National Socialist Dutch Workers Party

The National Socialist Dutch Workers Party (Dutch Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij (Dutch pronunciation: [naːʃoːˈnaːlsoːʃaːˈlɪstisə ˈneːdərlɑntsə ˈʔɑrbɛidərspɑrˌtɛi]) or NSNAP (Dutch pronunciation: [ɛnɛsɛnaːˈpeː])) was a minor Dutch national socialist party founded in 1931 and led by Ernst Herman van Rappard. Seeking to copy the fascism of others, notably Adolf Hitler, the group failed to achieve success and was accused by rivals such as the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) and the General Dutch Fascist League of being too moderate for a fascist movement.[1]

The group looked to the National Socialist German Workers Party for its inspiration, setting up its own Storm Trooper battalion in imitation of the Sturmabteilung and its own Holland Youth like the Hitler Youth, as well as copying the black swastika in a white circle on a red background as its emblem.[2] Unlike its far right counterparts, who claimed to endorse Dutch patriotism, the NSNAP sought full incorporation of the Netherlands into the Third Reich, a policy which won it little support as the 998 votes which the party captured in the 1937 election demonstrated.[2] Unlike the NSB, the NSNAP focused on anti-semitism, and denounced the NSB as a Jewish-dominated, pseudo-National Socialist organisation.[3]

Van Rappard was unable to hold the party together and before long three separate group were claiming the NSNAP name, one under Major Cornelis Jacobus Aart Kruyt and the other under Albert van Waterland (who had dropped his real surname of de Joode as it meant 'the Jew').[2] This factionalism in what was already a small party ensured that Alfred Rosenberg, who had considered the possibility of supporting the group with German money, lost interest and so the three NSNAPs faded from significance.[2]

The NSNAP did not gain from the German invasion of 1940 as the German authorities chose Anton Mussert of the rival NSB as their main beneficiary and Major Kruyt's version of the party merged into Mussert's movement in late 1940.[4] The NSNAP finally disappeared altogether on December 14, 1941 when Arthur Seyss-Inquart banned all parties except the NSB. With van Rappard on active service with the Waffen-SS most of the remaining NSNAP members accepted the decision and switched their support to Mussert.[4]

National Socialist Dutch Workers Party

Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij
LeaderErnst Herman van Rappard
Founded1931
BannedDecember 14, 1941
Merged intoNational Socialist Movement in the Netherlands
HeadquartersAmsterdam, Netherlands
IdeologyNational Socialism
Political positionThird position
ColorsRed, black & white

Electoral performance

Election Votes Seats Position Government
# % # ±
1937 998 0.0
0 / 100
Increase Increase 20

References

  1. ^ Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism 1914-1945, London, Roultedge, 2001, p. 302
  2. ^ a b c d David Littlejohn, The Patriotic Traitors, London: Heinemann, 1972, p. 86
  3. ^ Alan E. Steinweis, Daniel E. Rogers, The impact of Nazism: new perspectives on the Third Reich and its legacy, U of Nebraska Press, 2003, pp. 49-50
  4. ^ a b Littlejohn, The Patriotic Traitors, p. 100

External links

1937 Dutch general election

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 26 May 1937. The Roman Catholic State Party remained the largest party in the House of Representatives, winning 31 of the 100 seats.

Alfred Haighton

Coenraad Alfred Augustus Haighton (26 October 1896 – 13 April 1943) was a millionaire businessman and the leader of the Netherlands' first fascist movement.

Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890

The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.

It contains entries for what the author regards as "the 500 major figures on the radical right, extreme right, and revolutionary right from 1890 to the present" (publisher's blurb).

It was published, as a 418-page hardcover, in New York by Simon & Schuster in 1990 (ISBN 0-13-089301-3).

In the introduction Rees discusses his criterion for inclusion in the book. He describes the extreme right as "opposed to parliamentary forms of democratic representation and hostile to pluralism."(xvii)

Among those it covers are Argentinian nationalists, Mexican sinarquistas, American nativist demagogues, Brazilian Integralists, German National Socialists, Portuguese National Syndicalists, Spanish Falangists, and Belgian Rexists.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Carel Gerretson

Doctor Frederik Carel Gerretson (born Kralingen, 9 February 1884 – died Utrecht, 27 October 1958) was a Dutch writer, essayist, historian, and politician.

Dries Riphagen

Bernardus Andries "Dries" Riphagen (7 September 1909 - 13 May 1973) was a Dutch criminal who sent many Jews to Nazi concentration camps by gaining their trust and promising that their priceless belongings would be kept safe until the conclusion of the war, only to betray them to the Nazis. He worked for the SD and helped the SS and teamed up with the Nazis. After World War II, he faked his death and went into hiding. Riphagen put the Jewish belongings in a bank and fled to Argentina, leaving his wife and child. He later returned to Europe to get the priceless jewelry. Riphagen had a bounty on him in 1988, but it was found he had already died years earlier in 1973 in a Swiss private health clinic.

Ernst Herman van Rappard

Ernst Herman Ridder van Rappard (born 30 October 1899 in Banyumas Regency, Central Java, Dutch East Indies – died 11 January 1953 in Vught) was a Dutch National Socialist and anti-Semite. After leading his own failed Nazi movement van Rappard enlisted in the Schutzstaffel and saw active service in the Second World War.

H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont

Hugues Alexandre Sinclair de Rochemont (Hilversum, January 6, 1901 – March 13, 1942) was a Dutch fascist and later a collaborator with the Nazis.

Whilst studying Indology at Leiden University, he became associated with the rightist professor Gerardus Johannes Petrus Josephus Bolland (1854 - 1922). After leaving the university in 1924, he set up the country's first fascist movement, the Verbond van Actualisten, with Alfred Haighton. This group had stood in the 1925 general election but won only 0.08% of the vote. Alongside this, Sinclair de Rochemont worked as a journalist for De Vaderlander and as a strike breaker. In 1927, he began editing De Bezem (The Broom), a fascist journal aimed at the working classes and continued to publish under this name after 1930, when he split from Haighton.Having split from Haighton, Sinclair de Rochemont became associated with Joris Van Severen of Belgium, although most of his time was given over to his work as a civil servant and then as an antiquarian bookseller. He joined both the National Front and the National Socialist Dutch Workers Party in 1940, having become fully convinced of Nazism, even to the point of accepting the incorporation of the Netherlands into the Third Reich.After spells in prison for homosexuality and attempting to assassinate Anton Mussert, Sinclair volunteered for the Dutch legion of the Waffen-SS and was killed on active duty near Grisi in the Soviet Union.

Het Nieuwe Volk

Het Nieuwe Volk ('The New People') was a Dutch-language newspaper published in Utrecht, Netherlands between 15 June 1940 and 4 October 1941. Het Nieuwe Volk was the organ of the National Socialist Dutch Workers Party of Ernst Herman van Rappard. It was founded as a continuation of De Nationaal-socialist. The newspaper was initially published fortnightly, but became a weekly paper on 24 August 1940. Johan Hepp was the editor of Het Nieuwe Volk.

Index of World War II articles (N)

N Force

N. G. L. Hammond

N. H. Gibbs

Nabatingue Toko

Nabetari

Nacht und Nebel

Nachtigall Battalion

Nada Dimić

Nadar (photographer)

Nadia Boulanger

Nagai Naoyuki

Nagant M1895

Nagara-class cruiser

Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum

Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims

Nagasaki Peace Park

Nagasaki, Nagasaki

Nagato-class battleship

Nahverteidigungswaffe

Nairana-class escort carrier

Nakajima B5N

Nakajima B6N

Nakajima G10N

Nakajima G8N

Nakajima J1N

Nakajima J9Y

Nakajima Ki-115

Nakajima Ki-116

Nakajima Ki-201

Nakajima Ki-27

Nakajima Ki-43

Nakajima Ki-44

Nakajima Ki-84

Nakam

Nakamura Incident

Nakamuta Kuranosuke

Nambu pistol

Namdeo Jadav

Name of Paris and its inhabitants

Names of the Holocaust

Namsos Campaign

Nanchang CJ-6

Nanchang J-12

Nanchang Q-5

Nanchang Uprising

Nancy Cunard

Nancy Greene

Nancy Harkness Love

Nancy Kulp

Nancy Salmon

Nancy Wake

Nand Singh

Naniwa-class cruiser

Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall

Nanjing Military Region

Nanking (2007 film)

Nanking Massacre

Nanking Safety Zone

Nanma-Linqu Campaign

Nanne Zwiep

Nansenhjelpen

Nanterre – Université (Paris RER)

Nantes Atlantique Airport

Nantes Cathedral

Nantes

Naoki Hoshino

Naomasa Sakonju

Naomi Rozenberg

Naples Municipal Airport

Napoleon I of France

Napoleon II of France

Napoleon III of France

Napoleon Zervas

Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy

Nariakira Arisaka

Narvik-class destroyer

Narvik Shield

Nashiba Tokioki

Nashorn

Nasjonal Samling

Nassim Akrour

Natalia Karp

Natalia Paley

Natalya Myeklin

Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet

Nathan Abshire

Nathan Bedford Forrest III

Nathan Green Gordon

Nathan Gregory Silvermaster

Nathaniel Clifton

Nathaniel Fiennes, 21st Baron Saye and Sele

Nation (Paris Métro and RER)

National Alliance (Sweden)

National Alliance (United States)

National and Social Liberation

National Anthem of Manchukuo

National Armed Forces

National Committee for a Free Germany

National D-Day Memorial

National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust

National Defense (Poland)

National Defense Research Committee

National European Social Movement

National Front (Australia)

National Front (French Resistance)

National Front (Switzerland)

National Government 1935–1940

National HRO

National Japanese American Memorial To Patriotism During World War II

National Labour Party (UK, 1957)

National Leadership Computing Facility

National Legionary State

National Liberation Front (Greece)

National Liberation War of Macedonia

National Military Council

National Military Organization

National Mobilization Law

National Movement (Luxembourg)

National Movement of Switzerland

National Party (UK, 1976)

National Party of Europe

National Political Institutes of Education

National Popular Rally

National redoubt

National Renaissance Party (United States)

National Renewal Party

National Republican Greek League

National Revolutionary Army

National Security Corps

National Social Movement (Bulgaria)

National Socialism Association (Taiwan)

National Socialism: Vanguard of the Future

National Socialist Action Party

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Dutch Workers Party

National Socialist Factory Cell Organization

National Socialist Flyers Corps

National Socialist Freedom Movement

National Socialist Front

National Socialist German Students' League

National Socialist Industrial Workers' Union

National Socialist Japanese Workers and Welfare Party

National Socialist League

National Socialist Motor Corps

National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962)

National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom)

National Socialist Movement (United States)

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands

National Socialist Movement of Chile

National Socialist Movement of Denmark

National Socialist Movement of Norway

National Socialist Party of America

National Socialist Party of New Zealand

National Socialist Program

National Socialist Turkish Movement

National Socialist Vanguard

National Socialist White People's Party (Harold Covington)

National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden)

National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark

National Spiritual Mobilization Movement

National States' Rights Party

National symbols of Mengjiang

National Union (Switzerland)

National Union of Greece

National Vanguard (American organization)

National War Memorial (New Zealand)

National World War II Memorial

National World War II Museum

National Youth

Nationale (Paris Métro)

Nationalist Party (Iceland)

Native Americans and World War II

Native oppositors against Japanese regime(WW2)

Natividad González Parás

Natzweiler-Struthof

Nauman Scott

Naval Air Establishment Chiang Hung

Naval Artillery War Badge

Naval Battle of Guadalcanal

Naval Battle of Vella Lavella

Naval Intelligence Handbooks

Naval Outlying Field San Nicolas Island

Naval ranks of the Japanese Empire during World War II

Naval Support Facility Kamiseya

Naval War College (Japan)

Naval weaponry of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Navigo pass

Navy of the Independent State of Croatia

Nawitz

Naxos radar detector

Nazi-Soviet population transfers

Nazi

Nazi Abad

Nazi Agent

Nazi Anti-Flag Desecration Law

Nazi archaeology

Nazi architecture

Nazi belt buckle pistol

Nazi book burnings

Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses

Nazi chic

Nazi chocolate bar bomb

Nazi concentration camp badges

Nazi concentration camps in Norway

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Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles

Nazi eugenics

Nazi exploitation

Nazi Germany

Nazi Ghost Train

Nazi gold

Nazi human experimentation

Nazi hunter

Nazi Lowriders

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Nazi occultism

Nazi party paramilitary ranks

Nazi party rally grounds

Nazi Party

Nazi plunder

Nazi Pop Twins

Nazi propaganda

Nazi Punks Fuck Off (Napalm Death)

Nazi Punks Fuck Off!

Nazi songs

Nazi symbolism

Nazi university

Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group

Nazi Writer's Union

Nazis in fiction

Nazism and cinema

Nazism in the United States

Neagu Djuvara

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Neal Edward Smith

Nebelwerfer

Nebeští jezdci

Nebojša Zlatarić

Nebraska World War II Army Airfields

Necdet Kent

Necessary Evil (aircraft)

Nederlandsche SS

Needles Airport

Neel E. Kearby

Neger

Negro Colleges in War Time

Nehemiah Persoff

Nehru Brigade

Neil Cameron, Baron Cameron of Balhousie

Neil McLean (politician)

Neil Ritchie

Neil Rutherford

Neldon Theo French

Nellie Jane DeWitt

Nelson-class battleship

Nelson Rae

Nemesis at Potsdam

Nemmersdorf massacre

Neo-Nazi music

Nepal during World War II

Neptuna

Nesse Godin

Nestor Chylak

Nestor Makhno

Net laying ship

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero

Netherlands American Cemetery

Netherlands East Indies campaign

Netherlands in World War II

Netherlands Indian roepiah

Netrabahadur Thapa

Neubaufahrzeug

Neuengamme concentration camp

Neuropa

Nevada-class battleship

Never on These Shores

Never So Few

Never Surrender (novel)

Never was so much owed by so many to so few

Nevile Henderson

Neville Brand

Neville Chamberlain

Neville Duke

Neville Jeffress

Neville McNamara

Nevsky Pyatachok

New 1st Army

New 6th Army

New Britain campaign

New Castle Airport

New European Order

New Fourth Army Incident

New Fourth Army

New Guinea campaign

New Guinea Volunteer Rifles

New Mexico-class battleship

New Order (Neo-Nazi group)

New Order (political system)

New Triumph Party

New York-class battleship

New Zealand Expeditionary Force

New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior

Newfoundland Escort Force

Newington Armory

Newport Municipal Airport (Arkansas)

Newt Loken

Newton Henry Mason

Newton Steers

Next Objective (B-29)

Nguyen-Thien Dao

Ni Liv

NI Tank

Niall Macpherson, 1st Baron Drumalbyn

Nicholas Colasanto

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke

Nicholas Metropolis

Nicholas Minue

Nicholas Oresko

Nicholas Winton

Nichols Field

Nichts als die Wahrheit

Nick Alkemade

Nick Barone

Nick Cardy

Nick Fury

Nick Griffin

Nick Mallett

Nick Virgilio

Nick Winter

Nicky Barr

Nicolaos Matussis

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Nicolas Fabiano

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Nicolas Sarkozy

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Nicolaus von Below

Nicole Marthe Le Douarin

Nicole Milinaire

Nie Rongzhen

Niederhagen concentration camp

Niels Bohr

Niels Larsen

Nielson Field

Nieuwlande

Nigel Bridge, Baron Bridge of Harwich

Nigel Gray Leakey

Nigel Maynard

Nigel Patrick

Nigel Poett

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Night (book)

Night and Fog (1955 film)

Night of the Aurochs

Night of the Long Knives

Night Over Water

Night Train to Munich

Night Witches

Nihat Erim

Nihon Go Gakko (Tacoma)

Niihau Incident

Niitaka-class cruiser

Nikola Ljubičić

Nikolaas Tinbergen

Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin

Nikolai Gastello

Nikolai Ivanovich Kuznetsov

Nikolai Khokhlov

Nikolai Skoblin

Nikolai Sologubov

Nikolaus Gross

Nikolaus von Falkenhorst

Nikolay Pukhov

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Nikos Aliagas

Nikos Beloyannis

Nikos Ploumpidis

Niland brothers

Nilde Iotti

Nile Kinnick

Nils Backlund

Nils Engdahl

Nina Alexeyevna Lobkovskaya

Nina Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Nine-O-Nine

Nineteenth Air Force

Nineteenth Army (Japan)

Ning Hai-class cruiser

Ningen-sengen

Ninth Air Force

Ninth Fort

Ninth United States Army

Nipsey Russell

Nire Kagenori

Nishizō Tsukahara

Niskie

Nisko Plan

Nissen hut

Nizkor Project

NKL-26

NKVD prisoner massacres

No-No Boy

No 77 grenade

No. 1 Fighter Sector RAAF

No. 1 Squadron RAF

No. 1 Wireless Unit RAAF

No. 10 Group RAF

No. 10 Squadron RAF

No. 100 Squadron RAF

No. 101 Squadron RAF

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No. 131 Radar Station RAAF

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No. 3 Fighter Sector RAAF

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No. 30 Squadron RAF

No. 300 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 301 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 302 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 304 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 305 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 306 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 307 Polish Night Fighter Squadron

No. 31 Squadron RAF

No. 310 Squadron RAF

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No. 313 Squadron RAF

No. 315 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 316 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 317 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 32 (The Royal) Squadron RAF

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No. 330 Squadron RNoAF

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No. 402 Squadron RCAF

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No. 413 Squadron RCAF

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No. 426 Squadron RCAF

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No. 43 Squadron RAF

No. 432 Squadron RCAF

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No. 44 Squadron RAF

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No. 4626 Squadron RAF

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No. 485 Squadron RNZAF

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No. 488 Squadron RNZAF

No. 489 Squadron RNZAF

No. 49 Squadron RAF

No. 490 Squadron RNZAF

No. 5 Fighter Sector RAAF

No. 5 Squadron RAF

No. 5 Squadron RNZAF

No. 50 Squadron RAF

No. 500 Squadron RAF

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No. XXXV Squadron RAF

Nobuaki "Warren" Iwatake

Nobuo Fujita

Nobutaka Shiōden

Nobutake Kondō

Nobuyoshi Mutō

Nobuyuki Abe

Nobuzo Tohmatsu

Noctilien

Noel Agazarian

Noel Beresford-Peirse

Noel Gayler

Noel Irwin

Noel Mason-Macfarlane

Noel Purcell (water polo player)

Nogi Maresuke

Noisy-le-Sec (Paris RER)

Nomasu Nakaguma

Non-British personnel in the RAF during the Battle of Britain

Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League

None but the Brave

None Shall Escape

Noor Inayat Khan

Nora Levin

Norbert Čapek

Norbert Barlicki

Norbert Brainin

Norbert Eschmann

Norbert Jokl

Norbert Rillieux

Norbert Wollheim

Norberto Ceresole

Nordahl Grieg

Norden bombsight

Nordic race

Nordic Reich Party

Nordin Jbari

Nordstrom Sisters

Norfolk County Division

Norihiro Yasue

Norm Van Brocklin

Norman Augustus Finch

Norman Baillie-Stewart

Norman Bethune

Norman Birkett, 1st Baron Birkett

Norman Bottomley

Norman C. Skogstad

Norman Cleaveland

Norman Cohn

Norman Cota

Norman Cyril Jackson

Norman Dike

Norman Fell

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.

Norman Francis Vandivier

Norman Harvey

Norman Howard Cliff

Norman Igo

Norman Jewison

Norman Jones (politician)

Norman Lear

Norman Lowell

Norman Mailer

Norman Mineta

Norman Miscampbell

Norman Pritchard

Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings

Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr.

Norman Scott

Norman Slater

Norman Smith (record producer)

Norman Sylla

Norman Taylor

Norman Wisdom

Norman Wodehouse

Norman Wylie

Norman Yardley

Normandie-Niemen

Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial

Normandy Landings

Norodom Sihanouk

Norris Bradbury

North African Campaign timeline

North African Campaign

North American A-27

North American A-36

North American B-25 Survivors

North American BT-9

North Atlantic Division

North Carolina-class battleship

North Caucasian Front

North Chahar Incident

North Eastern Area air defence command

North Karelian Group

North Point Camp

North Sea Fleet

North Weald Airfield

North West Europe Campaign

Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army

Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army

Northeast Indian Railways during World War II

Northeast People's Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army

Northeastern Army

Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army

Northeastern People's Revolutionary Army

Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters

Northern Combat Area Command

Northern District Army (Japan)

Northern Expedition (1926–1927)

Northern Front (Soviet Union)

Northern League (neo-Nazi)

Northern Pursuit

Northern Territory Force

Northern Transylvania

Northover projector

Northumberland County Division

Northwest Staging Route

Northwest Territorial Imperative

Northwestern Front

Norton Air Force Base

Norton Fitzwarren

Norton Knatchbull, 6th Baron Brabourne

Nortraship

Norway Debate

Norwegian Campaign order of battle

Norwegian Campaign

Norwegian Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities

Norwegian heavy water sabotage

Norwegian Independent Company 1

Norwegian POW Museum

Norwegian Resistance Movement

Norwegian resistance movement

Norwegian Righteous Among the Nations

Norwood Russell Hanson

Notable real and alleged Ku Klux Klan members in national politics

Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (Paris Métro)

Notre-Dame-des-Champs (Paris Métro)

Notre Dame de Paris

Noua Dreaptă

Nourdin Boukhari

Noureddine Naybet

Nouvelle Athènes

November 9th Society

Novgorod Army Operational Group

Nowogródzka Cavalry Brigade

Nowy Kurier Warszawski

Nozu Michitsura

Noël Bas

Noël Coward

Noël Delberghe

Noël Hallé

Noël Lee

Noëlle Cordier

NR-40

NRA Battalion

NRA Brigade

NRA Company

NRA Corps

NRA Division

NRA Military Region

NRA Platoon

NRA Regiment

Number 13-class battleship

Number of deaths in Buchenwald

Number the Stars

Numbered Air Force

Nur für Deutsche

Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy

Nuremberg Code

Nuremberg Diary

Nuremberg Laws

Nuremberg Principles

Nuremberg Rally

Nuremberg Trials (film)

Nuremberg Trials

Nurken Abdirov

Nyoko-dō Hermitage

Nyssa Raatko

Népomucène Lemercier

Néstor Fabbri

Néstor Guillén

List of fascist movements

This article discusses regimes and movements that have described themselves as fascist, or are alleged to have been fascist or sympathetic to fascism.

It is often a matter of dispute whether a certain government is to be characterized as fascist (radical authoritarian nationalism), authoritarian, totalitarian, or a police state. The term "fascism" itself is controversial, and has been defined in various ways by different authors. Many of the regimes and movements discussed in this article can be considered fascist according to some definitions but not according to others. See definitions of fascism for more information on that subject.

List of political parties in the Netherlands

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since 1897, and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

National Socialism (disambiguation)

National Socialism most often refers to Nazism, the ideology of the Nazi Party (German: National Socialist German Workers' Party, NSDAP) which existed in Germany between 1920 and 1945 and ruled the country from 1933 to 1945. The term National Socialism was used by a number of unrelated groups before the Nazis, but since their rise to prominence it has become associated almost exclusively with their ideas.

National Socialism may also refer to ethnic German movements related to Nazism; non-German groups drawing inspiration from Nazism and existing in the same historical period; neo-Nazism, a label for groups and ideologies after 1945 that are considered to be based on Nazism; and other unrelated ideologies and organizations, some of which were founded before the NSDAP and before National Socialism became associated with Nazism while others exist in non-European contexts where Nazism is not widely known.

National Socialist Party

National Socialist Party or Nazi Party may refer to:

National Socialist German Workers' Party, more commonly known as the Nazi Party

National Socialist Workers Party

National Socialist Workers Party may refer to:

National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden)

National Socialist German Workers Party

National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark

German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia)

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party

National Socialist Dutch Workers Party

Swedish National Socialist Farmers' and Workers' Party

Iran National-Socialist Workers Party

Hungarian National Socialist Party

Austrian National Socialist Party

Sudeten German National Socialist Party

Reichskommissariat Niederlande

The Reichskommissariat Niederlande was the civilian occupation regime set up by Germany in the German-occupied Netherlands during World War II. Its full title was the Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories (German: Reichskommissariat für die besetzten niederländischen Gebiete). The administration was headed by Arthur Seyss-Inquart, formerly the last chancellor of Austria before initiating its annexation by Germany (the Anschluss).

Fascism and Nazism in the Netherlands to 1945
Political parties and groups
People
Related articles

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