National Historic Sites of Canada

National Historic Sites of Canada (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC), as being of national historic significance.[1][2] Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program. As of October 2018, there are 987 National Historic Sites,[3][4] 171 of which are administered by Parks Canada; the remainder are administered or owned by other levels of government or private entities.[5] The sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France (the Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial and Canadian National Vimy Memorial).[6]

There are related federal designations for National Historic Events and National Historic Persons.[7] Sites, Events and Persons are each typically marked by a federal plaque of the same style, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given. The Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site, while the Welland Canal is a National Historic Event.[8]

Fort Howe New Brunswick 2009
Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick; its designation in 1914 marked the beginning of the emerging system of National Historic Sites

History

Early developments

Tricentenaire de Québec
The celebrations of Quebec City's tricentennial in 1908 acted as a catalyst for federal efforts to designate and preserve historic sites.
Churchill Fort Prince of Wales 1996-08-12
Prince of Wales Fort in Churchill, Manitoba was one of the first two sites designated in Western Canada.[9]

Emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canada's historic sites.[10] There were galvanizing precedents in other countries. With the support of notables such as Victor Hugo and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, the Commission des monuments historique was created in France in 1837; it published its first list of designated sites, containing 934 entries, in 1840. In the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that country's historic and natural heritage.[11][12] While there was no National Park Service in the United States until 1916, battlefields of the Civil War were designated and managed by the War Department: Chickamauga and Chattanooga (created 1890), Antietam (1890), Shiloh (1894), Gettysburg (1895), Vicksburg (1899), and Chalmette (1907).[13][14]

Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canada's historic sites. He was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, and he was the first public official to call for the creation of a park on the lands next to Niagara Falls.[14][15]

The 1908 tricentennial of the founding of Quebec City, and the establishment that same year of the National Battlefields Commission to preserve the Plains of Abraham, acted as a catalyst for federal efforts to designate and preserve historic sites across Canada.[16] At the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada.[10] The more populated east did not have the same large expanses of undeveloped Crown land that had become parks in the west, so the Dominion Parks Branch (the predecessor to Parks Canada) looked to historic features to act as focal points for new national parks. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of historic sites in Canada, with the objective of creating new recreational areas rather than preserving historic places. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a national historic park in 1914, named the "Fort Howe National Park". The fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, but its designation provided a rationale for the acquisition of land for a park. Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was also designated in 1917.[17]

In 1919, William James Roche, the Minister of the Interior, was concerned over the fate of old fur trade posts in Western Canada, and he was also being lobbied by historical associations across Canada for federal funds to assist with the preservation and commemoration of local landmarks. At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, and the associated expenses, to the Parks Branch. Roche asked James B. Harkin, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. Harkin believed that the Parks Branch did not have the necessary expertise to manage historic resources; he was troubled by the relatively weak historic value of Fort Howe, the country's first historic park, and feared that the Branch's park improvements were incompatible with the heritage attributes of Fort Anne, the second historic park.[18]

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada

Forteresse de Louisbourg
The initial focus of the program was strictly on commemoration rather than preservation or restoration. The ruins of the Fortress of Louisbourg were designated in 1920, but efforts to restore the fortress did not commence until 1961.[19]

On Harkin's recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation (later called the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada) in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites.[10] Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, a noted authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Board's first chairman, a post he held for twenty years.[20] The first place designated and plaqued under the new program was the "Cliff Site" in Port Dover, Ontario, where two priests claimed sovereignty over the Lake Erie region for Louis XIV of France in 1670.[21]

Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, and the focus of the program was on commemoration rather than on preservation. Benjamin Sulte, a member of the HSMBC, wrote to Harkin in 1919 about the significant ruins at the Forges du Saint-Maurice, demonstrating his preference for the installation of a plaque over restoration: "All that can be done in our days is to clear away the heap of stones, in order to reach the foundation walls and plant a sign in the centre of the square thus uncovered."[22]

In the early years of the program, National Historic Sites were chosen to commemorate battles, important men, the fur trade and political events; the focus was on the "great men and events" credited with establishing the nation.[16][23] Of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943, 105 represented military history, 52 represented the fur trade and exploration, and 43 represented famous individuals (almost entirely men). There was also a strong bias in favour of commemorating sites in Ontario over other parts of the country. At one point, some members of the HSMBC concluded that there were no sites at all in Prince Edward Island worthy of designation. The then prominence of sites in Ontario related to the War of 1812 and the United Empire Loyalists has been attributed to the influence of Cruikshank, resulting in a "veritable palisade of historical markers along the St. Lawrence", and in Niagara, promoting a loyalist doctrine of imperial unity with Britain, while commemorating resistance to "Americanism".[24] Proposals to designate sites related to the immigration of Jews, Blacks and Ukrainians to Canada were rejected, as were attempts to recognize patriots of the Rebellions of 1837.[25][26] Such was the view of Canadian history by the Board in the first half of the 20th century. The HSMBC at the time has been described by historian Yves Yvon Pelletier as a "Victorian gentlemen's club", made up of self-taught historical scholars, whose decisions were made without public consultation and without the benefit of a secretariat to further investigate the recommendations of Board members.[27]

The following have served as members of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada:.

Name Province Year Joined Year Left Additional
E.A Cruikshank Ontario 1919 1939 Board Chairman 1919- 1939
James Coyne Ontario 1919 1932
Frederic Howay British Columbia 1923 1944 Board Chairman 1943- 1944
Fred Landon Ontario 1932 1958 Board Chairman 1950- 1958
W.N. Sage British Columbia 1944 1959
Harry Walker Ontario 1955 1959
Donald Creighton Ontario 1958 1972
A.R.M. Lower Ontario 1959 1961
Margaret Ormsby British Columbia 1960 1967
James J. Talman Ontario 1961 1973
James Nesbitt British Columbia 1967 1971
Margaret Prang British Columbia 1971 1979
J.M.S Careless Ontario 1972 1985 Board Chairman 1981- 1985
B. Napier Simpson Ontario 1973 1978
Charles Humphries British Columbia 1979 -
Edward Storey Ontario 1981 1987
Thomas H.B Symons Ontario 1986 - Board Chairman 1986-
John H. White Ontario 1988 -

Evolution of the program

Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park, Alberta
Áísínai’pi, a location of significant cultural and religious importance to the Blackfoot people, was designated in 2006.[28]
Hôtel de ville de Westmount
The historic district of Westmount, Quebec was designated in 2011 in recognition of the efforts of local citizens who had worked for decades to protect the district's historic built environment.[29][30]

As time passed and the system grew, the scope of the program and the nature of the designations evolved. By the 1930s, the focus of the heritage movement in Canada had shifted from commemoration to preservation and development. The change was most marked in Ontario, where the Niagara Parks Commission was restoring Fort George and the Department of Highways was restoring Fort Henry. It took the Great Depression to create opportunities for significant heritage preservation projects at the federal level. Although the HSMBC took little interest in these efforts, limiting itself to a commemorative role, the Parks Branch made wide use of government relief funds to hire workers to assist with the restoration of old forts.[31]

In 1943, the interim chairman of the HSMBC, Frederic William Howay, urged his fellow Board members to consider a broader range of designations, and to correct the geographic and thematic imbalance in the designations. In particular, Howay encouraged the HSMBC to pay more attention to economic, social and cultural history, and he urged a moratorium on additional designations related to the War of 1812.[32][33] In 1951, the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences highlighted the imbalances of the National Historic Sites program, urging a more ambitious program with more attention paid to architectural preservation. In 1955, the Historic Sites and Monuments Act was amended to allow the designation of buildings due to their age or design, resulting in a new focus on the designation of Canada's built heritage.[34][35] The 1950s also marked the beginning of the "big project" era, which reached its apogee in the 1960s, in which the federal government invested significant funds in the restoration and reconstruction of high-profile National Historic Sites such as the Halifax Citadel, the Fortress of Louisbourg, the fortifications of Quebec City and the historic core of Dawson City.[36]

The 1970s marked the start of a new shift in the nature of the designations. Of the 473 National Historic Sites designated between 1971 and 1993, the formerly dominant category of political-military events represented only 12 percent of the new designations, with the "Battle of..."-type commemorations being overtaken by sites associated with federal politics. The largest group of designations (43 percent) pertained to historic buildings.[37] By the 1990s, three groups were identified as being underrepresented among National Historic Sites: Aboriginal peoples, women, and ethnic groups other than the French and the English. Efforts were subsequently made to further diversify the designations accordingly.[16][23] Saoyú-ʔehdacho in the Northwest Territories was designated in 1997, becoming the first National Historic Site both designated and acquired on the basis of consultation with Aboriginal peoples, and the largest National Historic Site in land area (approximately the size of Prince Edward Island).[38] It was at this time that the use of the term "National Historic Park", then still used for the class of larger National Historic Sites operated by Parks Canada and deemed to be of "extraordinary value to Canadian history", was phased out.[35][39][40]

Changes were not limited to new designations, as the interpretation of many existing National Historic Sites did not remain static and evolved over time. For example, the commemoration of National Historic Sites on the Prairies related to the Red River Rebellion and the North-West Rebellion has gone through at least three phases to date. In the 1920s, plaques erected at these sites trumpeted the expansion of Canada and western civilization across North America. Due to local pressures, changes at the HSMBC and evolving historiography, texts introduced in the 1950s avoided the previous triumphalist version of events, but also avoided any analysis of the causes or consequences of the events. Commencing in the 1970s, a changing approach to heritage conservation at Parks Canada, coupled with growing regionalism and a more assertive Aboriginal rights movement, led to the next generation of interpretative documents, one that included a focus on the societies which Canada's 19th-century expansion had displaced.[33]

Designations

Glengarry Landing Stone Cairn Ontario Canada
Plaques affixed to cairns were initially used to mark National Historic Sites, such as this one at Glengarry Landing in Ontario

National Historic Sites are organized according to five broad themes: Peopling the Land, Governing Canada, Developing Economies, Building Social and Community Life, and Expressing Intellectual and Cultural Life.[41] To be commemorated, a site must meet at least one of the following criteria:

  • illustrate an exceptional creative achievement in concept and design, technology or planning, or a significant stage in the development of Canada;
  • illustrate or symbolize, in whole or in part, a cultural tradition, a way of life or ideas important to the development of Canada;
  • be explicitly and meaningfully associated or identified with persons who are deemed to be of national historic significance; or
  • be explicitly and meaningfully associated or identified with events that are deemed to be of national historic significance.[42]

Designation as a National Historic Site provides no legal protection for the historic elements of a site.[43] However, historic sites may be designated at more than one level (national, provincial and municipal),[16] and designations at other levels may carry with them some legal protections.

Most National Historic Sites are marked by a federal plaque bearing Canada's Coat of Arms.[44] In earlier years, these plaques were erected on purpose-built cairns,[10] and in later years have been attached to buildings or free-standing posts. These maroon and gold markers are typically in English and French, though some are trilingual where another language is relevant to the subject being commemorated.[45]

Lists of National Historic Sites by location

Lists of National Historic Sites by location Number of NHSes First NHS designated Example of NHS and designation date
Alberta sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Alberta 61 1923 Frog Lake National Historic Site (NHSC chart) Frog Lake (1923)
British Columbia sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in British Columbia 94 1923 Rogers Pass (NHSC chart) Rogers Pass (1971)
Manitoba sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Manitoba 57 1920 Exchange District (NHSC chart) Exchange District (1996)
New Brunswick sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in New Brunswick 63 1920 Hartland Covered Bridge (NHSC chart) Hartland Covered Bridge (1980)
Newfoundland and Labrador sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Newfoundland and Labrador 46 1951 Cabot Tower on Signal Hill (NHSC chart) Signal Hill (1951)
Nova Scotia sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Nova Scotia 90 1920 Pier 21 (NHSC chart) Pier 21 (1997)
Ontario sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Ontario 270 1919 McCrae House (NHSC chart) McCrae House (1966)
15 1929 Dundurn Castle (NHSC chart) Dundurn Castle (1997)
22 1923 Kingston City Hall (NHSC chart) Kingston City Hall (1961)
26 1921 Niagara on the Lake (NHSC chart) Niagara-on-the-Lake (2003)
26 1925 Parliament Hill (NHSC chart) Parliament Buildings (1976)
36 1923 Fort York (NHSC chart) Fort York (1923)
Prince Edward Island sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Prince Edward Island 22 1933 Green Gables (NHSC chart) L.M. Montgomery's Cavendish (2004)
Quebec sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec 197 1919 Île d'Orléans (NHSC chart) Île d'Orléans Seigneury (1990)
61 1920 Notre-Dame Basilica (NHSC chart) Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Basilica (1989)
37 1923 Château Frontenac (NHSC chart) Château Frontenac (1981)
Saskatchewan sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Saskatchewan 46 1923 Canadian Bank of Commerce (NHSC chart) Canadian Bank of Commerce (1976)
Northwest Territories sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in the Northwest Territories 12 1930 Church of Our Lady of Good Hope (NHSC chart) Church of Our Lady of Good Hope (1977)
Nunavut sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Nunavut 12 1964 Inuksuk Point (NHSC chart) Inuksuk Point (1969)
Yukon sites List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Yukon 11 1959 Dawson City (NHSC chart) Dawson Historical Complex (1959)
France List of National Historic Sites of Canada in France 2 1996 Vimy Ridge Monument at Twilight Vimy Ridge (1996)

See also

References

  1. ^ Historic Sites & Monuments Board of Canada. "About the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada - Duties". Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  2. ^ Historic Sites & Monuments Board of Canada. "Criteria, General Guidelines and Specific Guidelines - PLACES". Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  3. ^ Parks Canada Agency. Departmental Performance Report 2013–14. Parks Canada Agency. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  4. ^ Government of Canada Announces New National Historic Designations, Parks Canada news release, January 12, 2018
  5. ^ Parks Canada. "National Historic Sites of Canada - administered by Parks Canada". Archived from the original on May 29, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  6. ^ "National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan - Introduction". Parks Canada. 2000. Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  7. ^ "National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan - Persons of National Historic Significance, Events of National Historic Significance". Parks Canada. 2000. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  8. ^ Welland Canal National Historic Event, Parks Canada, 2012
  9. ^ Prince of Wales Fort. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d Historic Sites & Monuments Board of Canada. "About the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada - History of the Board". Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  11. ^ "De Victor Hugo à lord Dufferin". Patrimoine: Historique de la Loi sur les biens culturels. Ministère de la Culture, des Communications et de la Condition féminine. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  12. ^ Rapport d'information n°599, Au service d'une politique nationale du patrimoine : le rôle incontournable du Centre des monuments nationaux, Françoise Férat, 15 April 2012
  13. ^ The National Parks: Shaping the System, U.S. National Park Service, 2005, p. 41. Battlefields would not be administered by the National Park Service, however, until 1933.
  14. ^ a b Todhunter, Rodger (August 1985). "Preservation, parks and the vice-royalty Lord Dufferin and Lord Grey in Canada". Landscape Planning. 12 (2): 141–160. doi:10.1016/0304-3924(85)90057-7.
  15. ^ "History". Niagara Parks. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  16. ^ a b c d M. Fafard & C.J. Taylor. "Historic site". Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  17. ^ Taylor, C.J. (1990). Negotiating the Past: The Making of Canada's National Historic Parks and Sites. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. 28-9. ISBN 0-7735-0713-2.
  18. ^ Negotiating the Past: p. 30, 45
  19. ^ Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  20. ^ Symons, Thomas H.B. (ed.) (1997). The Place of History: Commemorating Canada's Past. Ottawa: Canadian Heritage. p. 333. ISBN 0-920064-58-2.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  21. ^ Recognizing Canadian History: The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Ottawa: Parks Canada. 1979. p. 49. ISBN 0-662-50533-6.
  22. ^ Negotiating the Past: p. 33-5, 51
  23. ^ a b Parks Canada. "National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan - Enhancing the System". Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  24. ^ Negotiating the Past: p. 6
  25. ^ The Place of History: p. 57
  26. ^ Negotiating the Past: p. 45, 48-9, 60, 75 and 130
  27. ^ Pelletier, Yves Yvon J. (2006). "The Politics of Selection: The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada and the Imperial Commemoration of Canadian History, 1919-1950". Journal of the Canadian Historical Association. 17 (1): 125–150. doi:10.7202/016105ar.
  28. ^ Áísínai'pi National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  29. ^ Westmount District. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  30. ^ "National Historic Designations, Historic Communities (Backgrounder)". News Releases and Backgrounders. Parks Canada. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  31. ^ Negotiating the Past: p. 101-3, 105, 109
  32. ^ Negotiating the Past: p. 130
  33. ^ a b Allan, McCullough (2002). "Parks Canada and the 1885 Rebellion/Uprising/Resistance". Prairie Forum. 27 (2): 161–198.
  34. ^ The Place of History: pp. 333-4
  35. ^ a b Recognizing Canadian History
  36. ^ Negotiating the Past: p. 170
  37. ^ Osborne, Brian S. (2001). "Landscapes, memory, monuments, and commemoration: putting identity in its place". Canadian Ethnic Studies. 33 (3): 39–77.
  38. ^ "Backgrounder". Signing of Memorandum of Understanding for Permanent Protection of Sahoyúé §ehdacho National Historic Site of Canada. Parks Canada. 11 March 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  39. ^ National Historic Sites Policy. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs - Parks Canada. 1972.
  40. ^ The Place of History: p. 334
  41. ^ Parks Canada. "National Historic Sites of Canada - Introduction". Archived from the original on February 18, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  42. ^ Parks Canada. "National Historic Sites of Canada - System Plan". Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  43. ^ Swinnerton, Guy S. & Buggey, Susan. "Protected Landscapes in Canada: Current Practice and Future Significance" (PDF). The George Wright Forum. George Wright Society. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  44. ^ Parks Canada. "National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan - Enhancing the System". Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  45. ^ Historic Sites & Monuments Board of Canada. "National Commemorative Plaques - Plaque Models". Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.

External links

Athabasca Pass

Athabasca Pass (el. 1,753 m or 5,751 ft) is a high mountain pass in the Canadian Rockies. It is the headwaters of the Whirlpool River, a tributary of the Athabasca River.

In fur-trade days it connected Jasper House on the Athabasca River with Boat Encampment on the Columbia River.

The pass lies between Mount Brown and McGillivray Ridge. It is south of Yellowhead Pass and north of Howse Pass.

The pass is first mentioned in the historical record in the papers of British explorer David Thompson, who was shown the route in 1811 by an Iroquois man named Thomas. The pass subsequently became a major point on the fur trade route between Rupert's Land and the Columbia District, used by the York Factory Express. The pass was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1971.

Cave and Basin National Historic Site

The Cave and Basin National Historic Site of Canada is located in the town of Banff, Alberta, within the Canadian Rocky Mountains, at the site of natural thermal mineral springs around which Canada's first national park, Banff National Park, was established.

Jasper House

Jasper House National Historic Site, in Jasper National Park, Alberta, is the site of a trading post on the Athabasca River that functioned in two different locations from 1813 to 1884 as a major staging and supply post for travel through the Canadian Rockies.

The post was originally named Rocky Mountain House, but was renamed to avoid confusion with the Rocky Mountain House trading post on the North Saskatchewan River, becoming "Jasper's House" after the postmaster, Jasper Hawes, who operated the post from 1814 to 1817. The first location is believed to have been at the outlet of Brûlé Lake, downstream from the present site. The second Jasper House was established at the northern end of Jasper Lake in 1830, primarily serving travellers crossing Yellowhead Pass or Athabasca Pass.

The site operated until 1853, and was occasionally used until 1858 when it was reopened seasonally by Henry John Moberly, who operated it into the 1860s. The post was officially closed in 1884 after years of inactivity. From 1891 or 1892 to 1894 the house was used by miner Lewis Swift. The building was destroyed in 1909 when its lumber was used to make a raft by surveyors for the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Apart from a small cemetery, no significant ruins remain. It was designated a national historic site in 1924, and is marked by a commemorative stone and plaque.

Kootanae House

Kootanae House, also spelled Kootenae House, was a North West Company fur trading post built by Jaco Finlay under the direction of David Thompson near present-day Invermere, British Columbia in 1807. It was abandoned in 1812. In 1808 Thompson reckoned its location as 50°32′12″N 115°56′15″W. The actual location is Kootenae House National Historic Site, located at 50.526624°N 116.045440°W / 50.526624; -116.045440 (the discrepancy is due to inaccuracies in Thompson's measurements).

The site was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1934.In July 2005, Parks Canada, in cooperation with several members of the Ktunaxa Nation conducted archaeological investigations at the site of Thompson's Kootanae House, near Invermere BC. Kootanae House was David Thompson's first post constructed in the Columbia Basin and his "jumping off point" for further explorations throughout the region. The Archaeology confirms that this site is the location of a North West Company trading posts and lays to rest some inconsistencies between the site and Thompson's description of the trading post.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Alberta

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Alberta. As of March 2018, there are 61 National Historic Sites designated in Alberta, 15 of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first three sites in Alberta were designated in 1923: the site of rival trading posts Fort Augustus and Fort Edmonton, the site of the Frog Lake Massacre and the site of the first outpost of the North-West Mounted Police in Western Canada at Fort Macleod.Numerous National Historic Events also occurred across Alberta, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way.

This list uses names designated by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in France

This is a list of National Historic Sites of Canada (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) in France. Canada has designated only two sites outside its borders as National Historic Sites, both of which are war memorials in northern France commemorating Canadian and Newfoundland losses in the First World War.Similar to the Sites, three National Historic Events have been designated in France, one related to the First World War, and two related to the Second World War. Both Sites and Events (and those for National Historic Persons, as well) are marked using the same style of federal plaque. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses the designation names as recognized by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, which may not necessarily be the official or colloquial names of the sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Hamilton, Ontario

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) in Hamilton, Ontario. There are 15 National Historic Sites designated in Hamilton, of which one (HMCS Haida) is administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). Burlington Heights was designated in 1929 and was the first site designated within what are now the boundaries of Hamilton.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Hamilton, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the city in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Ontario are listed at National Historic Sites in Ontario.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Kingston, Ontario

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) in Kingston, Ontario. There are 22 National Historic Sites designated in Kingston, including the Rideau Canal which extends from Ottawa and traverses 202 kilometres (126 mi) to Kingston. The following sites are administered by Parks Canada: Bellevue House, Kingston Fortifications, the Rideau Canal and Shoal Tower (identified below by the beaver icon ). Fort Henry and Fort Frontenac were both designated in 1923 and were the first sites designated in Kingston.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Kingston, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the city in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Ontario are listed at National Historic Sites in Ontario.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Montreal

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in Montreal, Quebec and surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal. As of 2018, there are 61 National Historic Sites in this region, of which four (Lachine Canal, Louis-Joseph Papineau, Sir George-Étienne Cartier and The Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site) are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The site of the village of Hochelaga was designated in 1920, and was the first site designated in Montreal.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Montreal, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the city in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Quebec are at List of National Historic Sites in Quebec, except for Quebec City, which are listed under National Historic Sites in Quebec City.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Newfoundland and Labrador

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. There are 46 National Historic Sites designated in Newfoundland and Labrador, 10 of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first National Historic Sites to be designated in the province were Fort Amherst, Fort Townshend and Signal Hill in 1951.The Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial, a National Historic Site commemorating Dominion of Newfoundland forces killed during World War I, is located in France.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred across Newfoundland & Labrador, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Niagara Region

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in Niagara Region, Ontario. There are 26 National Historic Sites designated in Niagara, of which nine are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ).Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in the Niagara Region, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the region in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Ontario are listed at National Historic Sites in Ontario.

This list uses the designation names as recognized by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, not necessarily the official or colloquial names of the sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Nunavut

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the territory of Nunavut. There are 12 National Historic Sites designated in Nunavut, one of which is in the national park system, administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ).Related to the Sites, National Historic Events also occurred in Nunavut, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. National Historic Persons are commemorated in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Ottawa

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in its capital city, Ottawa, Ontario. There are 26 National Historic Sites in Ottawa, of which two (Laurier House and the Rideau Canal) are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The Rideau Canal, which extends to Lake Ontario at Kingston, was designated in 1925 and was the first site designated in Ottawa.There are six other National Historic Sites located within the National Capital Region, but not within Ottawa proper: the Former Almonte Post Office and Rosamond Woollen Mill in Almonte, the Gillies Grove and House in Arnprior, the Manoir Papineau in Montebello, the Symmes Hotel in the Aylmer sector of Gatineau, and the First Geodetic Survey Station in Chelsea.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Ottawa, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the city in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Ontario are listed at National Historic Sites in Ontario.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Prince Edward Island

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Prince Edward Island. There are 22 National Historic Sites designated in Prince Edward Island, five of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first National Historic Site to be designated in Prince Edward Island was Jean-Pierre Roma at Three Rivers in 1933.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in P.E.I., and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in Quebec City, Quebec. There are 37 National Historic Sites in Quebec City and its enclaves, of which seven are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first National Historic Site to be designated in Quebec City was Fort Charlesbourg Royal in 1923.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Quebec City, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the city in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Quebec are listed at National Historic Sites in Quebec, and, for Montreal, at National Historic Sites in Montreal.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Saskatchewan

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Saskatchewan. There are 47 National Historic Sites designated in Saskatchewan, 10 of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ).Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Saskatchewan, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given. The Rideau Canal is a Site, for example, while the Welland Canal is an Event. The cairn and plaque to John Macdonell does not refer to a National Historic Person, but is erected because his home, Glengarry House, is a National Historic Site. Similarly, the plaque to John Guy officially marks not a Person, but an Event—the Landing of John Guy.This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Toronto

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the country's most populous city, Toronto, Ontario. There are 36 National Historic Sites in Toronto, the first of which was Fort York, designated in 1923.Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Toronto, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the city in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Ontario are listed at National Historic Sites in Ontario, with additional breakout lists for some cities. Certain sites are part of the national park system, administered by Parks Canada, though there are none in Toronto. Bead Hill National Historic Site, in eastern Scarborough, is slated to join the park system once Rouge National Urban Park is expanded to include that area. It would become Toronto's only National Historic Site in the national park system.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Yukon

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the territory of Yukon. There are 12 National Historic Sites designated in Yukon, five of which are in the national park system, administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). Several National Historic Events also occurred in Yukon, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. National Historic Persons are commemorated in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in the Northwest Territories

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) in the territory of Northwest Territories. There are 12 National Historic Sites designated in the Northwest Territories, of which one (Sahoyúé-§ehdacho) is administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first National Historic Site to be designated in the Northwest Territories was Parry's Rock Wintering Site in 1930.

A number of National Historic Events also occurred in the Northwest Territories, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

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