National Maximum Speed Law

The National Maximum Speed Law (NMSL) was a provision of the federal government of the United States 1974 Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act that prohibited speed limits higher than 55 miles per hour (89 km/h). It was drafted in response to oil price spikes and supply disruptions during the 1973 oil crisis and remained the law until 1995.

While federal officials hoped gasoline consumption would fall by 2.2%, the actual savings were estimated at between 0.5% and 1%.

The law was widely disregarded by motorists nationwide, and some states opposed the law,[1][2] but many jurisdictions discovered it to be a major source of revenue. Actions ranged from proposing deals for an exemption to de-emphasizing speed limit enforcement. The NMSL was modified in 1987 and 1988 to allow up to 65 mph (105 km/h) limits on certain limited-access rural roads. Congress repealed the NMSL in 1995, fully returning speed limit-setting authority to the individual states.

The law's safety benefit is disputed as research found conflicting results.

The power to set speed limits historically belonged to the states. Prior to the NMSL, the sole exception to this occurred during World War II, when the U.S. Office of Defense Transportation established a national maximum "Victory Speed Limit" of 35 mph to conserve gasoline and rubber for the American war effort. The Victory Speed Limit lasted from May 1942 to August 14, 1945, when the war ended.[3][4] Immediately before the National Maximum Speed Law became effective, speed limits were as high as 75 mph (121 km/h).[5] (Kansas had lowered its turnpike speed limit from 80 mph (130 km/h) before 1974.) Montana and Nevada generally posted no speed limits on highways, limiting drivers to only whatever was safe for conditions.

Erecting 55 mph speed limit
55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit sign being erected in response to the National Maximum Speed Law.

1973—55 mph National Speed Limit

Speed limit 50 1973
In 1973, Congress enacted a national speed limit of 55 mph (89 km/h). Some states, such as Washington, enacted lower speed limits.

As of November 20, 1973, several states had modified speed limits:[6]

  • 50 mph (80 km/h): Rhode Island, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Vermont, and Washington
  • 55 mph (89 km/h): North Carolina and Oregon
  • California lowered some 70 mph (110 km/h) limits to 65 mph (105 km/h).
  • In late November 1973, Texas Governor Dolph Briscoe recommended adoption of a 55 mph (89 km/h) statewide limit.[7] On December 4, the Texas Highway Commission, with a 3–0 vote, adopted this 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit, citing unsafe speed differentials between the flow of traffic and people driving too slowly to comply with Nixon's and Briscoe's requests for voluntary slowdowns. The legality of the measure was questioned, and two Texas legislators threatened to sue to block the limit.[8] However, by December 6, Texas Attorney General John Hill ruled that the speed reduction "'was in excess' of the commissioners' legal power," citing that a 1943 Texas Attorney General's opinion held that the legislature holds the power to set the statewide speed limit and the Commission's authority was limited to changing it in specific locales where safety factors required lower limits.[9]

As an emergency response to the 1973 oil crisis, on November 26, 1973, President Richard Nixon proposed a national 50 mph (80 km/h) speed limit for passenger vehicles and a 55 mph (90 km/h) speed limit for trucks and buses. Also proposed were a ban on ornamental lighting, no gasoline sales on Sunday, and a 15% cut in gasoline production to reduce total gas consumption by 200,000 barrels a day, representing a 2.2% drop from annualized 1973 gasoline consumption levels.[10][a] Nixon partly based that on a belief that cars achieve maximum efficiency between 40 and 50 mph (64 and 80 km/h) and that trucks and buses were most efficient at 55 mph (89 km/h).[12]

The California Trucking Association, the largest trucking association in the United States, opposed differential speed limits on grounds that they are "not wise from a safety standpoint."[13]

Enactment

The Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act was a bill in the U.S. Congress that enacted the National Maximum Speed Law.[14] States had to agree to the limit if they desired to receive federal funding for highway repair. The uniform speed limit was signed into law by Nixon on January 2, 1974, and became effective 60 days later,[15] by requiring the limit as a condition of each state receiving highway funds, a use of the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.[16]

The legislation required 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limits on all four-lane divided highways unless the road had a lower limit before November 1, 1973. In some cases, like the New York Thruway, the 50 mph (80 km/h) speed limit had to be raised to comply with the law. The law capped speed limits at 55 mph (89 km/h) on all other roads.[15]

A survey by the Associated Press found that, as of Wednesday, January 2, 1974:[15]

  • 12 states already had maximum speed limits of 55 mph (89 km/h).
  • 9 states had maximum speed limits of 50 mph (80 km/h).
  • 29 states had lower limits.

That includes some states that voluntarily lowered their limits in advance of the federal requirement.

On May 12, 1974, the United States Senate defeated a proposal by Senator Robert Dole to raise the speed limit to 60 mph (97 km/h).[17]

The 55 mph (90 km/h) National Maximum Speed Limit was made permanent when Congress enacted and President Gerald Ford signed into law the Federal-Aid Highway Amendments of 1974 on January 4, 1975.[18]

Safety impact

The limit's effect on highway safety is unclear. Both during the time the law was enacted and after it was repealed, automobile fatalities decreased,[19] which was widely attributed mainly to automobile safety improvements, owing to an increase in the safety of cars themselves, and the passage of mandatory seat belt legislation by all states except New Hampshire from the mid-1980's to the early 1990's. [20][21] This decrease in fatalities from automobile accidents makes figuring out the actual impact of the law difficult. Although the vast majority of states reported fewer traffic deaths in 1974 compared with 1973, there were in fact three states where traffic deaths actually increased in 1974, 1975 and 1976, compared to 1973, notwithstanding the 55 mph (90 km/h) speed limit: Alaska, New Hampshire and Wyoming. [22]

According to the National Research Council, there was a decrease in fatalities of about 3,000 to 5,000 lives in 1974, and about 2,000 to 4,000 lives saved annually thereafter through 1983 because of slower and more uniform traffic speeds since the law took effect.[23] Later, the National Academies wrote that there is "a strong link between vehicle speed and crash severity [which] supports the need for setting maximum limits on high-speed roads" but that "the available data do not provide an adequate basis for precisely quantifying the effects that changes in speed limits have on driving speeds, safety, and travel time on different kinds of roads." The Academies report also noted that on rural interstates, the free-flowing traffic speed should be the major determinant of the speed limit: "Drivers typically can anticipate appropriate driving speeds." This is due, in part, to the strong access control in these areas but also is an acknowledgement of the difficulty of enforcing the 55 mph (90 km/h) speed limit in these areas.[24]

A Cato Institute report showed that the safety record worsened in the first few months of the new speed limits, suggesting that the fatality drop found by the NRC was a statistical anomaly that regressed to the mean by 1978.[25] After the oil crisis abated, the NMSL was retained mainly due to the possible safety aspect.[26]

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety analysts wrote three papers that argue that increase from 55 to 65 mph (89 to 105 km/h) on rural roads led to a 25% to 30% increase in deaths (1/3 from increased travel, 2/3 from increased speed)[27] while the full repeal in 1995 led to a further 15% increase in fatalities.[27] In contrast, researchers at University of California Transportation Science Center argue that the interstates in question are only part of the equation, one also must account for traffic moving off the relatively more dangerous country roads and onto the relatively safer interstates. Accounting for this they find that raising rural speed limits to 65 mph (105 km/h) caused a 3.4% to 5.1% decrease in fatalities.[28]

Fuel savings

In 1998, the Transportation Research Board footnoted an estimate that the 1974 National Maximum Speed Limit (NMSL) reduced fuel consumption by 0.2 to 1.0 percent.[29] Rural interstates, the roads most visibly affected by the NMSL, accounted for 9.5% of the U.S.’s vehicle-miles-traveled in 1973,[30] but such free-flowing roads typically provide more fuel-efficient travel than conventional roads.[31] [32] [33]

Opposition and noncompliance

Despite federal compliance standards mandated by Congress that no more than 50 percent of free-flowing traffic on 55 mph-posted highways exceed 55 mph from 1981 onwards, which required up to a 10 percent reduction in federal highway funding for states in noncompliance,[34] by the 1980s traffic surveys showed the NMSL was widely violated:

  • The speed limit had very low compliance, contrary to the commonly accepted engineering practice that says that the speed limit should criminalize only the fastest 15% of drivers:
    • From April to June 1982, speed was monitored on New York's Interstate highways, and an 83% noncompliance rate was found despite extreme penalties ranging from $100 (1982 dollars, equal to $260 today) or 30 days jail on a first offense to $500 (1982 dollars, equal to $1,298 today), up to 180 days in jail, and a six-month driver's license revocation upon third conviction in 18 months.[35]
    • In the fourth quarter of 1988, 85% of drivers violated the 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limits on Connecticut rural interstates.[36]
    • In 1985, the Texas's State Department of Highways and Public Transportation surveyed motorist speeds at 101 locations on six types of urban and rural roads. It found that 82.2% of motorists violated the speed limit on rural interstates, 67.2% violated speed limits on urban interstates, and 61.6% violated speed limits on all roads.[37][38]
  • Western states began to reduce fines in the 1980s, effectively minimizing the impact of the 55 mph (90 km/h) limit:
    • Arizona, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada replaced traditional speeding fines with $5–$15 energy wasting fines as long as drivers did not exceed the speed limit in effect before the 55 mph (90 km/h) federal requirement.[35]
      • Nevada's energy wasting fine was enacted on April 15, 1981, when signed by Governor Robert List. Motorists not exceeding 70mph (110km/h) in 55 mph (89 km/h) zones could be issued $5 "energy wasting" fines. However, standard speeding tickets were still allowed and "troopers were directed not to take the new law as a signal to stop writing tickets."[39],
    • In 1986, North Dakota's fine for speeding up to 15 mph (24 km/h) over the limit was only $15 and had no license points.[40]
    • South Dakota cut speeding fines in 1985 and stopped assessing points for being 10 mph (16 km/h) or less above the speed limit in 1986.[40]
    • On August 1, 1986, Minnesota, which normally suspended licenses after three tickets, stopped counting speeding tickets for no more than 65 mph (105 km/h).[40]
  • The 1980 Republican Party platform called for the repeal of the 55 mph National Maximum Speed Limit. In its section on Rural Transportation, it stated: "We believe the federal 55 miles per hour speed limit is counterproductive, and contributes to the high costs of goods and services to all communities, particularly in rural America. The most effective, no-cost federal assistance program available would be for each state to set its own speed limit."[41]
  • In 1981, 33 state legislatures debated measures to oppose the NMSL.[35]
  • In 1985, the U.S. Department of Transportation found the states of Arizona, Maryland (designated a "Strict Enforcement Area" by the American Automobile Association)[42], and Vermont were out of compliance with the 55 mph (90 km/h) national speed limit, according to speed monitoring data collected and submitted by these states, showing that over 50 percent of their highway traffic exceeded 55 mph (90 km/h) in Fiscal Year 1984; the House Public Works and Transportation Subcommittee on Surface Transportation held hearings on July 23, 1985, to discuss proposals to revise the federal compliance requirements for 55 mph (90 km/h) on the basis of recommendations made by the National Research Council, to help these and other states come into compliance and avoid sanctions.[43]
  • Some law enforcement officials openly questioned the speed limit. In 1986, Jerry Baum, director of the South Dakota Highway Patrol, said "Why must I have a trooper stationed on an interstate, at 10 in the morning, worried about a guy driving 60 mph (100 km/h) on a system designed to be traveled at 70? He could be out on a Friday night watching for drunken drivers."[40][44]
  • Even organizations supporting the NMSL, such as the American Automobile Association (AAA) provided lists of locations where the limit was strictly enforced.[35]
  • On June 1, 1986, Nevada challenged the NMSL by posting a 70mph (110km/h) limit on 3 miles (5 km) of Interstate 80. The Nevada statute authorizing that speed limit included language that invalidated itself if the federal government suspended transportation funding. As it happened, the Federal Highway Administration immediately withheld highway funding, which automatically invalidated the statute by its own terms.[16]
  • Finally, on September 24, 1986, the U.S. Senate voted in favor of an amendment to pending federal highway legislation, introduced by Senator Steve Symms (R-ID) and supported by President Ronald Reagan, to allow states to increase speed limits on rural Interstate highways to 65 mph.[45] Both the amendment and the highway bill died in a House-Senate conference committee before Congress adjourned for that year.

1987 and 1988—65 mph limit

In the April 2, 1987, Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act, Congress permitted states to raise speed limits to 65 mph (105 km/h) on rural Interstate highways.[46] In a bill that passed in mid-December 1987, Congress allowed certain non-Interstate rural roads built to Interstate standards to have the higher speed limits. As of December 29, 1987, the states of California, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, and Oklahoma had applied for and been accepted into this program. The program was originally slated to last four years.[47] A total of 40 states raised their speed limits to 65 mph on rural Interstate highway and non-Interstate rural roads built to Interstate standards by 1988, joined by Massachusetts (Turnpike only) in 1992, and by Maryland, New York and Pennsylvania in the summer of 1995.

The higher speed limit on most rural Interstates and similar non-Interstate roads was vehemently opposed by highway safety advocates, including the National Safety Council, Public Citizen, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, American Trucking Associations, and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, all ardent, long-time supporters of 55 mph (90 km/h).[48][49][50] On the other hand, the new 65 mph speed limit for rural Interstates was welcomed by the California Highway Patrol, National Motorists Association (nee Citizens' Coalition for Rational Traffic Laws), a motorists' advocacy group, American Motorcyclist Association, Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA), the automotive enthusiast magazines Motor Trend, Road and Track, Car and Driver, and the late automotive journalist Brock Yates (1934-2016)--perhaps the most outspoken published opponent of the 55 mph National Maximum Speed Limit.[51]

Under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991,[52] passed by Congress and signed by President George HW Bush on December 18, 1991, the 65 mph speed limit was made permanent for rural non-Interstate highways built to Interstate standards. It also declared a moratorium on Federal sanctions against states in noncompliance with the 55 mph (90 km/h) national speed limit for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and directed the U.S. Department of Transportation to promulgate new compliance standards for the 65 mph rural freeways, as well as for all 55 mph (90 km/h) highways. As required by ISTEA, they were published in the Code of Federal Regulations 23 CFR Part 1260, but no further action was taken by USDOT against the states for speed limit noncompliance for the last few years the National Maximum Speed Law was still in effect until it was repealed in 1995.

Reclassified roads

A few roads that were not Interstate Highways but had been built to Interstate standards were redesignated as Interstate Highways to qualify for the increased speed limit:

  • Kansas petitioned the Federal Highway Administration on May 14, 1987, to "designate the turnpike as an Interstate Highway between Topeka and Emporia." This Kansas Turnpike segment had existed since 1956 without a numerical designation. Interstate status was granted, Interstate 335 was designated, and the 65 mph speed limit signs went up.[53]
  • Interstate 88 in Illinois had previously been designated as Illinois Route 5.
  • 50 miles (80 km) of the Maine Turnpike between Portland and West Gardiner were designated as Interstate 495 in 1988. The designation for this segment was changed in 2004 to Interstate 95 to simplify the Interstate numbering scheme in Maine.[54]

1995 repeal

Congress lifted all federal speed limit controls in the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995, returning all speed limit determination authority to the states effective December 8, 1995. Several states immediately reverted to already existing laws. For example, most Texas rural limits that were above 55 mph (89 km/h) in 1974 immediately reverted to 70mph (110km/h), causing some legal confusion before the new signs were posted. Montana reverted to non-numerical speed limits on most rural highways, but its legislature adopted 75 mph (121 km/h) as a limit in 1999; as a result, according to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety researcher Anne McCartt, "What's impressive is the huge drop in the percent of vehicles going very fast.... The proportion of vehicles exceeding 75 mph, the limit set [by Montana] in 1999, tumbled 45 percent. The proportion surpassing 80 mph plummeted 85 percent. Large trucks slowed, too." (She did not mention that the IIHS survey of traffic speeds on Interstate highways in 2006 she referred to, found Montana, as compared with New Mexico and Nevada, had the highest compliance with the 75 mph speed limit on rural interstates: 76 percent.)[55] Hawaii was the last state to raise its speed limit when, in response to public outcry after an experiment with traffic enforcement cameras in 2002, it raised the maximum speed limit on parts of Interstates H-1 and H-3 to 60mph (100km/h).[56]

Despite the repeal of federal speed limit controls, the 2011 maximum speed limits were on average lower than those of 1974:[57]

  • States with same speed limit as pre-1974: 25[b]
  • States with higher speed limit than pre-1974: 8
  • States with lower speed limits than pre-1974: 17[c] The introduction to 70 or 75 mph speed limits was in effect that year. The introduction to 80 mph limits was in about 2005, and Texas introduced 85 (140) in 2011.

Although traffic deaths and death rates have generally declined in the United States since 1989,[58][59] highway safety advocates have long continued to assert that increases in state speed limits after the repeal of the National Maximum Speed Law have had a detrimental effect on highway safety, and they have conducted many studies including statistical analyses that claim to support this argument. For example, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety declared that "each 5 mph increase in the maximum speed limit resulted in a 4 percent increase in fatalities. The increase on Interstates and freeways... was 8 percent. Comparing the annual number of fatalities in the 41 states [studied] with the number that would have been expected if each state's maximum speed limit had remained unchanged since 1993, [we] arrived at the estimate of 33,000 additional fatalities over the 20-year period [from 1993 to 2013]."[60][61]

Speedometers

55Mph dashboard demo
55 mph is emphasized on this dashboard.

On September 1, 1979 in a regulation that also regulated speedometer and odometer accuracy, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) required speedometers to have special emphasis on the number 55 and a maximum speed of 85mph (140km/h). Some manufacturers circumvented the rule by including extra lines beyond 85 to show higher speeds.[62] However, on October 22, 1981, NHTSA proposed eliminating speedometer and odometer rules because they were "unlikely to yield significant safety benefits" and "[a] highlighted '55' on a speedometer scale adds little to the information provided to the driver by a roadside speed limit sign."[63][64][65]

In the years since the repeal of the 55/65 mph National Maximum Speed Limit, speedometers on most cars, sport utility vehicles (SUV's) and some light trucks sold in the United States currently display a top speed of up to 160 miles per hour (260 km/h).[66]

In popular culture

The number 55 became a popular shorthand for the 55 mph speed limit. For example, a hand with a pair of fives in Texas hold'em poker is referred to as a "speed limit".[67] Rock musician Sammy Hagar released "I Can't Drive 55", a hit single protesting the rule. The title of Minutemen's critically acclaimed double album Double Nickels on the Dime refers to the NMSL, and in jest, to the Sammy Hagar single.

One of a series of advertising campaigns for the 55 mph speed limit offered, "Speed limit 55. It's not just a good idea. It's the law."[68][69][70]. Intelligentsia riffed that with a more absolute statement based on the speed of light: "186,000 miles per second. It's not just a good idea, it's the law." [71]

Annotations

  1. ^ The 2.2% drop figure was calculated by finding daily consumption to be 9,299,684 barrels of petroleum. Obtain 1973's petroleum consumption from transportation sector at 2.1e from the Energy Consumption by Sector section, then convert to barrels using A1 in the Thermal Conversion Factors section (assume "conventional motor gasoline" since ethanol-based or purportedly smog-reducing gas was not common in 1973).[11]
  2. ^ Includes Texas where the same pre-1974 speed limits are applicable on the vast majority of rural roads despite some 75 and 80 mph limits.
  3. ^ Includes Virginia where the vast majority of rural freeways have a 65 mph (105 km/h) limit.

References

  1. ^ "Rising Chorus Against 55-MPH Speed Limit," U.S. News and World Report. March 17, 1975.
  2. ^ "Speed Limit 55: Is It Achievable?" Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office, February 14, 1977. Retrieved from https://www.gao.gov/assets/120/118193.pdf
  3. ^ Catherine Perrone and Lauren Handley, "Home Front Friday: The Victory Speed Limit." National World War II Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana. Retrieved from http://nww2m.com/2015/12/home-front-friday-get-in-the-scrap/
  4. ^ Lynn Arave, "'Patriotic Speed Limit' was 35 mph." Deseret News, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 17, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.deseretnews.com/article/705285620/patriotic-speed-limit-was-35-mph.html
  5. ^ "Daytime Speed Limits". States' Attitudes Toward Speed Limits. Reasonable Drivers Unanimous. March 9, 1998. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  6. ^ Lindsey, Robert (November 20, 1973). "Nation Is Living on Less Energy For Travel, Heating and Lights". The New York Times. p. 1.
  7. ^ "Speed Limit on State Agenda". Associated Press. December 3, 1973. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  8. ^ "Texas Commission OKs 55 MPH Limit". Associated Press. December 5, 1973. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  9. ^ Kinch, Jr., Sam (December 6, 1973). "Lower Speed Limit Not Legal, Hill Rules". The Dallas Morning News. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  10. ^ Cowan, Edward (November 27, 1973). "Politics and Energy: Nixon's Silence on Rationing Reflects Hope That Austerity Can Be Avoided". The New York Times. p. 30.
  11. ^ Staff (June 28, 2008). Annual Energy Review (PDF) (2007 ed.). Washington, DC: Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2018.
  12. ^ "55 Mile-per-hour Speed Limit Approved by House". United Press International. December 4, 1973. p. 30. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  13. ^ "Unequal Limits Hit". United Press International. November 30, 1973. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  14. ^ Travel Mode Improvement Program staff. "Chapter 8. Transition to Short-Term Planning". TMIP: Urban Transportation Planning In the United States: An Historical Overview. US Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
  15. ^ a b c "Nixon Approves Limit of 55 MPH". The New York Times. January 3, 1974. pp. 1, 24. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2008.(subscription required)
  16. ^ a b "Brief For The Respondents In Opposition". Nevada v. Skinner. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  17. ^ Cowan, Edward (May 14, 1974). "Senate Rejects a Rise in Speed Limits on Highways to 60 MPH from 55". The New York Times. p. 74. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  18. ^ Public Law 93-643, sec. 23 United States Code 154. Retrieved from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/93/s3934
  19. ^ Morrow, Adrian (April 5, 2011). "US Motorists Enjoy Least Deadly Driving Year Since 1949". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  20. ^ "Traffic Safety Facts 2012: Occupant Protection." DOT HS 811892. Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (March 2014, revised September 2014). Accessed from https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/811892
  21. ^ McFeatters, Ann (September 14, 1986). "Critics say auto safety laws not worth cost". Houston Chronicle. Scripps-Howard News Service. p. 18. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
  22. ^ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1977) "55 mph Fact Book," p. 12, Table 1.
  23. ^ Transportation Research Board. 1984. "55: A Decade of Experience." Special Report 204. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, pp. 31-34. Accessed from http://nap.edu/11373.
  24. ^ "Road Conditions Vary Too Widely For Single Approach to Speed Limits". Transportation Research Board. National Research Council. October 1, 1998. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
  25. ^ Moore, Stephen (May 31, 1999). "Speed Doesn't Kill: The Repeal of the 55-MPH Speed Limit". Cato Institute. pp. 7–9. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
  26. ^ "Statement on Signing the Federal-Aid Highway Amendments of 1974," President Gerald R. Ford, January 4, 1975. Retrieved from http://presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=4750.
  27. ^ a b Staff (May 2011). "Q&A: Speed and speed limits". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Retrieved August 1, 2011., citing Transportation Research Board. 1984. 55: a decade of experience. Special Report 204. Washington, DC., available for purchase online at [1]
  28. ^ Lave, Charles; Elias, Patrick (1994). "Did the 65 MPH Speed Limit Save Lives?" (PDF). Accident Analysis and Prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 26 (1): 49–62. doi:10.1016/0001-4575(94)90068-x. ISSN 0001-4575. PMID 8110357. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2011.
  29. ^ "Special Report 254: Managing Speed" (PDF). Transportation Research Board: 189. Retrieved September 17, 2014. Bloomquist (1984) estimated that the 1974 National Maximum Speed Limit (NMSL) reduced fuel consumption by 0.2 to 1.0 percent. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  30. ^ "Highway Statistics 1973 (Table VM-2: VEHICLE MILES, BY STATE AND HIGHWAY SYSTEM-1973)" (PDF). Federal Highway Administration: 76. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. ^ Lexus IS250 2.5L 6cyl, Auto 6 speed Sedan, 5 seats, 2WD Archived August 4, 2012, at Archive.today
  32. ^ IS 250 Kraftstoffverbrauch kombiniert 8,9 L/100 km (innerorts 12,5 L/ außerorts 6,9 L) bei CO2-Emissionen von 209 g/km nach dem vorgeschriebenen EU-Messverfahren "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ 2009 Lexus IS 250 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic (S6), Premium http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/findacar.htm
  34. ^ Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1978, Public Law 95-599, 92 Stat. 2689, pp. 2729-30. Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-92-pg2689.pdf
  35. ^ a b c d Grimes, Paul (December 26, 1982). "Practical Traveler: The 55-MPH Speed Limit". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  36. ^ Hamilton, Robert A. (May 7, 1989). "85% of Drivers on Interstates Are Speeders". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  37. ^ "Speeders in Majority on Texas Highways". Houston Chronicle. United Press International. January 9, 1987. p. 12. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  38. ^ Robison, Clay (June 15, 1986). "55 MPH Law Violated, but Unlikely to Change". Houston Chronicle. p. 2. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  39. ^ "Nevada Speeders Getting $5 'Energy Wasting' Fines". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 16, 1981. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  40. ^ a b c d "Some States Trying to Skirt Federally Mandated 55 MPH Speed Limit". Houston Chronicle. April 14, 1986. p. 3. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  41. ^ Accessed from https://presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/republican-party-platform-1980
  42. ^ Grimes, Paul. "Practical Traveler: The 55 mph Speed Limit." New York Times, December 26, 1982. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  43. ^ House Public Works and Transportation Subcommittee on Surface Transportation, July 23, 1985. Hearings on the Monitoring and Enforcement of the 55 mph National Maximum Speed Limit. Retrieved from https://www.c-span.org/video/?125574-1/55-mph-speed-limit
  44. ^ See also op-ed by James E. Smith, commissioner, California Highway Patrol. "Selectively Raising Limit Makes Better Policy." The Police Chief, International Association of Chiefs of Police, January 1987, p. 18.
  45. ^ "Senate Approves 65 mph limit." The Miami Herald, September 24, 1986, p. 1-A.
  46. ^ "States in a rush to raise 55 mph limit on rural roads." Chicago Tribune, April 5, 1987. Retrieved from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1987-04-05/news/8701250868_1_speed-limit-highway-bill-road-construction-bill
  47. ^ Molotsky, Irvin (December 29, 1987). "20 States to Win the Right to Set a 65 MPH Speed". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  48. ^ Judith Lee Stone, "Raising The Limit Puts Traffic On The Fast Track To Higher Deaths." Traffic Safety, May-June 1988, pp. 32-33. National Safety Council
  49. ^ Rep. James J. Howard (D-NJ). "Higher Speed Limits Will All Be Dangerous." USA Today, March 17, 1987, p. 12-A.
  50. ^ See also op-ed, Jack B. Walsh, superintendent, Ohio State Highway Patrol. "55 mph: Holding The Line." The Police Chief, January 1987, p. 19, International Association of Chiefs of Police.
  51. ^ Warner, Gene. "State, Drivers Gear For 65 MPH Speed Limit, But Debate Rages On Fallout From Tuesday's Change." The Buffalo News, July 30, 1995. Accessed from https://buffalonews.com/1995/07/30/state-drivers-gear-for-65-MPH-speed-limit-but-debate-rages-on-fallout-from-tuesdays-change/
  52. ^ Public Law 102-240, 105 Stat. 1914. Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE/105-pg.1914.pdf
  53. ^ "65 MPH Approved for Route". Wichita Eagle-Beacon. October 24, 1987..
  54. ^ "It's Time To Clear Up the Confusion: Maine Interstate Redesignation 2004" (PDF). Maine Department of Transportation and Maine Turnpike Authority. 2004. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  55. ^ Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Status Report, Vol. 43, #1, p.3, January 31, 2008, citing Retting, R.A. and Teoh, E.R. 2008. "Traffic Speeds on Interstates and Freeways 10 Years After Repeal of National Maximum Speed Limit." Traffic Injury Prevention 9 (2): 119-24.
  56. ^ Antone, Rod (April 18, 2002). "State Approves Higher Speed Limits". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  57. ^ Staff. "Summary Chart". States' Attitudes Towards Speed Limits. Reasonable Drivers Unanimous. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  58. ^ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. "An Analysis of The Significant Decline in Motor Vehicle Fatalities in 2008." DOT HS 811 346. Retrieved from https://crashstats.nhtsa.gov/Api/Public/Viewpublication/811346
  59. ^ Csaba Csere, "In 1998, Speed Still Didn't Kill." Car and Driver, September 1999. Retrieved from https://www.caranddriver.com/columns/csaba-csere-in-1998-speed-still-didnt-kill-column
  60. ^ "Speed Limit Increases Cause 33,000 Deaths In 20 Years." Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Status Report, vol. 51, no. 4, April 12, 2016, citing Charles M. Farmer, "Relationship of Traffic Fatality Rates to Maximum State Speed Limits." Traffic Injury Prevention, 5/19/2017: 18 (4): 375-380. Retrieved from https://www.iihs.org/iihs/sr/statusreport/article/51/4/3.
  61. ^ Lee S. Friedman, Donald Hedeker and Elihu D. Richter. "Long-Term Effects of Repealing the National Maximum Speed Limit in the United States." American Journal of Public Health, September 2009, v. 99 (9): 1626-1631. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2724439/
  62. ^ "85 MPH Speedo". www.classic-car-history.com. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  63. ^ Kramer, Larry (March 10, 1978). "Odometer Security Rules Due". Washington Post. p. B11. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  64. ^ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (effective September 1, 1979). 49 C.F.R. 571.127 "Standard No. 127 Speedometers and Odometers." Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  65. ^ Conlon, Michael J. (October 22, 1981). "Speedometer Rules Slated for Scrapping". United Press International. Retrieved July 22, 2008. (subscription required)
  66. ^ Weller, Chris. "Why speedometers go to 140 or 160 mph, even if cars can't drive that fast." Business Insider, November 22, 2017. Accessed from https://www.businessinsider.com/why-speedometers-go-so-high-to-140-or-160-11
  67. ^ McComas, Richard (December 5, 2004). "400+ Hole Card Hand Names". Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  68. ^ Bennett, James T. (2014). Mandate Madness: How Congress Forces States and Localities to Do Its Bidding. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-5372-9.
  69. ^ Advertising Council and U.S. Department of Transportation, "55 Saves Lives," 1977. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=0vlfe6NiYse
  70. ^ Advertising Council and U.S. Department of Transportation, "55 mph: It's A Law We Can Live With," 1978. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?watch?v-GxBeSp8m5bw
  71. ^ Van Riper, A. Bowdoin (2002). Science in Popular Culture: A Reference Guide. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press. p. 268. ISBN 0-313-31822-0.

Further reading

  • Singell, Larry D.; McNown, Robert F. (October 1985). "A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the 55 MPH Speed Limit: Reply". Southern Economic Journal. Chapel Hill, NC: Southern Economic Association, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 52 (2): 550–553. doi:10.2307/1059644. ISSN 0038-4038. JSTOR 1059644.
  • Clotfelter, Charles T.; Hahn, John C. (June 1978). "Assessing the 55 MPH National Speed Limit". Policy Sciences. Springer Netherlands. 9 (3): 281–294. doi:10.1007/BF00136831. ISSN 0032-2687.
  • Transportation Research Board (1984). "55: A Decade of Experience." Special Report 204. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Accessed from http://nap.edu/11373.
  • Rask, Mark. "American Autobahn: The Road To An Interstate Freeway With No Speed Limit." Minneapolis, MN: Vanguard, 1999. ISBN 0-9669136-0-4. LCCN: 98-90867.
  • "Report to Congress: The Effect of Increased Speed Limits in the Post-NMSL Era." DOT HS 808 637. Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, February 1998. Accessed from https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/808637.
  • Baxter, James J. "Thirty Years Down, Many More to Go." Driving Freedoms, Vol. 23, Issue 1, Winter 2012. National Motorists Association Foundation, Waunakee, WI. Retrieved from http://www.motorists.org/newsletter/.
  • "The 20th Anniversary of the Repeal of the 55 mph National Maximum Speed Limit: A look at the impact of the NMA's defining achievement in motorists' rights." Driving Freedoms, Vol. 26, Issue 3, Summer 2015, pp 6–7. National Motorists Association Foundation, Waunakee, WI. Retrieved from http://www.motorists.org/newsletter/.
  • Yowell, Robert O., PhD (Assistant Professor, Stephen F. Austin State University). "The Evolution and Devolution of Speed Limit Law and the Effect on Fatality Rates." Review of Policy Research, Vol. 22, No. 4 (2005).

External links

External images
"Photograph of 55 mph speed limit replacing a 70 mph limit". February 12, 1974.
"Photograph of KSDOT workers changing a 75 mph sign to 55 mph". 1974.
55

55 may refer to:

55 (number)

55 BC

AD 55

1955

2055

55 (number)

55 (fifty-five) is the natural number following 54 and preceding 56.

Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash

The Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash, widely known as the Cannonball Baker or Cannonball Run, was an unofficial, unsanctioned automobile race run five times in the 1970s from New York City and Darien, Connecticut, on the East Coast of the United States to the Portofino Inn in Redondo Beach, California.

Conceived by car magazine writer and auto racer Brock Yates and fellow Car and Driver editor Steve Smith, the first run was not a competitive race as only one team was running. The run was intended both as a celebration of the United States Interstate Highway System and as a protest against strict traffic laws coming into effect at the time. Another motivation was the fun involved, which showed in the tongue-in-cheek reports in Car and Driver and other auto publications worldwide. The initial cross-country run was made by Yates; his son, Brock Yates, Jr.; Steve Smith; and friend Jim Williams beginning on May 3, 1971, in a 1971 Dodge Custom Sportsman van called the "Moon Trash II."The race was run four more times: November 15, 1971; November 13, 1972; April 23, 1975; and April 1, 1979.Car and Driver magazine detailed the November 1971 running in its March 1972 issue. That article was reprinted to represent the 1970s on the magazine's 50th anniversary in 2005. A remarkable effort was made by American racing legend Dan Gurney, winner of the 1967 24 hours of Le Mans. He won the second Cannonball in a Ferrari Daytona. Gurney said, "At no time did we exceed 175 mph [280 km/h]." He and Brock Yates as co-driver took 35 hours and 54 minutes to travel 2,863 miles (4,608 km) at an average of approximately 80 mph (130 km/h) while collecting one fine. Snow in the Rocky Mountains slowed them down considerably.In 1972 the team of Steve "Yogi" Behr, Bill Canfield, and Fred Owens won in a Cadillac Coupe deVille, the first American car to win a Cannonball.On April 23–25, 1975, Jack May and Rick Cline drove a Ferrari Dino (05984) from the Red Ball Garage in New York City in a world record time of 35 hours and 53 minutes, averaging 83 mph (134 km/h).The record for official Cannonballs is 32 hours and 51 minutes (about 87 mph or 140 km/h), set in the final run from Darien, Connecticut, to Los Angeles by Dave Heinz and Dave Yarborough in a Jaguar XJS in April 1979.This New York area to Los Angeles 1979 record was broken in 2006 by Alex Roy and David Maher, setting a time of 31 hours 4 minutes, as documented in the film 32 Hours 7 minutes.On October 19, 2013, Ed Bolian and his team, co-driver Dave Black and passenger Dan Huang, made the trip in a Mercedes CL-55 in 28 hours and 50 minutes.The 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit imposed as an energy-conservation measure by the 1974 National Maximum Speed Law and in effect for the last two Cannonballs was faster than Erwin George "Cannon Ball" Baker's highest point-to-point average speeds in the first half of the 20th century. In 1933, Baker drove coast to coast in a Graham-Paige model 57 Blue Streak 8, averaging greater than 50 mph (80 km/h), setting a record of 53 hours 30 minutes that stood for nearly 40 years.

After the original Cannonball races, Car and Driver sponsored legitimate closed-course tours, the One Lap of America. Outlaw successors in the United States, Europe, and Australia continue to use the Cannonball name without Yates's approval.

I Can't Drive 55

"I Can't Drive 55" is the lead single and first track from Sammy Hagar's eighth studio album VOA in 1984. Perpetuated by a very successful music video, it became a concert staple that continued throughout Hagar's tours as a member of Van Halen. The song is a reference to the since-repealed National Maximum Speed Law that set speed limits at 55 miles per hour (89 km/h) in the United States.

It is the 100th song on VH1's 100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs.

Interstate 88 (Illinois)

Interstate 88 (I-88) is an Interstate Highway in the US state of Illinois that runs from an interchange with I-80 near Silvis and Moline to an interchange with I-290 and I-294 in Hillside, near Chicago. I-88 is 140.60 miles (226.27 km) long. This route is not contiguous with I-88 in New York. Since 2010, all of I-88 has been part of the Chicago–Kansas City Expressway. The highway also runs through the cities of Aurora, Naperville, DeKalb, and Dixon. East of Rock Falls, the route is a part of the Illinois Tollway system.

Larry D. Singell

Not to be confused with Larry D. Singell Jr.Larry D. Singell (Sr.) (born 1937) is an American economist, and Emeritus Professor of Economics at the University of Colorado Boulder. He is known for his work in applied economics, for example on the effects of green belts on residential property, or on the National Maximum Speed Law.

National Motorists Association

The National Motorists Association (NMA) is for-profit non-stock corporation lobbyist and special interest group in North America, created in 1982. NMA also operates a small non-profit organization, National Motorists Association Foundation, established in 1999.

Ohio Turnpike

The Ohio Turnpike, officially the James W. Shocknessy Ohio Turnpike, is a 241.26-mile-long (388.27 km), limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of Ohio, serving as a primary corridor to Chicago and Pittsburgh. The road runs east–west in the northern section of the state, with the western end at the Indiana–Ohio border near Bryan where it meets the Indiana Toll Road, and the eastern end at the Ohio–Pennsylvania border near Petersburg, where it meets the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The road is owned and maintained by the Ohio Turnpike and Infrastructure Commission (OTIC), headquartered in Berea.Built from 1949 to 1955, construction for the roadway was completed a year prior to the Interstate Highway System. The modern Ohio Turnpike is signed as three interstate numbers: I-76, I-80, and I-90.

Pennsylvania Turnpike

The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission (PTC) in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. A controlled-access highway, it runs for 360 miles (580 km) across the state. The turnpike begins at the Ohio state line in Lawrence County, where the road continues west into Ohio as the Ohio Turnpike. It ends at the New Jersey border at the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge over the Delaware River in Bucks County, where the road continues east as the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike.

The highway runs east–west through the state, connecting the Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, and Philadelphia areas. It crosses the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, passing through four tunnels. The turnpike is part of the Interstate Highway System; it is designated as part of Interstate 76 (I-76) between the Ohio border and Valley Forge, I-70 between New Stanton and Breezewood, I-276 between Valley Forge and Bristol Township, and I-95 from Bristol Township to the New Jersey border. The road uses a ticket system of tolling between the Warrendale and Neshaminy Falls toll plazas. An additional eastbound toll plaza is located at Gateway, near the Ohio border, while a cashless westbound toll gantry using toll-by-plate is located at the Delaware River Bridge. E-ZPass, a form of electronic toll collection, is accepted at all toll plazas.

During the 1930s the Pennsylvania Turnpike was designed to improve automobile transportation across the mountains of Pennsylvania, using seven tunnels built for the abandoned South Pennsylvania Railroad in the 1880s. The road opened on October 1, 1940, between Irwin and Carlisle. It was one of the earlier long-distance limited-access highways in the United States, and served as a precedent for additional limited-access toll roads and the Interstate Highway System.

Following World War II, the turnpike was extended east to Valley Forge in 1950 and west to the Ohio border in 1951. In 1954, the road was extended further east to the Delaware River. The mainline turnpike was finished in 1956 with the completion of the Delaware River Bridge. During the 1960s an additional tube was bored at four of the two-lane tunnels, while the other three tunnels were bypassed; these improvements made the entire length of the highway four lanes wide. Improvements continue to be made to the road: rebuilding the original section to modern standards, widening portions of the turnpike to six lanes, and adding interchanges. Most recently in 2018, an ongoing interchange project saw the redesignation of the easternmost three miles (4.8 km) of the road from I-276 to I-95. Though still considered part of the turnpike mainline, it is no longer signed with turnpike markers.

Policy learning

Policy learning is the increased understanding that occurs when policymakers compare one set of policy problems to others within their own or in other jurisdictions. It can aid in understanding why a policy was implemented, the policy's effects, and how the policy could apply to the policymakers' jurisdiction. Before a policy is adopted it goes through a process that involves various combinations of elected official(s), political parties, civil servants, advocacy groups, policy experts or consultants, corporations, think tanks, and multiple levels of government. Policies can be challenged in various ways, including questioning its legality. Ideally policymakers develop complete knowledge about the policy; the policy should achieve its intent and efficiently use resources.Policy learning through globalization has helped government organizations become more competitive. Policymakers have easy access to global policy knowledge through the internet, access to think tanks, international institutions such as the United Nations, International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank and individual experts.

Speed limit

Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the legal maximum or minimum speed at which road vehicles may travel on a given stretch of road. In the US they have been set to protect the public and regulate unreasonable behavior. Speed limits are generally indicated on a traffic sign reflecting the maximum or minimum permitted expressed as kilometres per hour (km/h) and/or miles per hour (mph). Speed limits are commonly set by the legislative bodies of national or provincial governments and enforced by national or regional police and judicial authorities. Speed limits may also be variable, or in some places unlimited, such as on most of the Autobahn in Germany.The first numeric speed limit for automobiles was the 10 mph (16 km/h) limit introduced in the United Kingdom in 1861. The highest posted speed limit in the world is 160 km/h (99 mph), which applies to two motorways in the UAE.There are several reasons to regulate speed on roads. It is often done to attempt to improve road traffic safety and reduce the number of casualties from traffic collisions. In the "World report on road traffic injury prevention", the World Health Organization (WHO) identified speed control as one of a number of steps that can be taken to reduce road casualties. This followed a report in which the WHO estimated that some 1.2 million people were killed and 50 million injured on the roads around the world in 2004.Speed limits may also be set to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic (vehicle noise, vibration, emissions) and as a political response to local community concerns for the safety of pedestrians. For example, a draft proposal from Germany's National Platform on the Future of Mobility task force recommended a blanket 130 km/h (81 mph) speed limit across the Autobahn to curb fuel consumption and carbon emissions. Some cities have reduced limits to as little as 30 km/h (19 mph) for both safety and efficiency reasons. However, some research indicates that changes in the speed limit may not always alter average vehicle speed.

Speed limits in the United States

Speed limits in the United States are set by each state or territory. States have also allowed counties and municipalities to enact typically lower limits. Highway speed limits can range from an urban low of 25 mph (40 km/h) to a rural high of 85 mph (137 km/h). Speed limits are typically posted in increments of five miles per hour (8 km/h). Some states have lower limits for trucks and at night, and occasionally there are minimum speed limits.

The highest speed limits are generally 70 mph (113 km/h) on the West Coast and the inland eastern states, 75–80 mph (121–129 km/h) in inland western states, along with Arkansas and Louisiana. 65–70 mph (105–113 km/h) on the Eastern Seaboard. Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Vermont have a maximum limit of 65 mph (105 km/h), and Hawaii has a maximum limit of 60 mph (97 km/h). The District of Columbia and the U.S. Virgin Islands have a maximum speed limit of 55 mph (89 km/h). Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands have speed limits of 45 mph (72 km/h). American Samoa has a maximum speed limit of 30 mph (48 km/h). Two territories in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands have their own speed limits: 40 mph (64 km/h) in Wake Island, and 15 mph (24 km/h) in Midway Atoll. Unusual for any state east of the Mississippi River, much of Interstate 95 (I-95) in Maine north of Bangor allows up to 75 mph (121 km/h), and the same is true for up to 600 miles of freeways in Michigan. Portions of the Idaho, Montana, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming road networks have 80 mph (129 km/h) posted limits. The highest posted speed limit in the country is 85 mph (137 km/h) and can be found only on the Texas State Highway 130.

During World War II, the U.S. Office of Defense Transportation established a national 35 mph "Victory Speed Limit" to conserve gasoline and rubber for the American war effort, from May 1942 to August 1945, when the war ended. For 13 years (January 1974–April 1987), federal law withheld Federal highway trust funds to states that had speed limits above 55 mph (89 km/h). From April 1987 to December 8, 1995, an amended federal law allowed speed limits up to 65 mph on rural Interstate and rural roads built to Interstate highway standards.

Speed limits in the United States by jurisdiction

Speed limits in the United States vary depending on jurisdiction. Rural freeway speed limits of 75 to 80 mph (120 to 130 km/h) are common in the Western United States, while such highways are typically posted at 65 to 70 mph (105 to 115 km/h) in the Eastern United States. States may also set separate speed limits for trucks and night travel along with minimum speed limits. The highest speed limit in the country is 85 mph (140 km/h), which is posted on a single stretch of tollway in rural Texas. The lowest maximum speed limit in the country is 30 miles per hour (48 km/h) in American Samoa.

The Way We Was

"The Way We Was" is the twelfth episode of The Simpsons' second season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on January 31, 1991. In the episode, Marge tells the story of how she and Homer first met and fell in love. Flashing back to 1974, we see how Homer falls in love with Marge in high school and tries to get close to her by enlisting her as his French tutor. After several hours of verb conjugation, Marge falls for Homer too, only to become enraged when he admits that he is not a French student. Marge rejects Homer's invitation to the prom and goes with Artie Ziff. Artie turns out to be a terrible date and Marge realizes that it is Homer she really wants.

The episode was written by Al Jean, Mike Reiss, and Sam Simon, and directed by David Silverman. It was the first flashback episode of The Simpsons. Jon Lovitz guest-starred in it as Artie Ziff. The episode features cultural references to songs such as "The Joker" and "(They Long to Be) Close to You", and the television series Siskel & Ebert & the Movies. Since airing, the episode has received mostly positive reviews from television critics. It acquired a Nielsen rating of 15.6, and was the highest-rated show on the Fox network the week it aired.

The White Knight (Cledus Maggard song)

"The White Knight" is a novelty country music song made famous by Jay Huguely, who - recording as Cledus Maggard & The Citizen's Band - enjoyed a brief run of national popularity with the song when it became popular in 1976.

Traffic stop

A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

Truck driver

A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker, teamster or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a lorry driver, or driver in Ireland, the United Kingdom, India, Nepal and Pakistan) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).

Speed limits in the United States
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