The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Act was signed into law in 2006 (Public Law 109-430). The Western Governors' Association described the need for NIDIS in a 2004 report, Creating a Drought Early Warning System for the 21st Century: The National Integrated Drought Information System. The NIDIS Act calls for an interagency, multi-partner approach to drought monitoring, forecasting, and early warning, led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
NIDIS is being developed to consolidate data on drought’s physical, hydrological, and socio-economic impacts on an ongoing basis, to develop drought decision support and simulation tools for critical, drought-sensitive areas, and to enable proactive planning by those affected by drought.
NIDIS draws on the personnel, experience, and networks of the National Drought Mitigation Center, the NOAA Regional Climate Centers, and the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs), among others. Federal agencies and departments partnering in NIDIS include the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey, NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service.
NIDIS is building on existing system infrastructure, data, and operational products from various agencies. For example, it incorporates data from the SNOTEL (SNOw TELemetry) network of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service, reservoir and streamflow levels from the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and river forecasts from the National Weather Service. It incorporates operational products such as the U.S. Drought Monitor and the Seasonal Drought Outlook. Researchers are working to help decision-makers in many contexts by making drought monitoring, forecasting, and impacts information available at a variety of spatial scales and geopolitical boundaries, including regional, watershed, county and tribal. NIDIS is a prototype for information services, in support of preparing for and adapting to climate variation and change. In late 2007, NIDIS launched the U.S. Drought Portal, or drought.gov, a website that pulls together many federal, state, and academic resources for monitoring drought.
The NIDIS Program is supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office and is housed at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, and the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world (larger than the United Kingdom, France, or India), and the 36th most populous as of 2017. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1.253 trillion and $907 billion respectively as of 2017), after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 (~$94,000) among large PSAs, and is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people.California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation, environmentalism and politics. It is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, and the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a very diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state.California is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with the coast being on the west). The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time, drought and wildfires have become more pervasive features.What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California then was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.Drought Information Act of 2013
The Drought Information Act of 2013 (S. 376) is a bill that would authorize funding for the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) through 2018. The NIDIS is "charged with providing timely information to prevent drought and extreme weather damage."The bill passed in the United States Senate during the 113th United States Congress. A similar bill, the National Integrated Drought Information System Reauthorization Act of 2013 (H.R. 2431; 113th Congress), was introduced in the United States House of Representatives and considered around the same time. That bill became Pub.L. 113–86 on March 6, 2014.Droughts in the United States
Drought in the United States is similar to that of other portions of the globe. Below normal precipitation leads to drought, which is caused by an above average persistence of high pressure over the drought area. Changes in the track of extratropical cyclones, which can occur during climate cycles such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or ENSO, as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, modulates which areas would be more prone to drought and when drought develops. Increased drought frequency is expected to be one of the effects of global warming. In dry areas, removing grass cover and going with a more natural vegetation for the area can reduce the impact of drought, since a significant amount of fresh water is used to keep lawns green. Droughts are periodic, alternating with floods over a series of years.
The worst droughts in the history of the United States occurred during the 1930s and 1950s, periods of time known as 'Dust Bowl' years in which droughts lead to significant economic damages and social changes. In particular, relief and health agencies became overburdened and many local community banks had to close.List of acts of the 109th United States Congress
The acts of the 109th United States Congress includes all Acts of Congress and ratified treaties by the 109th United States Congress, which lasted from January 3, 2005 to January 3, 2007
Acts include public and private laws, which are enacted after being passed by Congress and signed by the President, however if the President vetos a bill it can still be enacted by a two-thirds vote in both houses. The Senate alone considers treaties, which are ratified by a two-thirds vote.List of acts of the 113th United States Congress
The acts of the 113th United States Congress includes all Acts of Congress and ratified treaties by the 113th United States Congress, which lasted from January 3, 2013 to January 3, 2015.
Acts include public and private laws, which are enacted after being passed by Congress and signed by the President, however if the President vetos a bill it can still be enacted by a two-thirds vote in both houses. The Senate alone considers treaties, which must be ratified by a two-thirds vote.List of acts of the 115th United States Congress
The list of acts of the 115th United States Congress includes all Acts of Congress and ratified treaties by the 115th United States Congress, which began on January 3, 2017, and ended on January 3, 2019.
Acts include public and private laws, which are enacted after being passed by Congress and signed by the President; however, if the President vetoes a bill it can still be enacted by a two-thirds vote in both houses. The Senate alone considers treaties, which are ratified by a two-thirds vote.
The first public law enacted in the 115th Congress (Pub.L. 115–1) was the last law signed by President Barack Obama, and he signed it into law in the Capitol in the last hour of his presidency on January 20, 2017, shortly before the inauguration of his successor. All subsequent acts of this Congress signed into law (beginning with Pub.L. 115–2 which was signed later the same day) were signed by President Donald Trump. the 115th Congress enacted 442 statutes and ratified 6 treaties.List of bills in the 113th United States Congress
The bills of the 113th United States Congress list includes proposed federal laws that were introduced in the 113th United States Congress. This Congress lasted from January 3, 2013 to January 3, 2015.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the lower house known as the House of Representatives and the upper house known as the Senate. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. The bills listed below are arranged on the basis of which chamber they were first introduced in, and then chronologically by date.
Once a bill is approved by one house, it is sent to the other which may pass, reject, or amend it. For the bill to become law, both houses must agree to identical versions of the bill. After passage by both houses, a bill is enrolled and sent to the president for signature or veto. Bills from the 113th Congress that have successfully completed this process become law and are listed as Acts of the 113th United States Congress.Mark Pryor
Mark Lunsford Pryor (born January 10, 1963) is an American attorney and politician who served as a United States Senator from Arkansas from 2003 to 2015. While he ran for office as a Democrat and affiliates with the Democratic party, he registered to vote with no party affiliation. Prior to becoming senator, he was Attorney General of Arkansas from 1999 to 2003.
Born in Fayetteville, Arkansas, Pryor is the son of former Arkansas Governor and U.S. Senator David Pryor. He received his bachelor's degree and law degree from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. He worked in private practice for several years until being elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 1990. He was elected the state Attorney General in 1998. Pryor announced his candidacy for the U.S. Senate in 2001, running for the same Senate seat his father had held from 1979 to 1997. He was elected with 54% of the vote, defeating Republican incumbent Tim Hutchinson.
He was reelected with no Republican opposition in 2008. During the 112th Congress he served as the chairman of the Commerce Subcommittee on Consumer Protection, Product Safety, and Insurance. Pryor ran for reelection in 2014, but was defeated by Republican Tom Cotton.National Information systems
National Information systems may refer to:
National Historical Geographic Information System
National Library and Information System
National Integrated Drought Information System
National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory Memoranda
National Education Information System
National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems
National Information Systems, Inc. (founded 1972), vendor of Accent RNational Integrated Drought Information System Reauthorization Act of 2013
The National Integrated Drought Information System Reauthorization Act of 2013 (H.R. 2431) is a bill that would reauthorize the National Integrated Drought Information System, a program that examines the impact of droughts and tries to respond to them on a federal level. The bill would extend the program until 2018.The National Integrated Drought Information System Reauthorization Act of 2013 was introduced into the 113th United States Congress. A similar measure, the Drought Information Act of 2013 (S. 376; 113th Congress), was introduced into and passed the United States Senate. President Barack Obama signed the National Integrated Drought Information System Reauthorization Act of 2013 into law as Pub.L. 113–86 on March 6, 2014.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, like Noah) is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, and conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment.
NOAA was officially formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees. Its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps.Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator.Palmer drought index
The Palmer drought index, sometimes called the Palmer drought severity index and often abbreviated PDSI, is a measurement of dryness based on recent precipitation and temperature. It was developed by meteorologist Wayne Palmer, who first published his method in the 1965 paper Meteorological Drought for the Office of Climatology of the U.S. Weather Bureau.
The Palmer Drought Index is based on a supply-and-demand model of soil moisture. Supply is comparatively straightforward to calculate, but demand is more complicated as it depends on many factors, not just temperature and the amount of moisture in the soil but also hard-to-calibrate factors including evapotranspiration and recharge rates. Palmer tried to overcome these difficulties by developing an algorithm that approximated them based on the most readily available data, precipitation and temperature.
The index has proven most effective in determining long-term drought, a matter of several months, but it is not as good with conditions over a matter of weeks. It uses a 0 as normal, and drought is shown in terms of negative numbers; for example, negative 2 is moderate drought, negative 3 is severe drought, and negative 4 is extreme drought. Palmer's algorithm also is used to describe wet spells, using corresponding positive numbers. Palmer also developed a formula for standardizing drought calculations for each individual location based on the variability of precipitation and temperature at that location. The Palmer index can therefore be applied to any site for which sufficient precipitation and temperature data is available.
Critics have complained that the utility of the Palmer index is weakened by the arbitrary nature of Palmer's algorithms, including the technique used for standardization. The Palmer index's inability to account for snow and frozen ground also is cited as a weakness.The Palmer index is widely used operationally, with Palmer maps published weekly by the United States Government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It also has been used by climatologists to standardize global long-term drought analysis. Global Palmer data sets have been developed based on instrumental records beginning in the 19th century. In addition, dendrochronology has been used to generate estimated Palmer index values for North America for the past 2000 years, allowing analysis of long term drought trends. It has also been used as a means of explaining the late Bronze Age collapse.
In the US, regional Palmer maps are featured on the cable channel Weatherscan.Roger Pulwarty
Roger S. Pulwarty is a scientist from Trinidad and Tobago and contributed to the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). He is the director of the US National Integrated Drought Information System at the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado.
Roger Pulwarty earned a B.S. degree (Hons.) in Atmospheric Sciences from York University in Toronto in 1986 and a Ph.D. in Climatology from the University of Boulder at Colorado in 1994, where he worked under Professors Roger Barry and Herbert Riehl. His research and publications are on climate, climate impacts and adaptation policy in Western North America, Latin America and the Caribbean. From 1998-2002 he was the program director for the NOAA Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments. He is Professor Adjunct at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the University of the West Indies.
Dr. Pulwarty is a lead author on Chapter 17 of the 2007 IPCC Working Group II on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, on the IPCC 2008 Technical Report on Climate Change and Water and on Synthesis and Assessments Reports of the US Global Change Research Program. The IPCC is an intergovernmental body mandated by the UN to study the origins and effects of climate change on society and ecosystems. Dr. Pulwarty has served on Committees of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and has provided testimonies before the U.S. Congress on climate, water resources and adaptation. Dr. Pulwarty acts in advisory roles on climate, natural resources, and disaster management to several U.S. and international interests including the Western Governors Association, the Department of the Interior, the governments of CARICOM (the Caribbean Economic Community), the Organization of American States, the UNDP, UNEP and the World Bank.