The U.S. National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) classifies its listings by various types of properties. Listed properties generally fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories. The five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, district, object, site, and structure.
Listed properties generally fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories. The five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, structure, object, site, and district. I When multiple like properties are submitted as a group and listed together, they are known as a Multiple Property Submission.
Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are structures intended to shelter some sort of human activity. Examples include a house, barn, hotel, church or similar construction. The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to historically and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail, or a barn and a house.
Buildings included on the National Register of Historic Places must have all of their basic structural elements as parts of buildings, such as ells and wings; interiors or facades are not independently eligible for the National Register. As such, the whole building is considered during the nomination and its significant features must be identified. If a nominated building has lost any of its basic structural elements, it is considered a ruin and categorized as a site.
The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U.S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition, a historic district is: "a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, buildings, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. In addition, historic districts consist of contributing and non-contributing properties. Historic districts possess a concentration, linkage or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures, buildings and sites within a historic district are usually thematically linked by architectural style or designer, date of development, distinctive urban plan, and/or historic associations." For example, the largest collection of houses from 17th and 18th century America are found in the McIntire Historic District in Salem, Massachusetts.
A contributing property is any building, structure, object or site within the boundaries of the district which reflects the significance of the district as a whole, either because of historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological features. Another key aspect of the contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can damage its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Objects are usually artistic in nature, or small in scale when compared to structures and buildings. Though objects may be movable, they are generally associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments, sculptures and fountains.
Objects considered for inclusion on the NRHP, whether individually or as part of districts, should be designed for a specific location; objects such as transportable sculpture, furniture, and other decorative arts that lack a specific place are discouraged. Fixed outdoor sculpture, an example of public art, is appropriate for inclusion on the Register. The setting of an object is important in relation to the Register. It should be appropriate to its significant historical use, roles, or character. In addition, objects that have been relocated to museums are not considered for inclusion on the Register.
Sites may include discrete areas significant solely for activities in that location in the past, such as battlefields, significant archaeological finds, designed landscapes (parks and gardens), and other locations whose significance is not related to a building or structure.
Sites often possess significance for their potential to yield information in the future, though they are added to the Register under all four of the criteria for inclusion. A sites need not have actual physical remains if it marks the location of a prehistoric or historic event, or if there were no buildings or structures present at the time of the events marked by the site. Site determination requires careful evaluation when the location of prehistoric or historic events cannot be conclusively determined.
Structures differ from buildings, in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include, an aircraft, a ship, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge.
The criteria of significance are applied to nominated structures in much the same fashion as they are for buildings. The basic structural elements must all be intact; no individual parts of the structure are eligible for separate inclusion on the NRHP. An example would be a truss bridge being considered for inclusion. Said truss bridge is composed of metal or wooden truss, abutments and supporting piers; for the property to be considered eligible for the Register, all of these elements must be extant. Structures that have lost their historic configuration or pattern of organization through demolition or deterioration, much like buildings, are considered ruins and classified as sites.
There are several other types of properties that do not fall neatly into the categories listed above. The National Park Service publishes a series of bulletins designed to aid in evaluating properties for NRHP eligibility using the criteria for evaluation. Though the criteria for eligibility are always the same, the way they are applied can differ slightly, depending upon the type of property involved. Special Register bulletins cover application of the criteria for evaluation of: aids to navigation, historic battlefields, archaeological sites, aviation properties, cemeteries and burial places, historic designed landscapes, mining sites, post offices, properties associated with significant persons, properties achieving significance within the last 50 years, rural historic landscapes, traditional cultural properties, and vessels and shipwrecks.
Archaeological properties are subject to the same four criteria as other properties under consideration for the NRHP. Archaeological sites also must meet at least one of the criteria. Many listed properties which joined the Register under the first, second and fourth criteria contain intact archaeological deposits. Often, these deposits are undocumented, for example a 19th-century farmstead is likely to contain intact, undocumented archaeological deposits.
Cultural landscapes are defined as a geographic area, including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or person, or that exhibit other cultural or aesthetic values. There are four general types of cultural landscapes, not mutually exclusive: historic sites, historic designed landscapes, historic vernacular landscapes, and ethnographic landscapes.
By its tenth year, 1976, the National Register listed 46 shipwrecks and vessels. In 1985 Congress mandated that the National Park Service undertake a survey of historic maritime sites, including military sites, in tandem with the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the maritime preservation community. The program was known as the National Maritime Initiative. Its goal was to establish priorities for the preservation of maritime resources and recommend roles for the federal government and the private sector in addressing those priorities. The program identified eight categories to which the known maritime resources of the United States would be classified. They included: preserved historic vessels, shipwrecks and hulks (those ships not afloat but not submerged entirely); documentation (logs, journals, charts, photos, etc.); aids to navigation (including coast guard stations and life-saving stations), marine sites and structures (wharves; warehouse, waterfronts, docks, canals, etc.); small craft (less than 40 feet long, less than 20 tons of displacement); artifact collections (fine art, tools, woodwork, parts of vessels, etc.); and intangible cultural resources (shipwright and rigging skills, oral traditions, folklore, etc.).
1992 amendments to the NHPA allowed for a new designation of property type, that of the traditional cultural property (TCP). The amendments established that properties affiliated with traditional religious and cultural importance to a distinct cultural group, such as a Native American tribe or Native Hawaiian group were eligible for the National Register. TCPs include built or natural locations, areas, or features considered sacred or culturally significant by a group or people. While TCPs are closely associated with Native American Cultures, a site need not be associated with a Native American cultural group to qualify as a TCP for the purposes of the NRHP.
The 1992 amendment to the National Historic Preservation Act established "Properties of traditional religious and cultural importance to an Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization" (Section 101(d)(6) of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended in 1992). Thus, Congress established this classification expressly for Native American Tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations. The amendment was clear and explicit, and it did not say anything about any other cultural groups or entities. Also, the term "traditional cultural property" (TCP) is a widely used, but non-legal term coined by agency people - it was never codified or sanctioned by Congress, and it cannot be found in any law or regulation. The agency-invented term traditional cultural property (TCP) is commonly used as a substitute for the actual terminology in the 1992 amendment, but it has also been appropriated for places that have nothing whatsoever to do with Native Americans or Native Hawaiians. Like the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and many other laws and Executive Orders that have been enacted to protect Native American rights specifically, the 1992 amendment to the National Historic Preservation Act was passed expressly on behalf of Native American Tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations, and that is its only legally recognized purpose. See: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation's "Consultation with Indian Tribes in the Section 106 Review Process, a Handbook" (page 19).
The Amelia Stewart House, also known as the Carol O. Wilkinson House and William Hallett House, is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama, United States. It was built in 1835 in the Greek Revival style. The house was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 29, 1992, based on its architectural significance.Arthur VanderSys House
The Arthur VanderSys House is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama, United States. It was built in 1926 in the Spanish Colonial Revival style. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 12, 1991. It is a part of the Spanish Revival Residences in Mobile Multiple Property Submission.Azalea Court Apartments
The Azalea Court Apartments is a historic three-story apartment building located in Mobile, Alabama. It was built in 1928 and was designed by architect J. Platt Roberts in the Spanish Colonial Revival style. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 11, 1988.Cavallero House
The Cavallero House is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama. It was built in 1835 in the Federal style. A cast-iron gallery was added in the mid-19th century. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 7, 1982. In addition to be individually listed in the National Register, the house is also a contributing building to the Lower Dauphin Street Historic District.Dahm House
The Dahm House is a historic townhouse in Mobile, Alabama. The two-story brick structure was built in 1873 for John Dahm. It was designed by Bassett Capps. A two-story frame addition was added in 1929. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 5, 1984. In addition to being listed individually on the National Register of Historic Places, it is also a contributing building to the Lower Dauphin Street Historic District.Denby House
The Denby House is a historic raised cottage in Mobile, Alabama. The one-story brick house was built by Charles Denby in 1873. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 5, 1984. In addition to being listed individually on the National Register of Historic Places, it is also a contributing building to the Lower Dauphin Street Historic District.Emanuel Building
The Emanuel Building, also known as the Bank of Mobile and Staples-Pake Building is a historic commercial building in Mobile, Alabama, United States. The three-story masonry structure was built in 1850 and then remodeled several times over the next century. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 21, 1978.Ernest Megginson House
The Ernest Megginson House is a historic house located at 143 Florence Place in Mobile, Alabama.George Levy House
The George Levy House (also known as the Allan Bailey House) is a historic house located at 107 Florence Place in Mobile, Alabama.Hawthorn House (Mobile, Alabama)
The Hawthorn House is a historic house in Mobile, Alabama, United States. The 1 1⁄2-story wood-frame structure, on a brick foundation, was built in 1853 in the Gulf Coast Cottage style by Joshua K. Hawthorn. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 21, 1984, based on its architectural significance.List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama
This is a list of bridges and tunnels on the National Register of Historic Places in the U.S. state of Alabama.Martin Horst House
The Martin Horst House is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama, United States. It was built in 1867 in the Italianate Style. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 21, 1971.Meaher–Zoghby House
The Meaher–Zoghby House is a historic townhouse in Mobile, Alabama. The two-story brick structure was built in 1901 for Augustine Meaher. It retains its original cast iron details and front yard fence. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 5, 1984. In addition to being listed individually on the National Register of Historic Places, it is also a contributing building to the Lower Dauphin Street Historic District.Metzger House
The Metzger House is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama, United States. The one-story Italianate-influenced brick structure was built by the Metzger family in 1875. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 5, 1984, due to its architectural significance.Neville House (Mobile, Alabama)
The Neville House is a historic brick townhouse in Mobile, Alabama, United States. It was built in 1896, in an Italianate-influenced style. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 5, 1984.Paterson House (Mobile, Alabama)
The Paterson House is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama, United States. The 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) Mediterranean Revival style house was completed in 1927. It was designed by local architect Platt Roberts, who later designed Mobile's 16-story Waterman Building. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 15, 1986, based on its architectural significance.Phillipi House
The Phillipi House, also known as the Mastin House, is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama, United States. The two-story brick masonry structure was completed in 1850. It is built in a traditional Mobile townhouse style with a Greek Revival door surround and a second floor cast iron balcony across the front elevation. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 5, 1984, based on its architectural significance.Stewartfield (Mobile, Alabama)
Stewartfield is a historic residence on the campus of Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama, United States. It was built in 1849 in a Greek Revival style. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places as a part of the 19th Century Spring Hill Neighborhood Thematic Resource on October 18, 1984.U. J. Cleveland House
The U. J. Cleveland House (also known as the Thomas Smith House) is a historic house located at 551 Charles Street in Mobile, Alabama. It is locally significant as an intact Gulf Coast Cottage with an unusual interior plan.
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