National Historic Landmark

A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks.

A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, structures, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not also be separately listed.

Mifflin Soldiers' Barracks01
The Soldiers Barracks at Fort Mifflin.
American-legation-tangier-1
The American Legation in Tangier, Morocco, was the first National Historic Landmark on foreign soil.
Mohonk Mountain House 2011 View of Mohonk Guest Rooms from One Hiking Trail FRD 3205
Mohonk Mountain House, a resort hotel on Shawangunk Ridge; site of 1895–1916 conference that led to establishment of Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague
Academy of Music NHL plaque
Original 1963 National Historic Landmark plaque at the Academy of Music in Philadelphia.
Chicago Board Of Trade Building
The Chicago Board of Trade Building in Chicago, Illinois is an iconic landmark in Chicago and the United States

Creation of the program

Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, and to designate properties as having "national historical significance", and gave the National Park Service authority to administer historically significant federally owned properties.[1] Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.[2] Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the very first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park (then known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial) in St. Louis, Missouri. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938.[3]

In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, and the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape.[4] When the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, and rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings (either on the National Register, or as an NHL) often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations.[5]

On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton. The first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was officially designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.

Criteria

NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are:

  • Sites where events of national historical significance occurred;
  • Places where prominent persons lived or worked;
  • Icons of ideals that shaped the nation;
  • Outstanding examples of design or construction;
  • Places characterizing a way of life; or
  • Archeological sites able to yield information.

Current NHLs

More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States.

There are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states (Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York) account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states (Boston, Philadelphia, and New York City) all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, California, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York (the latter of which has the most NHLs of all 50 states). There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia.

Some NHLs are in U.S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. commonwealths and territories; five in U.S.-associated states such as Micronesia; and one in Morocco.[6][7]

Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs.

Other

About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned.[8] The National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which also assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect and promote National Historic Landmarks.

If not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Robinson, Nicholas. Environmental Regulation of Real Property, Volume 1. New York: Law Journal Press, 1982. pp. 6:22–23.
  2. ^ Lee, Antoinette Josephine. The American Mosaic: Preserving a Nation's Heritage. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0-8143-2719-7. p. 7
  3. ^ McDonnell, Janet; Mackintosh, Barry. The National Parks: Shaping the System. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2005. ISBN 978-0-912627-73-1. p. 52
  4. ^ Frank, Karolin; Petersen, Patricia. Historic Preservation in the USA. Berlin: Springer, 2002. ISBN 978-3-540-41735-4. p. 66
  5. ^ Robinson, p. 6:24
  6. ^ National Park Service (November 2007). "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State" (PDF). Retrieved July 1, 2008.
  7. ^ The counts and locations of NHLs are described most accurately in List of National Historic Landmarks by state. This extends, and corrects errors from, the National Park Service's "National Historic Landmarks Survey List of National Historic Landmarks by State", also referenced.
  8. ^ National Historic Landmarks Update, National Park Service, October 2004
  9. ^ "Title 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 65". US Government Printing Office. Retrieved April 5, 2008.

External links

Bonneville Dam

Bonneville Lock and Dam consists of several run-of-the-river dam structures that together complete a span of the Columbia River between the U.S. states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146.1. The dam is located 40 miles (64 km) east of Portland, Oregon, in the Columbia River Gorge. The primary functions of Bonneville Lock and Dam are electrical power generation and river navigation. The dam was built and is managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. At the time of its construction in the 1930s it was the largest water impoundment project of its type in the nation, able to withstand flooding on an unprecedented scale. Electrical power generated at Bonneville is distributed by the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Lock and Dam is named for Army Capt. Benjamin Bonneville, an early explorer credited with charting much of the Oregon Trail. The Bonneville Dam Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1987.

Coonley House

The Avery Coonley House, also known as the Coonley House or Coonley Estate was designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Constructed 1908-12, this is a residential estate of several buildings built on the banks of the Des Plaines River in Riverside, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. It is itself a National Historic Landmark and is included in another National Historic Landmark, the Riverside Historic District.

Lawrenceville School

The Lawrenceville School is a coeducational, independent college preparatory boarding school for students in ninth through twelfth grades including a post-graduate year as well. The school is located on 700 acres (280 ha) in the historic Lawrenceville section of Lawrence, in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States.

Lawrenceville is a member of the Eight Schools Association, begun informally in 1973–74 and formalized in 2006. Lawrenceville is also a member of the Ten Schools Admissions Organization, founded in 1966. There is a seven-school overlap of membership between the two groups. Lawrenceville was additionally formerly a member of the G20 Schools group. The school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1928.As of the 2017-18 school year, the school had an enrollment of 818 students and 109 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 8:1. Students come from 33 states and 45 countries. For the 2016-2017 year, the school's student body was 55.0% White, 21.3% Asian, 9.9% Black, 6.0% Hispanic and 7.8% two or more races.In 2010, Lawrenceville announced that Janie Woods, who died at age 87 in 2007, and her husband, Henry C. Woods Jr., had bequeathed the school $60 million. In 2017, Head Master Stephen Murray announced to the school community that Joseph C. Tsai, Class of 1982 and executive vice chairman of global e-commerce company, Alibaba Group, and his wife Clara had donated the largest gift in the school's 207-year history. As of June 2016, the school's endowment stood at $381.1 million.Lawrenceville received 1,967 formal applications for entry in fall 2017, of which 371 were offered admission, giving an acceptance rate of 18.9%.

List of National Historic Landmarks in Florida

The National Historic Landmarks in Florida are representations of a broad sweep of history from Pre-Columbian times, through the Second Seminole War and Civil War, and the Space Age. There are 46 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in Florida, which are located in twenty-two of the state's sixty-seven counties. Sixteen of the NHLs in the state are significant examples of a particular architectural style, eleven have military significance, ten are archaeological sites, three were the homes of well-known American authors, and one is associated with the development of the U.S. Space Program.

Five sites are in state parks and managed by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.Also included is a site determined eligible for National Historic Landmark status, and a list of historical sites in Florida managed by the U.S. National Park Service which also have national significance.The National Historic Landmark program is administered by the National Park Service, a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process. The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation. Both public and privately owned properties are designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties, via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means. Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.

NHLs are also included on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), which are historic properties that the National Park Service deems to be worthy of preservation. The primary difference between a NHL and a NRHP listing is that the NHLs are determined to have national significance, while other NRHP properties are deemed significant at the local or state level. The NHLs in Florida comprise 2.6% of the approximately 1,600 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Florida.

List of National Historic Landmarks in Missouri

The National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in the U.S. state of Missouri represent Missouri's history from the Lewis and Clark Expedition, through the American Civil War, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Space Age. There are 37 National Historic Landmarks in Missouri. One site in Missouri was once a National Historic Landmark but later had its designation withdrawn when it failed to meet the program's criteria for inclusion. The NHLs are distributed across fifteen of Missouri's 114 counties and one independent city, with a concentration of fifteen landmarks in the state's only independent city, St. Louis.

The National Park Service (NPS), a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior, administers the National Historic Landmark program. The NPS is responsible for determining which sites meet the criteria for designation or withdrawal as an NHL as well as identifying potential candidates for the program, through theme studies. The NPS and the National Park System Advisory Board then meet to determine the historical significance of these candidates. The final decision regarding a site's designation as a National Historic Landmark is made by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior. However, the owner of a property may object to the designation of that property as an NHL. In such cases, the site is only "eligible for designation." A property eligible for NHL status is also eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Designated National Historic Landmarks are listed on the NRHP, which includes historic properties that the National Park Service has determined to be worthy of preservation. While NHL areas are deemed to carry national historic significance, other NRHP properties may only be significant at local or state levels.Five historic sites in Missouri are in the U.S. National Park system. These are automatically listed in the NRHP and include one U.S. National Monument, one National Memorial, one National Battlefield, and two National Historic Sites.

List of National Historic Landmarks in Oregon

This is a complete List of National Historic Landmarks in Oregon. The United States National Historic Landmark (NHL) program is operated under the auspices of the National Park Service, and recognizes buildings, structures, districts, objects, and similar resources nationwide according to a list of criteria of national significance. The state of Oregon is home to 17 of these landmarks, two of which extend beyond Oregon's borders into other states, as well as one site from which NHL status was withdrawn upon its destruction.

List of U.S. National Historic Landmarks by state

The United States National Historic Landmark Program is designed to recognize and honor the nation's cultural and historical heritage. The program was formally inaugurated with a series of listings on October 9, 1960; as of February 16, 2017, there are 2,596 designated landmarks. A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is generally a building, district, object, site, or structure, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its national historical significance. A National Historic Landmark District (NHLD) is a historic district that is recognized as an NHL. Its geographic area may include contributing properties that are buildings, structures, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties.

The program is administered by the National Park Service (NPS), a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process. The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation. Both public and privately owned properties can be designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means. Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.All NHLs are also included on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), a list of some 80,000 historic properties that the National Park Service deems to be worthy of recognition. The primary difference between a NHL and a NRHP listing is that the NHLs are determined to have national significance, while other NRHP properties are deemed significant at the local or state level.

Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site

The Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Landmark and a National Historic Site located at 110½ E. Leigh Street on "Quality Row" in the Jackson Ward neighborhood of Richmond, Virginia. The site was designated a U.S. National Historic Landmark in 1975. The National Historic Site was established in 1978 to tell the story of the life and work of Maggie L. Walker (1867-1934), the first woman to serve as president of a bank in the United States. It was built by George W. Boyd, father of physician, Sarah Garland Boyd Jones. The historic site protects the restored and originally furnished home of Walker. Tours of the home are offered by National Park Service rangers.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Dukes County, Massachusetts

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Dukes County, Massachusetts.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in a Google map.There are 22 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, which include one National Historic Landmark and one National Historic Landmark District (Wesleyan Grove, which is listed twice in the register under different names).

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Gillespie County, Texas

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Gillespie County, Texas.

This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Gillespie County, Texas. There are three districts and 17 individually listed properties within the county. One district is a National Natural Landmark while another contains a National Historic Landmark that is also a State Antiquities Landmark, while the third holds a State Antiquities Landmark and multiple Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks some of which are individually listed properties. The individual properties include a National Historic Landmark that is also a State Antiquities Landmark, two additional State Antiquities Landmarks, and six Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 22, 2019.

Old Clump Mountain

Old Clump Mountain is a summit in the Catskills in the towns of Stamford and Roxbury in Delaware County, New York.

Its latitude and longitude are 42°18'39" North, 074°38'07" West. Elevation 2,926 feet.

It is the location of the registered National Historic Landmark of the birthplace, boyhood and summer homes, and burial site of American naturalist and writer John Burroughs.

Pikes Peak

Pikes Peak is the highest summit of the southern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, in North America. The ultra-prominent 14,115-foot (4,302.31 m) fourteener is located in Pike National Forest, 12 miles (19 km) west of downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. The mountain is named in honor of American explorer Zebulon Pike, who was unable to reach the summit. The summit is higher than any point in the United States east of its longitude.

Pupin Hall

Pupin Physics Laboratories , also known as Pupin Hall, is home to the physics and astronomy departments of Columbia University in New York City and a National Historic Landmark. It was built in 1925-1927 to provide more space for the Physics Department which had originally been housed in Fayerweather Hall, and named for Serbian physicist Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, who graduated with honors in 1883 at Columbia College, after his death in 1935. The building is located on the south side of 120th Street, just east of Broadway. It has been named a National Historic Landmark for its association with experiments relating to the splitting of the atom, achieved in connection with the later Manhattan Project.

By 1931, the building which later became Pupin Hall was a leading research center. During this time Harold Urey (Nobel laureate in Chemistry) discovered deuterium and George B. Pegram was investigating the phenomena associated with the newly discovered neutron. In 1938, Enrico Fermi escaped fascist Italy after winning the Nobel prize for his work on induced radioactivity. In fact, he took his wife and children with him to Stockholm and immediately emigrated to New York. Shortly after arriving he began working at Columbia University with Dr. John Dunning. His work on nuclear fission, together with I. I. Rabi's work on atomic and molecular physics, ushered in a golden era of fundamental research at the university. One of the country's first cyclotrons was built in the basement of Pupin Hall by John R. Dunning, where it remained until 2007. The building's historic significance was secured with the first splitting of a uranium atom in the United States, which was achieved by Enrico Fermi in Pupin Hall on January 25, 1939, just 10 days after the world's first such successful experiment, carried out in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Pupin Hall is named after Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (also known as Michael I. Pupin), a Serbian-American scientist and graduate of Columbia. Returning to the university's engineering school as a faculty member, he played a key role in establishing the department of electrical engineering. Pupin was also a brilliant inventor, developing methods for rapid x-ray photography and the "Pupin coil," a device for increasing the range of long-distance telephones. After his death in 1935, the university trustees named the newly constructed physics building the "Pupin Physics Laboratories" in his honor.

The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965. In 2009 the American Physical Society named Pupin Hall a historic site and honored Isidor Isaac Rabi for his work in the field of magnetic resonance.

Riverwalk Hotel Detroit

The Roberts Riverwalk Hotel and Residence Detroit, formerly the Parke-Davis Research Laboratory also once known as Building 55-Detroit Research, is located on Joseph Campau Street at the Detroit River, in Detroit, Michigan. The former research facility was redeveloped as a boutique luxury hotel located on the Detroit International Riverfront. The building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976 for its historic significance as an early research laboratory.

Schoharie Crossing State Historic Site

Schoharie Crossing State Historic Site, also known as Erie Canal National Historic Landmark, is a historic district that includes the ruins of the Erie Canal aqueduct over Schoharie Creek, and a 3.5-mile (5.6 km) long part of the Erie Canal, in the towns of Glen and Florida within Montgomery County, New York. It was the first part of the old canal to be designated a National Historic Landmark, prior to the designation of the entire New York State Barge Canal as a NHL in 2017.

Schoharie Crossing State Historic Site is the only location where all three phases of New York's Canals can be seen at once. In addition to the Schoharie Aqueduct, the only two remaining locks of the original canal can be found at Schoharie Crossing, as well as three enlarged canal locks and one barge canal lock.

Strand Historic District

The Strand Historic District, also known as the Strand District, in downtown Galveston, Texas (USA), is a National Historic Landmark District of mainly Victorian era buildings that now house restaurants, antique stores, and curio shops. The area is a major tourist attraction for the island city and also plays host to two very popular seasonal festivals. It is widely considered the island's shopping and entertainment center. The district includes properties along the south side of Harborside Drive (Avenue A) and both sides of The Strand (Avenue B) and Mechanic Street (Avenue C) from 20th Street westward to 26th Street.

The street labeled "The Strand" is actually named Avenue B, which runs parallel to Galveston Bay.The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, and was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976 for its unparalleled collection of commercial Victorian architecture in Texas, and its role as the state's major port in the 19th century.Today "the Strand" is generally used to refer to the entire five-block business district between 20th and 25th streets in downtown Galveston, very close to the city's wharf.

United States lightship Nantucket (LV-112)

United States lightship Nantucket (LV-112), also known as Lightship No. 112, Nantucket, is a National Historic Landmark lightship that served at the Lightship Nantucket position. She was the last serving lightship and at time of its application as a landmark, one of only two capable of moving under their own power. She served as the lightship for such notable vessels as SS United States, RMS Queen Mary, and SS Normandie.

United States lightship Portsmouth (LV-101)

United States Lightship 101, known as Portsmouth, was first stationed at Cape Charles, Virginia. Today she is at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum in Portsmouth, Virginia. Portsmouth never had a lightship station, however when the vessel was dry docked there as a museum, she took on the pseudo-name, Portsmouth. A National Historic Landmark, she is one of a small number of surviving lightships.

United States lightship Relief (WLV-605)

United States lightship Relief (WLV-605) is a lightvessel now serving as a museum ship in Oakland, California. Built in 1950, she is one of a small number of surviving lightships, and one of an even smaller number built specifically for the United States Coast Guard. Along with her sister ship, the WLV-604 Columbia, she is a good example of the last generation of lightships built. She was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1989.

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