National Library of Montenegro

The National Library of Montenegro "Đurđe Crnojević" (NLM) is a public institution that preserves the written, printed and publications in other media published in Montenegro and abroad. As part of its own publishing production, NLM publishes retrospective and current Montenegrin national bibliography. NLM is the parent library to all libraries in Montenegro and the National Agency for the assignment of ISBN, ISSN, ISMN and other international bibliographic numbers, and for Cataloguing in Publication (CIP) for publishers in Montenegro. NLM "Đurđe Crnojević" was named after the 15th century ruler of Montenegro, who in 1493 established the first state printing house in the world and the second Cyrillic printing house in Europe. Since 2004, Jelena Djurovic has been the Director of the National Library.

National Library of Montenegro "Đurđe Crnojević"
Nacionalna biblioteka Crne Gore "Đurđe Crnojević"
National Library of Montenegro
National Library of Montenegro
Country Montenegro
Established1893
LocationCetinje
Collection
Items collectedbooks, newspapers, magazines, manuscripts, geographical and historiographical maps, atlases, printed music, postcards and photographs, albums, catalogs, audio and video materials, micrographic forms
Size2,000,000
Other information
DirectorJelena Đurović
Websitenb-cg.me

History

  • 1592-1593 – 42 books listed in the Cetinje Monastery during the reign of the dynasty Crnojević. These are the earliest preserved book inventories in Montenegro.
  • 1838 – Montenegrin ruler, bishop and poet, Petar II Petrović Njegoš, separated religious from secular books among the books that he and his predecessor, Petar I, procured for the Cetinje Monastery, and transferred them to his residence – the Billiard House. His library served as the state library.
  • 1893 – On the occasion of 400th anniversary of the Crnojevic printing house, Prince Nikola I Petrovic Njegoš founded the Public Library..
  • 1896 – The Law of the Principality-Montenegrin Library was adopted and the Public Library was entrusted with the task of collecting "all works, in all languages, related to Montenegro," and books of the other Yugoslav and Slavonic people. The title of State Librarian was established. The library was housed in the premises of the Royal Theatre Zetski dom along with the Museum, where it remained until the end of World War II.
  • 1905 – By the Law on Printing in the Principality of Montenegro, the Library was entitled to obtain the three obligatory copies "of each printed issue" in the territory of Montenegro, which significantly increased the library fund.
  • 1918 – Almost the entire library fund of the Royal Library was destroyed in the war.
  • 1926 – The National Museum Library in Cetinje took over the role of the Central Scientific Library of Montenegro. It was mainly created from the remaining holdings of the former Royal Library.
  • 1944 – After the liberation of Cetinje, the National Museum Library functioned as the Central Library in Montenegro.
  • 1946 – The Ministry of Education of the National Republic of Montenegro established the National Central Library in Cetinje on March 26.
  • 1951 – Library got the building of the former French Embassy in Cetinje.
  • 1964 – Due to the significant increase of the library holdings, the former Italian Embassy building became the headquarters of the Library.
  • 1964 – Library was renamed to Central National Library "Đurđe Crnojević".
  • 1981 – The library was provided with a central depot for the accommodation of library holdings, on the area of 4500 m2, which is located within the complex of the former Italian Embassy.
  • 2012 – Central National Library of Montenegro "Đurđe Crnojević" was renamed the National Library of Montenegro "Đurđe Crnojević".

Buildings

NLM "Đurđe Crnojević" is located at two sites in Cetinje, in two significant historical mansions built in 1910 for the Italian and French diplomacies in the Kingdom of Montenegro (1910-1918). The former Italian Embassy was built according to the project designed by the Italian architect Corradini, while the former French embassy was designed by renowned French architect Paul Gaudet.

Collections

The library collection of NLM "Đurđe Crnojević" consists of about 2,000,000 (two million) books, newspapers, magazines, manuscripts, geographical and historiographical maps, atlases, printed music, postcards and photographs, albums, catalogs, audio and video materials, micrographic forms and other library materials. Library material is arranged into three sections: Basic Holdings, Special Collection and Museum Holdings.

The general collection consists of books and serial publications (magazines and newspapers) from all scientific fields, in various languages. Special collections consists of manuscripts and documentary materials, a collection of old and rare books, a map collection, a collection of music and audiovisual holdings, and a graphic & artistic collection.

The museum holdings consist of the national collection "Montenegrina" or "Černogorika" (Montenegrin books and periodicals), and Legacies.

General collection

The general collection contains all publications acquired by legal deposit, purchase, gift and international exchange. This fund counts about 800.000 books, 13. 000 newspaper titles and 11.300 journal titles, European, international, and Montenegrin.

Special collections

Collection of manuscripts and documentary materials: The oldest manuscripts, mainly written by former rulers and prominent persons in Montenegro, date from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This collection also holds some personal documents, reports, verdicts. Some of the most valuable manuscripts are: Pismo Ugnjanima written by Bishop Sava in 1774; Pismo Vladike Petra I Petrovića Njegoša Bjelici iz Majina from 1794; Crnogorcima na brodu Porto Roze 1817; and poems of Petar II Petrović Njegoš.

The Old and Rare Books Collection contains about 10,000 library items, including incunabula, postincunabula, old books (Cyrillic books printed before 1868, and Latin to 1800), rare editions and miniatures. Among the most valuable Cyrillic manuscript is Otočnik from the end of the fourteenth century. Among printed books, the oldest ones in the collection are Noctes Atticae, printed in typography of Andrija Paltašić-Kotoranin (Venice, 1477), and Epistolae sancti Hieronymi (Venice, 1496.; printer John Varcelens). Among periodicals from the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Orfelin's Slaveno serbskij magazine, the first Serbian journal from 1768, stands out for its rarity.

The Cartographic Collection consists of more than 500 geographical atlases and 2,500 geographic maps. The oldest and most valuable atlas in the Montenegrin National Library collection originates from 1764. It is the first Mediterranean atlas, Carte de la mer Mediterranée, by celebrated French hydrographer Joseph Raux. The collection also includes 42 800 postcards, of which the oldest ones (from the end of the nineteenth century) can be a very important material for studying the life of the former residents of Cetinje and Montenegro, who recorded their impressions of the great European and world cities, as well as the events from their private lives on these postcards.

The Music and Audiovisual Holdings contain about 27,000 library items, that is about 19,000 audio-visual materials and 8,000 printed music, among which Album Černogorski, 70 narodniuh pisni of Ludvik Kuba from 1890, and Motifs from Montenegro, the concert for Violin and piano by Antun Pogacar have a special value. Among other items, this collection has about 7,500 single records, 7,000 LP records, 4100 audio cassettes, more than 200 video cassettes and 1,000 CDs.

The Artistic and Graphic Collection contains about 74 000 posters of all kinds, of which 17 000 Montenegrin - political, film, concert, exhibition, theatrical, educational, tourism, commercial. Special for their rarity and artistic value are the posters made for the plays performed at the Royal Theatre "Zetski dom" in Cetinje, from the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century.

Museum holdings

The National Collection Montenegrina was formed and enriched on the basis of three criteria, on which the Montenegrin national bibliography is based. It includes publications whose authors (actual authors, translators, anthology editors, illustrators, photographers…) were born in Montenegro or originating from Montenegro; the publications published/issued or printed within the territory of Montenegro – independent of the authorship and theme; the publications thematically related to Montenegro – regardless of the authorship, language and place of publication.

The Montenegrina collection contains more than 40,000 books, many of them being unique and rare, and about 1,300 magazines and newspapers, with about 85,000 issues, among which unique and rare are Grlica (1835), Orlić (1865), Crnogorka (1871), Crnogorac (1871), Glas Crnogorca (1873) and Prosvjeta (1889). Old Montenegrin periodicals collection includes 175 titles, or more than 12,000 issues. Modern / current magazines and newspapers include titles since 1946, to date.

The Legacies NLM "Đurđe Crnojević", special or gift libraries of prominent Montenegrin creators, have the status of national cultural heritage. They consist of books, archive materials, and personal belongings of seven contributors: Dr Pero Soc (1884-1966, Doctor of Literature, Historian, Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Kingdom of Montenegro), Nikola Djonovic (1885-1974, lawyer, politician and publicist), Dr Pavle Mijovic (1914-1996, Art Historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, publicist, member of the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts), Dr Niko S. Martinovic (1914-1975, lawyer, writer, philosopher, journalist, editor of the daily newspaper Pobjeda (1947-1948), Director of Historical Institute of Montenegro (1948-1949), Director of NLM "Djurdje Crnojevic" (1957-1973), member of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences), Dušan Gvozdenovic (1917-1993, mathematician, university professor, publicist, author of textbooks in geometry and algebra for elementary schools and faculties), Radivoje-Lola Djukic (1923-1995, television, theater and movie director and humorist, writer and journalist, painter, one of the founders of the Belgrade TV), and Dr Dusan J. Martinovic (1933-2010, Doctor of Geography, writer, member of the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (CANU), bibliographer, publisher, director of high school in Cetinje (1963-1973), Director of NLM "Djurdje Crnojevic" (1976-1991), chief editor of "Crnogorska bibliografija 1494-1994").

Virtual library of Montenegro

The electronic catalog of NLM "Đurđe Crnojević" contains more than 220,000 bibliographic records, including books, serial publications, articles from journals and newspapers, and publications from special collections. The electronic catalog is available on the Internet at: http://vbcg.vbcg.me/cobiss/

Digital library

NLM "Đurđe Crnojević", as a member of the Conference of European National Librarians (CENL), installed its own electronic catalog, as the common catalog of Montenegrin libraries, and a part of its digitized collections on the web portal of European national libraries - TEL (The European Library).

Digital collections are available at http://dlib.me/.

External links

Cetinje

Cetinje (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Цетиње [pronounced [ t͡sětiɲe]]), is a city and Old Royal Capital (Montenegrin: Prijestonica / Приjестоница) of Montenegro. It is also the historic and the secondary capital of Montenegro, where the official residence of the President of Montenegro is located. According to the 2011 census, the town had a population of 14,093 while the Cetinje municipality had 16,657 residents as of 2011.Cetinje is the centre of Cetinje Municipality. The city rests on a small karst plain surrounded by limestone mountains, including Mount Lovćen, the legendary mountain in Montenegrin historiography.

Cetinje was founded in the 15th century and became a center of Montenegrin life and both a cradle of Montenegrin culture and an Orthodox religious center. Its status as the honorary capital of Montenegro is due to its heritage as a long-serving former capital of Montenegro.

Cetinje Octoechos

The Cetinje Octoechos (Serbian: Цетињски октоих or Cetinjski oktoih) is an Orthodox liturgical book printed in 1494 in Cetinje, the capital of the Principality of Zeta (present-day Montenegro). It is the first incunabulum written in the Serbian recension of Church Slavonic, as well as the first book printed in Cyrillic in Southeast Europe. The octoechos was produced under the direction of Hieromonk Makarije at the Crnojević printing house, which was founded in 1493 by Đurađ Crnojević, the ruler of Zeta. Printed in two instalments, its first volume contains the hymns to be sung to the first four tones of the Octoechos system of musical modes, and the hymns for the remaining four tones are included in the second volume. The two volumes are called Octoechos of the First Tone (Oktoih prvoglasnik) and Octoechos of the Fifth Tone (Oktoih petoglasnik), respectively.

Crnojević printing house

The Crnojević printing house (Serbian: Штампарија Црнојевића) or Cetinje printing house (Цетињска штампарија), was the first printing house in Southeastern Europe; the facility operated between 1493 and 1496 in Cetinje, Zeta (modern Montenegro).It was founded by Đurađ Crnojević, the ruler of Zeta between 1490 and 1496. The printing press was operated by Serbian Orthodox monks at the supervision of hieromonk Makarije. The Crnojević printing press was also the first state press in the world. Five Orthodox liturgical books were printed in this printshop: Oktoih Prvoglasnik, Oktoih Petoglasnik, Psaltir, Trebnik (Molitvenik) and Cvetni Triod.

Octoechos of the First Tone (Oktoih provglasnik) is the first book printed in the Cyrillic script among the South Slavs. It was finished on 4 January 1494. There are 108 copies of this book existing. It contains 270 leaves sized 29 x 21,6 cm. It is characterized by high quality and clean two-coloured printing, red and black, with nicely shaped letters. It is decorated with headpieces and initials printed from woodcuts in the spirit of the Renaissance with traces of old manuscript traditions.

Octoechos of the Fifth Tone (Oktoih petoglasnik) represents the first illustrated South Slavic incunabulum. It is preserved in fragments, the longest one containing 37 leaves. It has six woodcut illustrations, made by an artist who managed to put rather complex compositions with many characters on a relatively small space.

Psalter with Additions (Psaltir s posledovanjem) was printed in 1495. It is not only of liturgical and conventional but also historical and literary significance. It is decorated with three headpieces and 27 initials repeated for 221 time. There are 36 complete and partial copies preserved. The National Library of Montenegro "Djurdje Crnojevic" published 650 facsimiles of the psalter in 1986.

Kara Mahmud Pasha

Kara Mahmud Pasha (Turkish: Kara Mahmud Paşa, fl. 1749–22 September 1796) was a hereditary Ottoman governor (mutasarrıf) of the Sanjak of Scutari (known in historiography as Pashalik of Scutari), belonging to the Ottoman Albanian Bushati family (Buşatlı).

List of national and state libraries

A national library is established by the government of a nation to serve as the pre-eminent repository of information for that country. Unlike public libraries, they rarely allow citizens to borrow books. Often, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works; such as the Gutenberg Bible. National libraries are usually notable for their size, compared to that of other libraries in the same country. Some national libraries may be thematic or specialized in some specific domains, beside or in replacement of the 'main' national library.

Some national entities which are not independent but who wish to preserve their particular culture, have established a national library with all the attributes of such institutions, such as legal deposit.

Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to discuss their common tasks, define and promote common standards and carry out projects helping them to fulfil their duties. National libraries of Europe participate in The European Library. This is a service of The Conference of European National Librarians (CENL).

The list below is organized alphabetically by country, according to the list of sovereign states, including, at its end an 'other states' section for non-sovereign states. A "♦" indicates a national library of a constituent country or dependent state. It is listed under the sovereign state which governs that entity. Sovereign states are listed even when they have no national library or when the existence and name of a national library could not yet be ascertained. Other states, constituent countries and dependent states are listed only if they have a national library.

Marinko Pavićević

Marinko Pavićević (Cyrillic: Маринко Павићевић), is a Montenegrin singer, songwriter, guitarist and poet, whose musical style incorporates elements of chanson, pop rock, psychedelic and recital. During his career, Pavićević worked as an editor in Montenegrin RTV and during the decades, he was one of the most influential music producers in Montenegro.

Monastery of the Holy Trinity of Pljevlja

Holy Trinity Monastery, Pljevlja (Serbian: Света Тројица Пљеваљска) is a medieval Serbian Orthodox monastery complex (lavra) in Pljevlja, Montenegro. It is located about 37 miles north of Durmitor, and 24 miles from Đurđevića Tara Bridge.

Montenegro

Montenegro ( (listen); Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora [tsr̩̂ːnaː ɡɔ̌ra]) is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north; Serbia and the disputed country of Kosovo to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the west. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 678,901, most of whom are Orthodox Christians. Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.

During the Early Medieval period, three Serb principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. The independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, and by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852. Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year.

Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe and the Central European Free Trade Agreement. It is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Reževići Monastery

Reževići Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Режевићи) or The Monastery of Rezevići is a medieval Serbian Orthodox monastery located in Katun Reževići village between Budva and Petrovac in modern-day Montenegro. The monastery has two churches. According to a local legend, the 'Church of the Dormition of the Mother of God' was built in the 1220s by Stefan Nemanjić (Stefan the First-Crowned), the first king of Serbia while the 'Church of the Archdeacon Stefan' was built by Stephen Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia in 1351.

Vićenco Vuković

Vićentije "Vićenco" Vuković (Serbian Cyrillic: Вићентије Вуковић, Latin: Vincenzo della Vecchia; fl. 1560–71) was one of the major Serbian printers and editors in the Republic of Venice, and son of the predecessor, Božidar Vuković, and partner of Jerolim Zagurović, Jakov of Kamena Reka and Stefan Marinović. He had succeeded the noble title from his father (conte palladin), but was patriotically self-styled as Serbian Despot (Servie Despot), since the last official Serbian Despot, Pavle Bakić, had died in 1537.

His father's books were so popular that until 1561 Vićenco had only published reprints of his fathers books and successfully sold them. The reprints include Октоих петогласник reprinted in 1560, based on the 1537 edition.In 1561 Stefan Marinović printed his first book in printing house of Vićenco Vuković. Vuković's printing press was used by Jakov of Kamena Reka in 1566 when he printed the Book of Hours. In 1571 Jakov again rented printing press of Vićenco Vuković

Vuković printing house

The Vuković printing house (Serbian: Вуковићева штампарија) was 16th century printing house established in Venice by Božidar Vuković.

In the first period, when printing was organized by Božidar Vuković, the editors and printers were Hieromonk Pahomije (1519–21) and Hierodeacon Mojsije (1536–40). In 1560 Božidar's son Vićenco Vuković inherited the printing house and for a year only reprinted his father's books. In 1561 he started printing his own publications. Initially they were edited and printed by Stefan Marinović and later by Jakov of Kamena Reka.

The books printed in Vuković printing house were srbulje, liturgical books in Serbo-Slavonic, the Serbian written language between the 12th century and the 1830s. Vuković printing house printed the largest number of srbulje and was the first printing house that printed srbulje on parchment. The books printed in Vuković printing house were distributed by Ragusan traders over the territory of Balkans under the Ottoman control, i.e. Belgrade, Nicopolis, Vidin etc. Mileševa was center for their distribution. They were richly decorated, very popular and had significant influence on printers of books on Russian, Greek and Romanian language.

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