In March 1969, Sparlin Norwood, Cherokee, a teacher at Central Junior High School in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, organized a National Conference of Indian teachers at the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon, as part of his NEA position.
In 1969, Rosemary Christensen organized a National Conference on Indian education as part of her work at the Midwest Regional Educational Laboratory (UMREL) located in Minneapolis. The planning committee members were primarily from the greater Minneapolis area but the participants came from different parts of the country and agreed that such a conference should be held again. At the conclusion of this first conference Rosemary Christensen was asked by the Minnesota group to discuss the idea of national organization of Indian educators while at the Convocation of American Indian Scholars, held at Princeton University, March 1970.
Jeannette Henry Costo and Rupert Costo with a Ford Foundation grant helped plan the First Convocation of American Indian Scholars. This brought together a mix of Indian educators that were actively involved in the education of Native students in elementary, secondary schools, and university programs. Sparlin Norwood, William Demmert, Rosemary Christensen attended this conference. The mix of Indian educators found a common interest and formed a discussion group to consider future activity that would bring them together periodically to address national Indian education issues and to learn from each other. The leading organizers of this discussion group included Sparlin Norwood, Hershal (Ace) Shamant, Marigold Linton, Rosemary Christensen, John Winchester, Liz Whiteman, Dillon Platero, and William Demmert and Ned Hatathli, who would all become members of the first "National Indian Education Association" Board of Directors). There were other participants that participated as observers and discussants including George Scott, Carl Downing, Sam Billison, Lee Antell and several others.
This group decided on being an independent organization, and chose "National Indian Education Association" as the name under which it would be incorporated. Rosemary Christensen was assisted by Gordon J. Amundson to file papers for incorporation. The officers, the board members, and other organizational requirements were carried out at the 1970 National Indian Education Association Conference.
The National Indian Education Association (NIEA) was incorporated on August 21, 1970 (File number 1646) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The original signatures of the incorporation papers were Rosemary Christensen, Elgie Raymond, and Will Antell.
ACT, Inc. is an American 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization (NTEE classification B90, Educational Services, per the IRS), primarily known for the ACT, a standardized test designed to assess high school students' academic achievement and college readiness. For the U.S. high school graduating class of 2018, 55 percent of graduates had taken the ACT test; the more than 1.9 million students included virtually all high school graduates in 20 states.Founded in Iowa City, Iowa, in 1959, the organization has more than 1,000 employees. Its CEO is Marten Roorda, who assumed leadership of ACT in 2015. Previous CEOs include Jon Whitmore (2010–2015), Richard L. Ferguson. (1988–2010), and Oluf Davidsen (1974–1988).
In addition to the ACT test, ACT programs include ACT Aspire, PreACT, ACT Tessera, ACT CollegeReady, ACT WorkKeys, and the National Career Readiness Certificate.Adrienne Keene
Adrienne J. Keene (born 20 October 1985) is an American and Native American academic, writer, and activist. A member of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, she is the founder of Native Appropriations, a blog on contemporary Indigenous issues analyzing the way that indigenous peoples are represented in popular culture, covering issues of cultural appropriation in fashion and music and stereotyping in film and other media. She is also assistant professor of American Studies and Ethnic Studies at Brown University, where her research focuses on educational outcomes for Native students.Albert White Hat
Albert White Hat (November 18, 1938 – June 13, 2013) was a teacher of the Lakota language, and an activist for Sičháŋǧu Lakȟóta traditional culture. He translated the Lakota language for Hollywood movies, including the 1990 movie Dances with Wolves, and created a modern Lakota orthography and textbook.Cheryl Metoyer-Duran
Cheryl Metoyer is a Cherokee researcher and professor of library and information science. Her research is focused on Indigenous systems of knowledge, especially in relation to American Indian and Alaskan tribal nations, as well as ethics and leadership in cultural communities. She holds the position of Associate Professor Emeritus and the Director of the Indigenous Information Research Group (IIRG) at the iSchool at the University of Washington.Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek was the mascot (often referred to by supporters as the "symbol") of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (UIUC), associated with the University's intercollegiate athletic programs, from October 30, 1926 to February 21, 2007. Chief Illiniwek was portrayed by a student to represent the Illiniwek, the state's namesake, although the regalia worn was from the Sioux. The student portraying Chief Illiniwek performed during halftime of Illinois football and basketball games, as well as during women's volleyball matches.
For more than two decades, Chief Illiniwek has been the center of a controversy between fans and alumni who view "the Chief" as part of UIUC tradition; while Native American individuals and organization, social scientists, and educators view such mascots as cultural appropriation of indigenous images and rituals, which perpetuate stereotypes about American Indian peoples. In 2005, Chief Illiniwek was one of 19 mascots cited as "hostile or abusive" by the NCAA in a policy that banned schools from full participation in postseason activities as long as they continued to use such mascots.The University of Illinois retired Chief Illiniwek in 2007, with his last official performance on February 21, 2007. However, the controversy has continued because UIUC has not selected a replacement, while an unofficial "Chief" continues to appear at games and other events. A non-binding resolution to make "Alma Otter" the official mascot was placed on the spring 2019 student election ballot, but failed to receive a majority, although some see the vote as a sign of progress. However, following the 2019 release of the Chancellor's report on the Commission on Native Imagery: Healing and Reconciliation, both sides of the debate remain divided.Dean Chavers
Dean Chavers is the director of Catching the Dream, formerly known as the Native American Scholarship fund. The organization has produced 679 Native American college graduates since 1987, including 110 educators, 38 doctors, 28 engineers, 104 business graduates, and 110 scientists.Esther Martinez Native American Languages Preservation Act
The Esther Martinez Native American Languages Preservation Act funds programs that work "to preserve Native American languages." It is named for Esther Martinez, a teacher and storyteller who lived to be 94 years old, and was nationally known for her dedication to preserving the Tewa language. "She was killed in a car accident on September 18, , just days after receiving a National Heritage Fellowship award for her efforts to preserve the Tewa language."The Voice of America featured a four-part series in September 2012 "on keeping traditions alive", reporting:
"United States Representative Heather Wilson of New Mexico wrote the bill to help stop American Indian languages from disappearing. She says languages are an important part of American heritage and, once lost, will never be recovered.
The purpose of the law is to help keep Native American languages alive through language immersion programs. In immersion programs, the native language is used most of the time to teach different subjects and to communicate with students.Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights
The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights (The Leadership Conference), formerly called the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, is an umbrella group of American civil rights interest groups.Lee Francis
Elias Lee Francis III (ca. 1945 – 7 July 2003) was a Laguna Pueblo-Anishinaabe poet, educator, and founder of the Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers.Lumbee
The Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina is a state-recognized tribe numbering approximately 55,000 enrolled members, most of them living primarily in Robeson, Hoke, Cumberland and Scotland counties. The Lumbee Tribe is the largest tribe in North Carolina, the largest tribe east of the Mississippi River and the ninth largest in the nation. The Lumbee take their name from the Lumbee River which winds its way through Robeson County. Pembroke, North Carolina is the economic, cultural and political center of the tribe. The Lumbee Tribe was recognized as a Native American tribe by the United States Congress in 1956 under conditions that it agreed to at the time, which did not allow them to have benefits available to other federally recognized tribes. According to the 2000 United States Census report, 89% of the population of the town of Pembroke, North Carolina, identify as Lumbee; 40% of Robeson County's population identify as Lumbee.
The Lumbee are one of eight state-recognized Native American tribes in North Carolina; they have been recognized by the state since 1885. They participate at the state level in many ways, including in the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs. They also participate in such national organizations as the National Congress of American Indians and the National Indian Education Association.Marigold Linton
Marigold Linton (born 1936) is a cognitive psychologist and member of the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians. In 1974 she co–founded the National Indian Education Association. Her research in long term memory is widely cited in psychology. She is director for mathematics and science initiatives in the University of Texas system, where she is responsible for bringing minority students into those two fields. She has been president of the Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science.Montana Office of Public Instruction
The Montana Office of Public Instruction (OPI) is the state education agency of Montana. Elsie Arntzen currently serves as the Montana Superintendent of Public Instruction. The agency is headquartered in Helena.
The people of Montana have elected a State Superintendent of Instruction as one of the five members of the Executive Branch since 1889. By law, the State Superintendent has general supervision of the K-12 public schools and districts. The State Superintendent also serves as a member of the Land Board, the State Library Commission, and as an ex officio non-voting member of the Board of Public Education, the Board of Regents for the University System, and the Board of Education.NIEA
NIEA may refer to:
National Indian Education Association
Nazarene International Education Association
NieA_7 anime title and character
Northern Ireland Environment Agency
National Indie Excellence AwardsNative American civil rights
Native American civil rights are the civil rights of Native Americans in the United States. Native Americans are citizens of their clanic nations as well as the United States, and those clanic nations are characterized under the Law of the United States as "domestic dependent nations", a special relationship that creates a particular tension between rights retained via tribal sovereignty and rights that individual Natives obtained as U.S. citizens. This status creates tension today, but was far more extreme before Native people were uniformly granted U.S. citizenship in 1924. Assorted laws and policies of the United States government, some tracing to the pre-Revolutionary colonial period, denied basic human rights—particularly in the areas of cultural expression and travel—to indigenous people.Though it is difficult to summarize the many tribes and peoples Native to the land that is now owned by the United States, there are some rights that nearly all Native Americans are still actively pursuing. These include the protection of rights to voting, and the resistance to cultural assimilation of Native Americans. Many tribes that live on Indian reservations are currently facing the destruction of surrounding environments and water sources, depressed economies, violence against women, and drug and alcohol addiction crises.Oscar Kawagley
Angayuqaq Oscar Kawagley (November 8, 1934 - April 27, 2011), best known as Oscar Kawagley, was a Yup'ik anthropologist, teacher and actor from Alaska. He was an associate professor of education at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks until his death in 2011. The Anchorage Daily News described him as "one of (Alaska's) most influential teachers and thinkers".Pan-Indianism
Pan-Indigenousism, formerly Pan-Indianism, is a philosophy and movement promoting unity among different Indigenous American groups in the Americas regardless of tribal or local affiliations. Some academics use the term pan-Amerindianism to distinguish from other territories called Indian. The movement is largely associated with Native Americans in the Continental United States, but has spread to other indigenous groups as well. A parallel growth of the concept has occurred in Alaska and Canada. There, however, other indigenous people, such as the Inuit and the Métis are often included in a wider rubric, sometimes called pan-Aboriginal or some variation thereof.Pan-Indian organizations seek to pool the resources of indigenous groups in order to protect the interests of native peoples across the world.Rez Biz
Rez Biz is the title of an American monthly magazine initially distributed in Arizona and New Mexico. The magazine is targeted to Native Americans who are interested in running their own businesses and seeking success stories. Its goal is to improve the economic living conditions of Native Americans.Richard Sneed
Richard G. Sneed is the 28th Principal Chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. He succeeded prior Principal Chief Patrick Lambert following Lambert's impeachment, only the second such impeachment since the 19th century.Utah Utes
The Utah Utes are the intercollegiate athletics teams that represent the University of Utah, located in Salt Lake City. They are named after the Ute tribe of Native Americans. The men's basketball team is known as the "Runnin' Utes"; the women's gymnastics team is known as the "Red Rocks".
Currently Utah competes in the Pac-12 Conference, after it was announced on June 17, 2010, that the Utes would join the conference in all sports, beginning in the 2011–2012 academic year. They are the third Pac-12 member to have previously spent time in the Western Athletic Conference (WAC), joining old conference rivals Arizona and Arizona State. They are also the first school to leave the Mountain West Conference (MW) since it was formed in 1999.
Utah offers a total of 19 varsity sports—seven for men, 11 for women, and one coeducational. Baseball, football, golf, and lacrosse are sponsored for men only. Beach volleyball, cross country, gymnastics, indoor track & field, indoor volleyball, outdoor track & field, soccer, and softball are sponsored for women only. Basketball, swimming & diving, and tennis are sponsored for both sexes. The coeducational sport is skiing; while schools have separate men's and women's squads, the NCAA awards a single national team championship. Utah's newest varsity sport is men's lacrosse, which will play its first season in 2019 (2018–19 school year).