National Guard Forces Command

The National Guard Forces Command of the Russian Federation (Russian: Войска национальной гвардии Российской Федерации, Voyska Natsionalnoy Gvardi Rossiyskoi Federatsii) is the gendarmerie component of the National Guard of Russia, created through a presidential decree on April 5, 2016. It is a gendarmerie organized on paramilitary lines with its mission to ensure public order, national security and defense against terrorism.

It is the successor of the Special Corps of Gendarmes and the Internal Troops of Russia.

National Guard Forces Command of the Russian Federation
Войска Национальной Гвардии России
Voyska Natsional'noy Gvardii Rossii
NationalGuardRussia
Flag of National Guard Forces Command
Common nameNational Guard
Agency overview
Formed5 April, 2016
Preceding agency
Employeesestimated 185,000 personnel
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agency
(Operations jurisdiction)
RUS
Operations jurisdictionRUS
Population145 million
Legal jurisdictionRussian Federation
Primary governing bodySecurity Council of Russia
Secondary governing bodyNational Guard of Russia
General nature
Operational structure
Overviewed byPresident of Russia
thru the Commander of the National Guard
HeadquartersMoscow

Agency executive
  • Colonel General Viktor Zolotov, Commander of the NGFC
    (in concurrent capacity as Commander of the Federal National Guard Service)
Parent agencySecurity Council of Russia thru the National Guard of Russia
Notables
Significant operation(s)
  • Conducting anti-terrorism operations, borders control, combating illegal weapons trade, public order
Anniversary
  • April 5
    March 27, anniversary of the Internal Guards Corps

History of the NGF

Imperial Oprichnina

From 1565 to 1572 the Oprichnina and its agents, the oprichniki, served, under the behest of Tsar Ivan III, as the first ever police service in Russia with a national focus. Their missions were mass repressions, public executions, and confiscation of land from Russian aristocrats and their families. They served primarily as a secret police service reporting to the Tsar's office.

Police dragoons

The first example of internal security troops in Russia are the police dragoons established during the reign of Peter the Great. As early as 1763 police dragoon units were raised in both Moscow and Saint Petersburg as part of their police forces. Regulations made on 12 (24) February 1802, 8 (20) June 1804 and 23 February (7 March) 1806 standardized the size of the police dragoons as:

  • St. Petersburg – 45 NCOs, 264 other ranks and 5 reserves
  • Moscow – 60 NCOs, 240 other ranks, 6 reserves

Garrison Forces of the Imperial Russian Army

Peter the Great's other legacy to Russian law enforcement were the Imperial Russian Army's Military Garrison Forces. Raised in 1701 the Garrison Forces – of battalion or squadron size, plus 4 dragoon regiments of special use – served as a military police force not just for the military bases but for the communities nearest them.

Internal Guards

Today's National Guard Forces Command traces their lineage and heritages from the Internal Guards Gendarmerie units, established in 1811 and tasked with public security, rear area defense and police duties, and the Gendarmerie Regiment of the Imperial Russian Army, raised in 1815 with the re-designation of the Borisoglebsk Dragoon Regiment which served in Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812.

The Internal Guards Corps were founded by an Ukaz of Tsar Alexander II on 17 (29) January 1811 and 27 March (8 April) 1811, officially disbanding the police dragoon troops and the paramilitary police formations, plus military garrison battalions and/or squadrons under the Imperial Army, which were reorganized into Internal Guards brigades and districts, all under the leadership of Adjutant General Yevgraf Fedotovich Komarovskiy, its first commander. The aforementioned decree approved the "Regulations for the Internal Guard", according to which the guard was mandated to aid in public order and security and help enforce law and order and the judicial process, as well as in firefighting.

Meanwhile, the need for and benefits of mounted troops as part of the service presented the government with the formation of personnel, even as the French 1812 invasion of Russia interrupted its work. Based on that assumption, and as it turned out on the experience of disadvantage depending on the civil authorities of military commands in the years after the war, the Police Dragoons, now the Gendarmerie of the Internal Guards Corps, were reactivated in 1817.

By 1817, the Internal Guards units and the Gendarmerie evolved into a national organization with units all over the Empire, and with the growing power and duties of the Internal Guards, the office of Chief of Gendarmes, tasked to manage the organization, was created in 1826, and the Gendarmerie units nationwide were, together with the Internal Guards themselves, in 1827 were integrated into the new Special Corps of Gendarmes,[1] with its organization always changing as per regulations made in 1836–37. (At the same time the Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery was established, but it was starting 1837 that the Chief of Gendarmes also assumed concurrent duties as its chairman.) Personnel were either retired or reserve Army personnel or had separate training within command headquarters, the military heritage was also seen in its military ranks and military styled uniforms. In 1842 the IRA's Gendarmerie Regiment was transferred to this organization.

A separate command for the railways was raised in 1846, originally the Reserve Squadron. By 1881 the 3rd Section was transformed into the Okhrana, and several personnel of the SCG moved to the new organization.

From USSR Internal Troops to the establishment of the National Guard

By 1917 both the SCG and Okhrana were disbanded after the February Revolution because of their links to the Imperial Family and government institutions.

The modern Internal Troops were raised by the All-Russian Central Execuitive Committee as part of the NKVD in 1918, and was reorganized in 1919 unto the Internal Security Forces (Voyska vnutrenney okhrany Respubliki, VOHR). In 1919, these were transferred to the Cheka and in 1922–23 into the OGPU. By 1925 the OGPU and the VOHR personnel entered the Soviet Armed Forces, and in 1934 the OGPU was fused into the NKVD again, making its Internal Troops as a joint NKVD-NKO controlled service branch.

On 28 July 1988, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet issued a decree “On duties and rights of the Internal Troops of the USSR MVD when safeguarding public order”, clarifying its role in the cracking USSR.[2] However, the Internal Troops were still a part of the Soviet Armed Forces and this state of affairs pleased no one. The Armed Forces did not want to be seen as a force of internal suppression, especially after the disastrous Afghan War. The MVD was finding itself having to extinguish increasingly frequent and violent hot spots and to cope with growing and increasingly well organised and equipped criminals. For this the MVD needed more fire power. On 21 March 1989, the Presidium decided to take the Internal Troops out of the Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defense[3] and give them to the Internal Affairs Ministry, ending a 55-year partnership between the two ministries.

In 1990, the establishment of the RSFSR MVD meant that the Internal Troops in the SFSR were now subordinated to the republican ministry.

With the April 2016 foundation of the National Guard, the IT became the National Guard Forces (Войска национальной гвардии, Voyska Natsionalnoy Gvardi) and now reports directly to the Security Council and its chairman, the President of Russia, and thus removed from the MVD proper.

Legal basis

On 6 April 2016, President Putin submitted to the State Duma lower house of parliament of the Federal Assembly the draft framework law for this new executive body titled "On the Russian National Guard Troops" along with its corresponding amendments[4] that contains a provision for the protection of pregnant women, children, disabled persons and crowds that states:

It shall be prohibited to use firearms against women with the visible signs of pregnancy, people with the apparent signs of disability and underage persons, except for the cases when such persons put up armed resistance, make an assault involving a group of attackers or commit another attack threatening the life and health of citizens or a National Guard serviceman, and it shall also be prohibited to use firearms at largely crowded places, if their use may casually hurt people.[5]

The NGF, as legal successor to the SCG and IT-MIA, is mandated as a paramilitary gendarmerie at the national level.

General organisation

Interpolitex 2012 (476-3)
An elite group of Vityaz special forces personnel during a public show in 2012

Today's NGF is a paramilitary force with centralized system of ranks, command and service, and as such reports to the National Guard of Russia and the Security Council of Russia. Majority of the officer corps were trained in both special academies of the former MVD Internal Troops and the Armed Forces's military academies. Other ranks include a mix of both conscripted national servicemen and volunteer servicemen.

The main kinds of NGF units are field units, various facility-guarding units (except in prisons), special motorized units, riot control and patrol units, and special forces like Rus. Since the 1980s, the several spetsnaz (special purpose) units were created within the former VV to deal with terrorism and hostage crises. Fields units were essentially light motorized infantry, similar to respective regular army units by their organization and weapons. They and the special forces have been heavily engaged in the armed conflicts in Chechnya and the broader North Caucasus.

Districts and formations

Internal troops special units counter-terror tactical exercises (12)
The VV 33rd Special Purpose Unit "Peresvet" during a training exercise in 2013
Interpolitex 2013 (535-30)
Ural-VV – Armored vehicle designed on the basis of a multi-purpose vehicle "Ural-4320" 6 × 6 chassis.

The organization of the NGF comprises headquarters, military units, military training institutions and the institutions for National Guard Forces activities, and maintenance and administration bodies. The largest units are located in all major cities.[6]

NGF regional commands:

  • Northwestern Order of the Red Star District Command
  • Central Orshansko-Hingansky Order of the Red Banner District Command
  • North Caucasus District Command
  • Volga District Command
  • Ural District Command
  • Siberian District Command
  • Eastern District Command

Military units under direct subordination:

  • A separate rapid deployment division (ODON). This formation, also known as the Dzerzhinsky Division and based near Moscow, was the most well-known formation of the Internal Troops, and now falls under the NGF.
  • The Central Communications
  • Engineering Center
  • Intelligence Directorate NGF under the Intelligence Chief-Deputy Chief of Staff of the National Guard Forces

The NGFC also controls 5 naval and inland waters units under the banner of the National Guard Naval Service Corps (formerly the Naval Service of the Internal Troops of Russia, raised 1978, including personnel of the National Guard Naval Diving Service founded in 1987).

Missions

  • Security – to guard "key" state institutions (except for the Kremlin and the highest echelons of the government which are guarded by the Federal Protective Service (FSO)), nuclear facilities, special storage depots and military bases.
  • National defence – to conduct rear area security operations and all military operations within national borders, counter-intelligence authority in wartime.
  • Public order – to assist the Russian Police for riot control operations when the National Guard's OMON units are not available.
  • Border control – to assist the Federal Border Service of the FSS in the protection of the State border of the Russian Federation.
  • Counter-terrorist operations (Ex-VV special forces units such as Vityaz and Rus).
  • Possible counterweight to the regular armed forces, especially during wartime periods as may be called by the President in his duty as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and Chairman of the Security Council, through the Commander of the National Guard.

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

  1. ^ Корпус жандармов наименован Отдельным корпусом 29 января 1875 года.
  2. ^ Organy I Voyska MVD Rossiiy, MVD Moskva 1996, p461.
  3. ^ Organy I Voyska MVD Rossiiy, MVD Moskva 1996, p.332
  4. ^ "Putin submits to State Duma bill on National Guard troops". TASS. Russia. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  5. ^ "Russia's newly-created National Guard to have no right to shoot at crowd — bill". TASS. TASS. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  6. ^ Neil Baumgardner, Russian Armed Forces Order of Battle, see bottom of page.
1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The 1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade held in Red Square on 9 May 1996 to commemorate the 51st anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The annual parade marks the Allied victory in the Great Patriotic War on the same day as the signing of the German act of capitulation to the Allies in Berlin, at midnight 9 May 1945 (Russian time).The Supreme Commander of Russian Armed Forces, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, as well as government officials stood on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum. It would be the last time the Mausoleum would be used in a Moscow parade. The parade commander was the commander of the Moscow Military District, Colonel-General Leonid Kuznetsov. The parade was inspected by the Defense Minister of Russia, General of the Army Pavel Grachev. 7,370 military personnel took part in the parade. Military equipment did not participate in the parade. The parade is also the first time the Victory Banner was trooped on Red Square before the parade.

1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The 1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade held in Red Square on 9 May 1997 to commemorate the 52nd anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The annual parade marks the Allied victory in the Great Patriotic War on the same day as the signing of the German act of capitulation to the Allies in Berlin, at midnight 9 May 1945 (Russian time).

Together with the Supreme Commander of Russian Armed Forces, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, the Russian army generals and other officials stood on a temporary grandstand, erected in front of Lenin's Mausoleum. The parade was attended by 5,000 officers and men, the parade went off without a demonstration of military equipment. The parade commander was deputy commander of the Moscow Military District, Lieutenant-General Igor Puzanov. Passage of the troops took 20 minutes.

2001 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Parade of 2001 was a celebration of the 56th anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. The commander of the parade was the acting head of the Moscow Garrison Colonel General Nikolai Makarov. Reviewing the parade was Minister of Defence Sergei Ivanov. Music was performed by the Moscow Garrison's Central Orchestra under Colonel Valery Khalilov. This was the very first parade that was inspected by a civilian defense minister.

2007 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Parade of 2007 was a celebration of the 62nd anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. It was the last time Vladimir Putin made a holiday address in his first term as president.The parade was commanded by the head of the Moscow Garrison General of the army Vladimir Bakin, and reviewing the parade was Minister of Defence Anatoliy Serdyukov.Music was performed by the Moscow Garrison's Central Orchestra under Major General Valery Khalilov.This was the very first parade that was watched by people online outside of Russia.

2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Parade of 2008 was held on the Victory Day on the 63rd anniversary of the Great Patriotic War ending in the defeat of Nazi Germany. This was the first time the Russian Federation opened its vehicle showcase since 1991, and the airshow since the Cold War.

The parade was commanded by Army General Vladimir Bakin, Commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by Anatoliy Serdyukov of the Russian Ministry of Defence.

A speech was made by the third president of Russia Dmitry Medvedev. This would be notable to be the first ever major Russian military parade seen on television worldwide when RT carried a live broadcast of the parade for the first time in its history.

2009 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Parade of 2009 was held on Victory Day on the 64th anniversary of the Great Patriotic War, which ended in the defeat of Nazi Germany.

The parade was commanded by Valery Gerasimov, commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by Anatoliy Serdyukov of the Russian Ministry of Defence.

A speech was made by the third president of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev, in which he warned other countries against embarking on military adventures. This was thought to be a veiled warning directed at Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili.

2011 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Day Parade in Moscow was held on 9 May, 2011 to commemorate the 66th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marked the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War.

2018 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The 2018 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a military parade that took place in Red Square in Moscow on 9 May 2018 to commemorate the 73rd year anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The annual parade marks the Allied victory in World War II on the Eastern Front, on the same day as the signing of the German act of capitulation to the Allies in Berlin, at midnight of 9 May 1945 (Russian time). President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin delivered his fifteenth holiday address to the nation after the parade inspection presided over by Minister of Defense General of the Army Sergey Shoygu. This year's parade also marked the centennial year since the 1918 foundation of the Red Army. This year for the first time, in the Victory Day parade in Moscow, it was planned that armored vehicles from the Red Army during the Russian Civil War would be to take part in the parade mobile column, the planned appearance was called off, and the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment's 1st Honor Guard Company took part in the exhibition drill segment of the parade together with a drumline from the Moscow Military Music College, the first time it had been done since the parade of 2007 and a recent tradition which began in the 2001 parade.Originally, for the first time since 2002, cadets from the Civil Defense Academy of the Ministry of Emergency Situations were not to take part in the Victory Day parade in Moscow, while EMERCOM detachments continued to march past in other major parades nationwide, however, the decision was rescinded. New military vehicles in the parade include the BMPT Terminator A pair of Russia’s 5th-generation Su-57 fighter jets flew for the first time over Red Square, together with two Mig-31s armed with Kinzhal air-to-surface missiles.For the third consecutive year, the parade included a composite ceremonial female battalion from the Military University of the Ministry of Defense, the Military Academy of Material and Technical Support, and the Military Space Academy. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić were both present during the parade as the main foreign guests.

Berkuts

The Berkuts (English: Golden eagles) are a Soviet and later Russian aerobatic performance demonstrator team connected with the Russian Air Force.

Coast Guard (Russia)

The Coast Guard of the Border Service of the FSB (Russian: Береговая охрана Пограничной службы ФСБ России, Beregovaya okhrana Pogranichnoy sluzhby FSB Rossii), previously known as the Maritime Units of the KGB Border Troops (Russian: Морские части Пограничных Войск КГБ СССР), is the coast guard of the Russian Federation. The Coast Guard is part of the Border Guard Service of Russia under the Federal Security Service of Russia (Береговая охрана Пограничной службы ФСБ России).

List of Russian navy flags

This is a List of naval flags of the Russian Federation, from independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 onward, for Soviet naval flags see List of USSR navy flags.

Military Band Service of the National Guard of Russia

Military Band Service of the National Guard of Russia is the official musical unit of the National Guard of Russia or the Rosgvardia. It is considered to be one of the best musical groups in the Russian Armed Forces. It commonly performs during many Russian national holidays such as Victory Day (9 May) on May 9 or Russia Day on June 12, as well as military holidays such as Defender of the Fatherland Day on February 23 and National Guardsmen's Day on March 27.

Military academies in Russia

Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article primarily lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces.

Russian institutions called "academy" are post-graduate professional military schools for experienced, commissioned officers who have the equivalent of a bachelor's degree. Upon graduation, officers receive the equivalent of a master's degree and, if trained in military leadership are appointed as battalion commanders or higher from Lt. Colonel and up. Graduates with non-command training are appointed to various staff positions equivalent to Major or Lt. Colonel. Commissioned officers can study on the Kandidat Nauk (Russian: кандидат наук) level, equivalent to a Ph.D. degree. This research-oriented degree is required for faculty positions in military schools and defense research institutes. Carefully selected experienced researchers in military academies hold limited-term positions as senior scholars leading to the prestigious post-doctoral Doktor Nauk (Russian: доктор наук) degree, which is roughly the equivalent of a habilitation at Central European universities where it is a prerequisite for full professor positions in institutions of higher learning. There also are a number of "officer commissioning schools" for various services known as Higher Military Schools or Institutes.

As of 2010, a major reorganization of Russian military officer education, spanning the range from General Staff Academy to officer commissioning school, was underway.

Moscow Victory Day Parade

Moscow Victory Day Parade may refer to:

Moscow Victory Parade of 1945

1965 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1985 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1990 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1995 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1998 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1999 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2000 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2001 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2002 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2003 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2004 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2005 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2006 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2007 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2009 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2011 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2012 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2013 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2014 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2016 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2017 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2018 Moscow Victory Day Parade

National Guard Naval Service Corps

The National Guard Naval Service Corps (Морские части Войск Национальной Гвардии России, Morskiye Chasti Voysk Natsional'noy Gvardii Rossii) is the naval service, water police and coast guard branch of the National Guard Forces Command, National Guard of Russia. Formerly the Naval Service of the Internal Troops of Russia, it was established in 1978 through the fulfillment of a 1976 resolution of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and a 1978 decree of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union.

National Guard of Russia

The National Guard of the Russian Federation or Rosgvardia (Russian: Федеральная служба войск национальной гвардии Российской Федерации, lit. Federal National Guard Troops Service of the Russian Federation) is the internal military force of the Russian government, comprising an independent agency that reports directly to the Russian president under his powers as Supreme Commander-in-Chief and Chairman of the Security Council. The National Guard is separate from the Russian Armed Forces. The federal executive body was established in 2016 by a law signed by President Vladimir Putin. Its stated mission is to secure borders, take charge of gun control, combat terrorism, organized crime, protect public order and guard important state facilities.The establishment of the National Guard is seen as an effort to enhance efficiency and avoid duplication of responsibilities within the Russian security system. The National Guard numbers approx. 340,000 personnel in 84 units across Russia and consolidated the forces of the MVD Internal Troops, SOBR, OMON and other internal military forces outside of the Russian Armed Forces.On 16 January 2017, the National Guard Day is designated to be marked on 27 March, linking the National Guard to a long history of public security services within Russia, that day being the date when the Internal Guards Corps was established in 1811, by a decree of Tsar Alexander I.

Russian Knights

The Russian Knights (Russian: Русские Витязи, Russkiye Vityazi) is an aerobatic demonstration team of the Russian Air Force. Originally formed on April 5, 1991 at the Kubinka Air Base as a team of six Sukhoi Su-27s, the team was the first to perform outside the Soviet Union in September 1991 when they toured the United Kingdom. On December 12, 1995, disaster struck as three team jets flew in-formation into a mountainside near Cam Ranh, Vietnam during approach while en route to home from a Malaysian airshow during adverse weather conditions. The team now performs with eight Su-30SM with numbers "30", "31", "32", "33", "34", "35", "36" and "37".

Separate Operational Purpose Division

The Separate Operational Purpose Division or ODON, formerly called OMSDON (a.k.a. Dzerzhinsky Division) is a rapid deployment internal security division of the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR and then the Russian Federation, today of the National Guard Forces Command of the Russian Federation. ODON (Russian: ОДОН) is an initialism for Отдельная дивизия оперативного назначения (Otdel'naya diviziya operativnogo naznacheniya, English: Separate Operational Purpose Division).

Swifts (aerobatic team)

The Swifts (Russian: Стрижи, Strizhi) is an aerobatic demonstrator team of the Russian Air Force, formed on 6 May 1991. The team currently performs with 6 MiG-29/29UB aircraft.

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