "elevating it to an organization served by the NSDAP". This name change meant that the NSRL would be "placed under" the Nazi Party. Its seat would be the Haus des Deutschen Sports (House of the German Sports) in the Reichssportfeld (Sports Field of the Reich) in Berlin.

Twilight and end of the Nazi Sports Office

Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Gaufahne
Standard of a Gau of the NSRL
NSRBL Hängefahne
NSRL Hanging banner

World War II radically altered the role of the NSRL in Germany and the areas under its leadership. The military re-armament and dire war preparations would make the influence of physical exercises in Nazi German society wane in favour of militarism. The massive sports pageantry events in the large cities, carefully organized to arouse nationalistic fervor, were replaced by military parades of German warriors. Successful sportsmen found it increasingly difficult to compete with frontline war heroes in capturing the attention of the German public.

Even though the NSRL continued playing a big role in sporting activities among the youth for a few years, the atmosphere had changed. Many Germans were subjected to conscription and left for the different fronts, so the NSRL concentrated in training and staging local or regional events for younger athletes. Already in 1940 monetary funds for organizing sporting venues, such as the prestigious Kiel Week sailing competition, were not forthcoming. Contributors felt emboldened to deny funds to the formerly influential branches of the Nazi Sports Office owing to the war-related shifting of priorities.[19] During this time the NSRL sold lottery tickets as a source of self-financement.

Von Tschammer's influence and power within the NSDAP also began rapidly eroding despite having been a committed topmost Nazi leader. He would, however, never witness Germany's defeat and humiliation in the war, for he died from pneumonia in Berlin in March 1943. Arno Breitmeyer, a fellow SA officer became the new Reichssportführer.

As the war dragged on, a huge number of members of the many branches of the NSRL, among them youngsters in their early teens, had to go to fight to the fronts. Since players were not available, except in shoddily organized military sports events in scattered frontline locations, sports life in Germany came practically to a standstill. The last von Tschammer und Osten Pokal football trophy was played in Vienna in 1943 and the following two years plunged the NSRL into irrelevance. The once mighty Nazi Sports Body had to give up its weight and its position of pride long before the war was lost.

On May 31, 1945, after Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the American Military Government issued a special law outlawing the Nazi party and all of its branches. Known as "Law number five", this Denazification decree disbanded the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen along with all its facilities and departments.

The disbandment of the NSRL meant that all the sports organizations of Germany had to be established anew during the postwar reconstruction of both West Germany and the DDR. Even after German reunification in 1990, there has never been such a powerful and all-encompassing sports organization in Germany as the DRL/NSRL was at its height.


As a sports governing body seeking to control and integrate all sport activities in Germany, the DRL/NSRL provided a highly organized structure. This structuralization, whose nationalistic seriousness was often outright theatrical, was in line with the Nazi Party's goal of reminding Germans constantly that they were members of a large extended country. According to Paragraph 2 of the DRL's Statutes: The purpose of the League of the Reich for Physical Exercise is the training of the body and character of Germans grouped together in member organizations through planned physical exercises and care of the national conscience (Volksbewußtsein) in the spirit of the National Socialist state.

Regarding method and purpose, and keeping aside the ideology, the well-ordered and solemn DRL/NSRL system proved itself efficient. The 1936 Summer Olympics, as well as other key events, provided ample opportunity to test the good organization that the Sports Body of the Reich was able to provide. The NSRL's obvious competence succeeded in instilling a spirit of unity and pride among the German sportsmen and women as well as their supporters. Moreover, even if not duly credited, many of the NSRL's systemic improvements in sports are still in use in today's sports organizations.

By Sport

Besides the departments above, certain competences of the NSRL as a league were served by sports federations some of which still exist today:

(1) The "Summer Games" include the following games known collectively as "Turnspiele" in German: Schlagball (a German bat-and-ball sport), Fistball, Korbball (closely related to korfball), Schleuderball and Ringtennis.

By region

The regional structure of the NSRL followed the Nazi Party model. Often two or more gaue were included in one region where it was expedient to do so.

(1) Thuringia, Anhalt and the Province of Saxony. — (2) Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Mecklenburg. — (3) The Palatinate and (from 1935 onwards) the Saar Region. — (4) Austria from 1938 onwards .

Distribution of members

By January first 1937, the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen had 45,096 Associations with 3,582,776 active members (of which 517,992 were female and 3,064,784 male). On April 1st, 1939, there were 44,622 Associations with 3,668,206 active members (of which 526,084 were female). The sports practiced were the following:

Sport Associations /Sections Total practising Total female
1. Artistic gymnastics 12,773 662,567 234,190
2. Football 10,928 483,302 0
2. Rugby 52 1,925 0
2. Cricket 6 88 0
3. Light athletics 7,366 268,183 58,817
4. Handball 4,774 152,943 14,229
4. Basketball 156 3,396 522
5. Swimming 2,643 129,142 41,482
6. Weightlifting 809 12.777 0
6. Wrestling 748 15,263 0
6. Jiu-Jitsu 220 7,957 68
7. Boxing 872 17,904 0
8. Fencing 548 9,088 2,505
9. Hockey 411 20,446 5,748
10. Tennis 1,840 79,932 40,361
11. Rowing 757 49,942 11,433
12. Canoeing 1,155 45,652 8,183
13. Ice Skating 369 13,944 4,907
13. Rollerskating 142 4,409 2,364
14. Ski 2,099 88,395 26,793
15. Bicycling 2,951 61,131 5,093
16. Sailing 460 19,069 832
17. Mountaineering 510 168,450 28,536
18. Hiking 2,961 198,346 30,683
19. Bowling 1,049 50,325 2,848
20. Shooting 14,310 418,404 2,730
21. Golf 59 3,953 1,401
22. Bobsleigh 21 311 29
22. Luge and Skeleton 67 2,197 682
23. Table tennis 777 15,810 3,937
24. Billiards 246 5,046 67

Numbering according to Departments and Departmental Federations.


Championships in the individual types of sports were duly organized by the corresponding associations and federations. Among the events directly organized by the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen the most important were:

  • The 4th Deutsche Kampfspiele, July 23 – 29 1934, in Nürnberg
  • Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest, July 26 – 31 1938, in Breslau

Trophy names

  • The name of today's DFB-Pokal, (Deutscher Fußball-Bund-Pokal or German Football-Federation Cup), first contested in the 1934–35 season, was known between 1935 and 1943 as Tschammer-Pokal after then "Reichssportführer" (Sports Chief of the Reich) Hans von Tschammer und Osten.
  • The amateur Länderpokal (DFB), first established in 1909, was known between 1935 and 1942 as Reichsbundpokal.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Name change Archived 2008-10-31 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ The History Place; Triumph of Hitler
  3. ^ Havemann, Nils (2006) Fußball unterm Hakenkreuz. Der DFB zwischen Sport, Politik und Kommerz Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung
  4. ^ 1933–45 Chronik/Rückblick mit scheinbaren Analogien und ohne Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit
  5. ^ Bruce Campbell, The SA Generals and the Rise of Nazism
  6. ^ Kurt Josef Wecker, Themenheft Gemeinde 48: Rituale für Fernstehende Bergmoser & Höller Verlag, Aachen
  7. ^ Bernett, Hajo (1976), Guido von Mengden "Generalsstabschef" des deutschen Sports, Verlag Bartels & Wernitz.
  8. ^ 'Sport und Staat
  9. ^ Turnverein Riesel, History Archived 2011-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Liz Jewitt How successful was Nazi propaganda.
  11. ^ Von Tschammer's biography
  12. ^ Der "politische Sturm" um Carl Diem als Leiter der Sporthochschule Köln
  13. ^ 1936 German Olympic symbols
  14. ^ Symbolism of the DRL Eagle Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ German Cricket league: History Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Karl Kastler, Fußballsport in Österreich, Von den Anfängen bis in die Gegenwart, Trauner, Linz 1972, pg. 56f
  17. ^ Fischer, Gerhard & Lindner, Ulrich (1999). Stürmer für Hitler. Vom Zusammenspiel zwischen Fußball und Nationalsozialismus. Göttingen.
  18. ^ Czech clubs in the German football structure 1938–1944
  19. ^ Albert Oeckl - sein Leben und Wirken für die deutsche Öffentlichkeitsarbeit
    • Schlag nach! Wissenswerte Tatsachen aus allen Gebieten. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig, 1st ed. 1938 (German version reference)
    • Schlag nach! Wissenswerte Tatsachen aus allen Gebieten. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig, 3d ed. 1941 (German version reference)

Further reading

  • Anti-Semitism at the 1936 Olympics
  • Arno Breitmeyer & Heinrich Hoffmann, Sport und Staat. Im Auftrage des Reichssportführers (2 vols).[1]
  • Werner Gärtner, Volk in Leibesübungen. Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest, Breslau 1938. Commissioned by the Reichssportführer.
  • Guido Von Mengden, Umgang mit der Geschichte und mit Menschen, Verlag Bartels & Wernitz.
  • Friedrich Mildner, Olympia 1936 und die Leibesübungen im Nationalsolzialistischen Staat, Buchvertrieb der Olympiade, Berlin 1936 (2 vols).
  • Paul Wolff, Was ich bei den Oympischen Spielen sah, Karl Specht Verlag, Berlin 1936.
  • Carl Diem, Das Olympiadebuch, Leipzig.
  • Heinrich Hoffmann, Die Olympischen Spiele 1936, 1936.
  • Willi Fr. Könitzer, Olympia 1936, published by the Reichssportverlag, Berlin 1936.
  • Konrad Sczygiol (Hrsg.), Deutscher Turner-Bund. Seine Gründung, Frankfurt/Tübingen 1950.
  • Dieter Steinhöfer, Hans von Tschammer und Osten; Reichssportführer im Dritten Reich, Berlin/München/Frankfurt a. M. 1973, ISBN 3-87039-945-7 ISBN 978-3870399450
  1. ^ Sport und Staat
Deutsches Jungvolk

The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

Esoteric Nazism

Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.

Liechtenstein Homeland Service

Liechtenstein Homeland Service (German: Liechtensteiner Heimatdienst, LHD) was a political party in Liechtenstein that advocated corporate statism and the abolition of party politics.Established in the autumn of 1933, the party's positions began to radicalize and move toward National Socialist ideas within a few months of existence. By December 1933, this radicalization caused some members (such as co-founder Eugen Schafhauser) to abandon the party.LHD merged with the Christian-Social People's Party (VP) in 1936 to form the Patriotic Union (VU).

List of Nazi Party organizations

A list of organizations established by or closely associated with the Nazi Party, sortable by their German or English title.



List of Nazis

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of Nazis (A–E) : from Gustav Abb to Hanns Heinz Ewers (~ 247 names)

List of Nazis (F–K) : from Arnold Fanck to Kurt Küttner (~ 268 names)

List of Nazis (L–R) : from Bodo Lafferentz to Bernhard Rust (~ 232 names)

List of Nazis (S–Z) : from Ernst Sagebiel to Fritz Zweigelt (~ 259 names)

National Movement of Switzerland

The National Movement of Switzerland (German: Nationale Bewegung der Schweiz or NBS) was a Nazi umbrella-group formed in Switzerland in 1940.

The NBS had its roots in the 1938 foundation of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung by Rolf Henne after the more moderate Robert Tobler had removed Henne from the leadership of the National Front. In 1940, the Bund absorbed a number of tiny Nazi-supporting organisations to become the NBS under Henne and Dr. Max Leo Keller. Other groups absorbed included the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiterpartei and elements of the National Front. The new group also officially bore the French-language name Mouvement Nationale Suisse as an appeal to Francophone Swiss. Keller had worked with Heinrich Himmler and brought with him Andreas von Sprecher, whom the SS had trained, to run the new group's propaganda department.Keller, Jakob Schaffner and Ernst Hofmann, as representatives of the NBS, received an audience with the Swiss President Marcel Pilet-Golaz (in office throughout 1940) in which they demanded much closer relations with Nazi Germany, leading to eventual incorporation. This was followed by a Munich conference in October 1940 to which the Director of the Reich Main Security Office, Reinhard Heydrich and the Swiss doctor and SS-member Franz Riedweg invited the leaders of the NBS and of other Swiss groups in order to increase cohesion. Ultimately the meeting strengthened the hand of the NBS, as the remnants of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung as well as the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiter-Partei and Ernst Leonhardt's Nationalsozialistische Schweizerische Arbeitspartei agreed to be absorbed into the movement.Despite this strengthening the National Movement did not last long, as the Swiss Federal Council feared that annexation by Germany was just around the corner. In a series of moves against the most extreme groups, the NBS was closed down on 19 November 1940, by which time it had 160 cells and around 4000 members. The group continued to work underground for a time before a police crackdown which led to most of the leadership fleeing to Germany. Whilst in Germany Keller set up the Bund der Schweizer Nationalsozialisten as an émigré movement, although its influence remained limited; eventually he returned to Switzerland in 1941. Meanwhile, various NBS units continued underground activity secretly, mostly with help from the SS, until World War II ended in 1945.

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist Flyers Corps

The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).

During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.

National Socialist German Students' League

The National Socialist German Students' League (German: Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund, abbreviated NSDStB) was founded in 1926 as a division of the Nazi Party with the mission of integrating University-level education and academic life within the framework of the National Socialist worldview. Organized (as with other departments of the Nazi Party) strictly in accord with the Führerprinzip (or "leader principle") as well as the principle of Machtdistanz (or "power distance"), the NSDStB housed its members in so-called Kameradschaftshäusern (or "Fellowship Houses"), and (from 1930) had its members decked out in classic brown shirts and its own distinctive Swastika emblems.

After Germany's defeat in World War II, the Nazi Party along with its divisions and affiliated organisations were declared "criminal organizations" and banned by the Allied Control Council on October 10, 1945.

National Socialist League

The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.

National Union (Switzerland)

The National Union (French: Union Nationale) was a French-speaking fascist political party in Switzerland between 1932 and 1939.

The Union was formed in Geneva in 1932 by Georges Oltramare, a lawyer and writer. Noted for his anti-Semitic writing, Oltramare founded the Order Politique Nationale in 1931 but merged it with the Union de Défense Economique the following year to form the National Union. The group continued under Oltramare's leadership until 1940 when he moved to Paris in order to co-operate more closely with the Nazis. Oltramare spent four years as a member of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland representing the National Union.The Union became notorious for a demonstration in Geneva on November 9, 1932 when their march to the city's Salle Communale was counterdemonstrated by the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland. In the resulting trouble the Swiss army opened fire on the Socialists resulting in 13 deaths.

National Unity Party (Canada)

The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Nationalist Liberation Alliance

The Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista, ALN), originally known as the Argentine Civic Legion (Legión Cívica Argentina, LCA) from 1931 to 1937, the Alliance of Nationalist Youth (Alianza de la Juventud Nacionalista, AJN) from 1937 to 1943, and then using its final name from 1943 to 1955, was a Nacionalista and fascist movement.The movement was heavily influenced by fascism, with its members utilizing the Roman salute, wearing fascist-style uniforms, and marching in military formation. The movement's declaration of principles in 1931 attacked Marxism and democracy and declared support for the creation of a corporatist state like that of Fascist Italy. It cooperated with the Argentine Fascist Party, particularly in the Córdoba region of Argentina. In Córdoba in 1935, the local militia allied with the Argentine Fascist Party and Argentine Nationalist Action to form the Frente de Fuerzas Fascistas de Córdoba, which was replaced by the National Fascist Union in 1936. In 1936, its leader General Juan Bautista Molina reorganized the militia to be based upon the organization of the Nazi Party. General Molina wanted an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.The movement called for "hierarchy and order" in society, various xenophobic and anti-Semitic themes, and the demand for "social justice" and "revolutionary" land reform to destroy the "oligarchy" in Argentina. Juan Bautista Molina wanted the creation of an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.It was violently anti-Semitic, with its journal Combate issuing a "commandment" to its members: "War against the Jew. Hatred towards the Jew. Death to the Jew."


The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.

Otto Strasser

Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.

His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.


Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.


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