National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded. It primarily contains articles about science, geography, history, and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by 21st Century Fox since 2015.

The magazine is published monthly, and additional map supplements are also included with subscriptions. It is available in a traditional printed edition and through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued.

As of 2015, the magazine was circulated worldwide in nearly 40 local-language editions and had a global circulation of approximately 6.5 million per month according to data published by The Washington Post (down from about 12 million in the late 1980s) or 6.7 million according to National Geographic. This includes a US circulation of 3.5 million.[6][7]

National Geographic
Natgeologo
National Geographic Magazine March 2017 Cover
March 2017 cover of National Geographic
EditorSusan Goldberg[1]
CategoriesGeography, Science, History, Nature Cultures
FrequencyMonthly
Total circulation
(June 2016)
6.1 million (Global)[2]
First issueSeptember 22, 1888[3]
CompanyNational Geographic Partners
(21st Century Fox [73%]
National Geographic Society [27%])[4]
CountryUnited States
Based inWashington, D.C.[5]
LanguageEnglish and various other languages
Websitengm.nationalgeographic.com
ISSN0027-9358
OCLC number643483454

Administration

The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Susan Goldberg.[1] Goldberg is also Editorial Director for National Geographic Partners, overseeing the print and digital expression of National Geographic’s editorial content across its media platforms. She is responsible for news, books (with the exception of National Geographic Kids books), National Geographic Traveler magazine, National Geographic History magazine, maps, and all digital content with the exception of National Geographic Kids. Goldberg reports to Gary Knell, CEO of National Geographic Partners.

History

1915NatGeog
January 1915 cover of The National Geographic Magazine

The first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888, nine months after the Society was founded. It was initially a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month.[8] Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, and became well known for this style. The June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.

National Geographic Kids, the children's version of the magazine, was launched in 1975 under the name National Geographic World. From the 1970s through about 2010 the magazine was printed in Corinth, Mississippi, by private printers until that plant was finally closed.

In the late 1990s, the magazine began publishing The Complete National Geographic, a digital compilation of all the past issues of the magazine. It was then sued over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases, and temporarily withdrew the availability of the compilation. The magazine eventually prevailed in the dispute, and in July 2009 it resumed publishing a compilation containing all issues through December 2008. The compilation was later updated to make more recent issues available, and the archive and digital edition of the magazine are available online to the magazine's subscribers.

On September 9, 2015, the National Geographic Society announced a deal with 21st Century Fox that would move the magazine to a new partnership, National Geographic Partners, in which 21st Century Fox would hold a 73 percent controlling interest.[9]

In December 2017, Disney announced that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the latter's interest in National Geographic Partners.[10]

Editors-in-chief

The magazine had a single "editor" from 1888–1920. From 1920–1967, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since 1967, the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief". The list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between 1903 and 1980.

  • John Hyde (October 1888 – 14 September 1900; Editor-in-Chief: 14 September 1900 – February 1903)
  • Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (1875–1966) (Editor-in-Chief: February 1903 – 20 January 1920; Managing Editor: 14 September 1900 – February 1903; Assistant Editor: May 1899 – 14 September 1900)
  • Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (21 January 1920 – 5 May 1954)
  • John Oliver LaGorce (1880–1959) (5 May 1954 – 8 January 1957)
  • Melville Bell Grosvenor (1901–1982) (8 January 1957 – 1 August 1967)
  • Frederick Vosburgh (1905–2005) (1 August 1967 – October 1970)
  • Gilbert Melville Grosvenor (1931– ) (October 1970 – July 1980)
  • Wilbur E. Garrett (July 1980 – April 1990)
  • William Graves (April 1990 – December 1994)
  • William L. Allen (January 1995 – January 2005)
  • Chris Johns (1951–) (January 2005 – April 2014)
  • Susan Goldberg (April 2014 – present)[1][11][12]

Articles

During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain. The magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, and Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while largely avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup. There were also many articles in the 1930s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state. Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich.[13] There were also articles about biology and science topics.

In later years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues, deforestation, chemical pollution, global warming, and endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, gem, food crop, or agricultural product, or an archaeological discovery. Occasionally an entire month's issue would be devoted to a single country, past civilization, a natural resource whose future is endangered, or other theme. In recent decades, the National Geographic Society has unveiled other magazines with different focuses. Whereas in the past, the magazine featured lengthy expositions, recent issues have shorter articles.

Photography

Taj Mahal 1921
Color photograph of the Taj Mahal. Source: The National Geographic Magazine, March 1921

In addition to being well known for articles about scenery, history, and the most distant corners of the world, the magazine has been recognized for its book-like quality and its standard of photography. It was during the tenure of Society President Alexander Graham Bell and editor Gilbert H. Grosvenor (GHG) that the significance of illustration was first emphasized, in spite of criticism from some of the Board of Managers who considered the many illustrations an indicator of an “unscientific” conception of geography. By 1910, photographs had become the magazine’s trademark and Grosvenor was constantly on the search for "dynamical pictures" as Graham Bell called them, particularly those that provided a sense of motion in a still image. In 1915, GHG began building the group of staff photographers and providing them with advanced tools including the latest darkroom.[14]

The magazine began to feature some pages of color photography in the early 1930s, when this technology was still in its early development. During the mid-1930s, Luis Marden (1913–2003), a writer and photographer for National Geographic, convinced the magazine to allow its photographers to use the so-called "miniature" 35 mm Leica cameras loaded with Kodachrome film over bulkier cameras with heavy glass plates that required the use of tripods.[15] In 1959, the magazine started publishing small photographs on its covers, later becoming larger photographs. National Geographic photography quickly shifted to digital photography for both its printed magazine and its website. In subsequent years, the cover, while keeping its yellow border, shed its oak leaf trim and bare table of contents, to allow for a full page photograph taken for one of the month's articles. Issues of National Geographic are often kept by subscribers for years and re-sold at thrift stores as collectibles. The standard for photography has remained high over the subsequent decades and the magazine is still illustrated with some of the highest-quality photojournalism in the world.[16] In 2006, National Geographic began an international photography competition , called the with over eighteen countries participating.[17]

In conservative Muslim countries like Iran and Malaysia, photographs featuring topless or scantily clad members of primitive tribal societies are often blacked out; buyers and subscribers often complain that this practice decreases the artistic value of the photographs for which National Geographic is world-renowned.

Gallery

Srirangam 1909

Srirangam Temple, India (National Geographic Magazine November 1909)

Tajin1913

Pyramid of the Niches, El Tajín (National Geographic Magazine February 1913)

ButterMakingPalestine1914

Traditional butter making in Palestine (National Geographic Magazine March 1914)

Spanish Gypsy NGM-v31-p257

Spanish Gypsy (National Geographic Magazine March 1917)

Kathmandu Market 1920

Kathmandu Market (National Geographic Magazine October 1920)

Bulgarian Muslims from Rhodopes (1932)

Bulgarian Muslims from Rhodopes (National Geographic Magazine October 1932)

Map supplements

Supplementing the articles, the magazine sometimes provides maps of the regions visited.

National Geographic Maps (originally the Cartographic Division) became a division of the National Geographic Society in 1915. The first supplement map, which appeared in the May 1918 issue of the magazine, titled The Western Theatre of War, served as a reference for overseas military personnel and soldiers' families alike.[18] On some occasions, the Society's map archives have been used by the United States government in instances where its own cartographic resources were limited.[19] President Franklin D. Roosevelt's White House map room was filled with National Geographic maps. A National Geographic map of Europe is featured in the displays of the Winston Churchill museum in London showing Churchill's markings at the Yalta Conference where the Allied leaders divided post-war Europe.

In 2001, National Geographic released an eight-CD-ROM set containing all its maps from 1888 to December 2000. Printed versions are also available from the National Geographic website.[20]

Language editions

FirstUkrNatGeo IMGP9989-1
First Ukrainian National Geographic magazine presentation
NationalGeographicLibrary
National Geographic English editions collection

In 1995, National Geographic began publishing in Japanese, its first local language edition. The magazine is currently published in 37 local editions around the world.

Language Website Editor-in-chief First issue
English (United States) ngm.com Susan Goldberg October 1888
Farsi (Iran) www.ngmfarsi.com Babak Nikkhah Bahrami October 2012
Arabic (United Arab Emirates) ngalarabiya.com Alsaad Omar Almenhaly October 2010
Bulgarian nationalgeographic.bg Krassimir Drumev November 2005
Chinese (China) nationalgeographic.com.cn Bin Wang July 2007
Chinese (Taiwan) ngtaiwan.com Yungshih Lee January 2001
Croatian nationalgeographic.com.hr Hrvoje Prćić November 2003
Czech national-geographic.cz Kateřina Fejková October 2002
Danish natgeo.dk Karen Gunn September 2000
Dutch (Netherlands/Belgium) nationalgeographic.nl Aart Aarsbergen October 2000
English (India) getnationalgeographic.com Niloufer Venkatraman
Estonian national-geographic.ee Erkki Peetsalu October 2011
Finnish natgeo.fi Karen Gunn January 2001
French nationalgeographic.fr Jean-Pierre Vrignaud October 1999
Georgian nationalgeographic.ge Natia Khuluzauri October 2012
German nationalgeographic.de Florian Gless October 1999
Hungarian ng.hu Tamás Vitray March 2003
Hebrew nationalgeographic.co.il Daphne Raz June 1998
Hebrew (Orthodox) April 2007
Indonesian nationalgeographic.co.id Didi Kaspi Kasim April 2005
Italian nationalgeographic.it Marco Cattaneo February 1998
Japanese nationalgeographic.jp Shigeo Otsuka April 1995
Kazakh nationalgeographic.kz Yerkin Zhakipov February 2016
Korean (South Korea) nationalgeographic.co.kr Junemo Kim January 2000
Lithuanian nationalgeographic.lt Frederikas Jansonas October 2009
Norwegian natgeo.no Karen Gunn September 2000
Polish nationalgeographic.pl Agnieszka Franus October 1999
Portuguese (Brazil) ngbrasil.com.br Ronaldo Ribeiro May 2000
Portuguese (Portugal) nationalgeographic.pt Gonçalo Pereira April 2001
Romanian natgeo.ro Cătălin Gruia May 2003
Russian nat-geo.ru Alexander Grek October 2003
Serbian nationalgeographic.rs Igor Rill November 2006
Slovene nationalgeographic.si Marija Javornik April 2006
Spanish (Latin America) ngenespanol.com Claudia Muzzi Turullols November 1997
Spanish (Spain) nationalgeographic.com.es Josep Cabello October 1997
Swedish natgeo.se Karen Gunn September 2000
Thai ngthai.com Kowit Phadungruangkij August 2001
Turkish nationalgeographic.com.tr Nesibe Bat May 2001

The following local-language editions have been discontinued:

Language Website First issue Last issue Number of issues
Mongolian nationalgeographic.mn October 2012 June 2014 21
Greek nationalgeographic.gr October 1998 December 2014 194
Ukrainian April 2013 January 2015 21
Azerbaijani nationalgeographic.az September 2014 December 2015 16
Latvian nationalgeographic.lv October 2012 March 2016 42

In association with Trends Publications in Beijing and IDG Asia, National Geographic has been authorized for "copyright cooperation" in China to publish the yellow border magazine, which launched with the July 2007 issue of the magazine with an event in Beijing on July 10, 2007 and another event on December 6, 2007 in Beijing also celebrating the 29th anniversary of normalization of U.S.–China relations featuring former President Jimmy Carter. The mainland China version is one of the two local-language editions that bump the National Geographic logo off its header in favor of a local-language logo; the other one is the Persian version published under the name Gita Nama.

Worldwide editions are sold on newsstands in addition to regular subscriptions. In several countries, such as Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Turkey and Ukraine National Geographic paved the way for a subscription model in addition to traditional newsstand sales.In the United States, newsstand sales began in 1998; previously, membership in the National Geographic Society was the only way to receive the magazine,

Awards

On May 1, 2008, National Geographic won three National Magazine Awards—an award solely for its written content—in the reporting category for an article by Peter Hessler on the Chinese economy; an award in the photojournalism category for work by John Stanmeyer on malaria in the Third World; and a prestigious award for general excellence.[21]

Between 1980 and 2011 the magazine has won a total of 24 National Magazine Awards.[22]

In May 2006, 2007, and 2011 National Geographic magazine won the American Society of Magazine Editors' General Excellence Award in the over two million circulation category. In 2010, National Geographic Magazine received the top ASME awards for photojournalism and essay. In 2011, National Geographic Magazine received the top-award from ASME—the Magazine of the Year Award.

In April 2014, National Geographic received the National Magazine Award ("Ellie") for best tablet edition for its multimedia presentation of Robert Draper's story "The Last Chase," about the final days of a tornado researcher who was killed in the line of duty.[23]

In February 2017, National Geographic received the National Magazine Award ("Ellie") for best website.[24]

Controversies

On the magazine's February 1982 cover, the pyramids of Giza were altered, resulting in the first major scandal of the digital photography age and contributing to photography's "waning credibility".[25]

The cover of the October 1988 issue featured a photo of a large ivory male portrait whose authenticity, particularly the alleged Ice Age provenance, has been questioned.[26]

In 1999, the magazine was embroiled in the Archaeoraptor scandal, in which it purported to have a fossil linking birds to dinosaurs. The fossil was a forgery.

In 2010, the magazine's Your Shot competition was awarded to William Lascelles for photography featuring a dog with fighter jets over its shoulder. The picture turned out to be a fraud.[27]

In March 2018, the editor of National Geographic, Susan Goldberg said that historically the magazine's coverage of people around the world had been racist. Goldberg argued that the magazine ignored non-white Americans and showed different groups as exotic, thereby promoting racial clichés.[28]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Masthead: National Geographic Magazine". National Geographic. July 1, 2014. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  2. ^ "AAM: Total Circ for Consumer Magazines". Alliance for Audited Media. December 31, 2013. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
  3. ^ Celebrating 125 years
  4. ^ National Geographic
  5. ^ "Contact Us". National Geographic. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  6. ^ Farhi, Paul (September 9, 2014). "National Geographic gives Fox control of media assets in $725 million deal". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
  7. ^ "National Geographic Boilerplates". National Geographic Press Room. National Geographic Society. April 2015. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2016. Published in English and nearly 40 local-language editions, National Geographic magazine has a global circulation of around 6.7 million.
  8. ^ amyatwired, Author: amyatwired (2010-01-27). "Jan. 27, 1888: National Geographic Society Gets Going". Wired. Retrieved 2017-09-08.
  9. ^ Parker, Laura (2015-09-09). "National Geographic and 21st Century Fox Expand Media Partnership". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  10. ^ Goldman, David (2017-12-14). "Disney buys 21st Century Fox: Who gets what". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  11. ^ Bryan, C.D.B, "The National Geographic Society, 100 Years of Adventure and Discovery," Abrams Inc., New York, 1997
  12. ^ "Evolution of National Geographic Magazine" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-07-13.
  13. ^ The Complete National Geographic. ISBN 978-1-4262-9635-2.
  14. ^ Wentzel, Volmar K (1998). "GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR, FATHER OF PHOTOJOURNALISM". Cosmos Club. Cosmos Club. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2015. Photographs had unquestionably become the Magazine’s trademark. They confirmed GHG’s conviction, “If the National Geographic Magazine is to progress, it must constantly improve the quality of its illustrations...” At first he borrowed, then bought and probably would have stolen “dynamical” photographs, if in 1915 he had not engaged Franklin L. Fisher as his Chief of Illustrations.
  15. ^ Wentzel, Volmar K (1998). "GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR, FATHER OF PHOTOJOURNALISM". Cosmos Club. Cosmos Club. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  16. ^ "Milestone Photos". Photo Galleries - Celebrating 125 Years. National Geographic Society. 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  17. ^ "Named The Best Travel Photos Of The Year, And They Are Stunning". Digg.com. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  18. ^ "Maps of the News – December 2009 Edition", Contours, The Official National Geographic Maps Blog, posted December 17, 2009,
  19. ^ Grosvenor, Gilbert (1950). Map Services of the National Geographic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. A Map Cabinet containing over eighteen National Geographic maps has been presented to every U.S. president since President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  20. ^ National Geographic
  21. ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard. "National Geographic Wins 3 Awards, Honored Beyond Photography". The New York Times, May 2, 2008. Accessed January 8, 2010.
  22. ^ "American Society of Magazine Editors database". Magazine.org. Retrieved 2014-07-13.
  23. ^ Howard, Brian Clark (May 1, 2014). "National Geographic Wins National Magazine Awards". NGS. National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 18, 2016. The annual National Magazine Awards are considered the premier awards for magazine journalism and are administered by the American Society of Magazine Editors in association with the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. Winners were announced at a dinner in New York.
  24. ^ "ELLIE AWARDS 2017 WINNERS ANNOUNCED | ASME". www.magazine.org. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
  25. ^ "Faking it: Manipulated Photography Before Photoshop", Mia Fineman. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. Retrieved 28 jan 2017
  26. ^ Paul G. Bahn (1998). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Prehistoric Art. Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0521454735.
  27. ^ "National Geographic Admits Photo Fraud (Plus: 10 Major Photoshopping Scandals)", Antonina Jedrzejczak. Business Insider. June 11, 2010. Retrieved 28 jan 2017
  28. ^ "National Geographic admits 'racist' past". BBC News. 2018-03-13. Retrieved 2018-03-13.

Further reading

  • Robert M. Poole, Explorers House: National Geographic and the World it Made, 2004; reprint, Penguin Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-14-303593-0
  • Stephanie L. Hawkins, American Iconographic: "National Geographic," Global Culture, and the Visual Imagination, University of Virginia Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-8139-2966-8, 264 pages. A scholarly study of the magazine's rise as a cultural institution that uses the letters of its founders and its readers; argues that National Geographic encouraged readers to question Western values and identify with others.
  • Moseley, W.G. 2005. “Reflecting on National Geographic Magazine and Academic Geography: The September 2005 Special Issue on Africa” African Geographical Review. 24: 93–100.

External links

21st Century Fox

Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., doing business as 21st Century Fox, is an American multinational mass media corporation that is based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It is one of the two companies formed from the 2013 spin-off of the publishing assets of News Corporation, as founded by Rupert Murdoch in 1979.

21st Century Fox is the legal successor to News Corporation dealing primarily in the film and television industries. It is currently the United States' fourth-largest media conglomerate after The Walt Disney Company, Comcast and AT&T. The other company, the "new" News Corporation, holds Murdoch's print interests and other media assets in Australia (both owned by him and his family via a family trust with 39% interest in each). Murdoch is co-executive chairman, while his sons Lachlan Murdoch and James Murdoch are co-executive chairman and CEO, respectively.

21st Century Fox's assets include the Fox Entertainment Group—owners of the 20th Century Fox film studio (the company's partial namesake) and a majority stake in National Geographic Partners—the commercial media arm of the National Geographic Society, among other assets. It also has significant foreign operations, including the prominent Indian television channel operator Star India. The company ranked No. 109 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.On July 27, 2018, 21st Century Fox shareholders agreed to sell the company to The Walt Disney Company for $71.3 billion, following the spin-off of certain businesses. The sale will include key assets such as 20th Century Fox, FX Networks, National Geographic Partners, and its international networks. Assets such as the Fox television network, Fox Television Stations, and Fox News Channel will be spun off into a new company owned by current 21st Century Fox shareholders, which is called Fox Corporation, while the entirety of Sky plc (a British media group which Fox held a stake in) was acquired by Comcast following a bidding war with Fox. The purchase is expected to be completed by March 2019.

Animal Jam

Animal Jam is an online virtual world launched in 2010 by WildWorks. With about 160 million registered players, Animal Jam is one of the fastest-growing online children's properties in the world. Animal Jam is free to play using most of the game's features, but exclusives can only be obtained by purchasing a membership.

In Animal Jam, players discover and learn various facts about zoology using the game's numerous features, including mini-games, adventures, parties, and social interactions. Due to its growing popularity, Animal Jam has spawned different types of merchandise, including figurine toys, children's books, and a subscription box.

Although Animal Jam is primarily played online, the Animal Jam universe has been expanded to incorporate mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and iOS devices. The most popular Animal Jam mobile app is Play Wild which is a 3D version of the Animal Jam world. However, WildWorks has also developed other apps that are based on the Animal Jam game.

Cengage

Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide. It has operations in more than 20 countries around the world.

Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Since around 1850, Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border also does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey, Russia and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary also places two comparatively small countries, Azerbaijan and Georgia, in both continents.

Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.

Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.

The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.

In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union (EU), a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls among most of its member states. The European Anthem is "Ode to Joy", and states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.

Fox Entertainment Group

The Fox Entertainment Group is an American entertainment company that operates through four segments, mainly filmed entertainment, and cable network programming. The company is the owner of 20th Century Fox, Fox Networks Group, and FX Networks. It is wholly owned and controlled by the American media conglomerate 21st Century Fox, which is chaired and partially owned by Rupert Murdoch. 21st Century Fox was formerly known as News Corporation, which acquired all the stock of Fox Entertainment Group in 2005. In 2013, News Corporation was renamed 21st Century Fox and its publishing assets were spun off into the newly formed News Corp as part of a corporate re-organization.It is named after William Fox, born Vilmos Fried Fuchs, who created the original 20th Century Fox Film Corporation.

Fox Networks Group

Fox Networks Group is 21st Century Fox's primary operating unit for television distribution. It produces and distributes 300+ entertainment, sports, factual and movie channels in 45 languages across Latin America, Europe, Asia and Africa, using several brands, including STAR India, National Geographic Channel and Baby TV. Among their non-linear brands are Fox Now and Hotstar. These brands reach over 1.725 billion households around the world.

Fox Networks Group consists of Fox Television Group, Fox Cable Networks (which includes FX Networks), National Geographic Partners and Fox Networks Digital Consumer Group.

Genius (U.S. TV series)

Genius is an American anthology period drama television series developed by Noah Pink and Kenneth Biller that premiered on April 25, 2017 on National Geographic.

The first season follows the life of Albert Einstein, from his early years, through his time as a patent clerk, to his later years as a physicist who developed the theory of relativity; the season is based on the 2007 book Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. In April 2017, National Geographic renewed the series for a second season, which follows the life and artistry of Pablo Picasso and aired from April 24 to June 19, 2018. In April 2018, National Geographic renewed the series for a third season set to follow the life of writer Mary Shelley.

Geographic Names Information System

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names.

The database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are also recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier. The database never removes an entry, "except in cases of obvious duplication."

List of programs broadcast by National Geographic

The following is a list of programs broadcast by National Geographic (U.S. TV channel).

Nat Geo People

Nat Geo People, formerly known as Adventure One (A1) and National Geographic Adventure (commonly abbreviated to Nat Geo Adventure), is a subscription TV channel part of National Geographic Channels International and 21st Century Fox. Targeted at female audiences, with programming focusing on people and cultures, the channel is available in 50 countries in both linear and non-linear formats.

Nat Geo Wild

Nat Geo Wild (stylized as Nat Geo WILD or abbreviated as NGW) is an international pay TV network focused primarily on wildlife and natural history programming. It is a sister network to National Geographic Channel, and the latest channel to be jointly launched by the National Geographic Society and Fox Cable Networks.

The channel first launched in Hong Kong on January 1, 2006. It later launched in the United Kingdom, Turkey, Ireland, Romania, India, Vietnam, and Poland replacing the now defunct Adventure One. The channel remains the world's first bilingual wildlife service, available in English and Cantonese in the Hong Kong market as well as Tagalog in The Philippines. It launched in Latin America on November 1, 2009 as a high definition channel. In 2010, it launched in the United States.

As of February 2015, approximately 57,891,000 American households (49.7% of households with television) receive Nat Geo Wild.

National Geographic (Asia)

National Geographic (Nat Geo Asia, was formerly known as NBC Asia from 1 January 1994 until 31 July 1998) is a 24-hour Asian subscription television channel that features non-fiction, factual programming involving nature, science, culture and history, produced by the National Geographic Society, just like History and the Discovery Channel.

It was launched on 1 January 1994 by the partnership and distribution with STAR TV, Fox International Channels, and now Fox Networks Group is a Hong Kong-based pan-Asian satellite network owned by Rupert Murdoch's 21st Century Fox a replacing the NBC Asia channel on 1 August 1998. As of 2008, the Asian version of National Geographic Channel is available in over 56 million homes. NGC Asia has six different channels feeds.

National Geographic (Australia and New Zealand)

National Geographic is a subscription television network in Australia and New Zealand that features documentaries. It features programming around subjects such as nature, science, culture and history documentaries plus some reality and pseudo-scientific entertainment programming. It is the Oceanic version of the American National Geographic channel and owned by Fox International Channels.

National Geographic (Canada)

National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel) is a Canadian English language Category B specialty channel owned by Corus Entertainment and National Geographic Channel (U.S.). It features documentary and human interest programming that explores the natural world. The service, like its international counterparts, is based on National Geographic Magazine.

National Geographic (Scandinavia)

National Geographic Channel is a television channel broadcasting documentaries and related programmes to the Nordic countries. It is owned by the NGC-UK Partnership, which was in the first ten years of its existence, owned by the National Geographic Society and British Sky Broadcasting. In December 2006, Sky's parent company News Corporation (now 21st Century Fox), acquired 25 percent of the company. This meant that BSkyB owned half company, while National Geographic Television and News Corp held 25 percent share each. In December 2007, BSkyB sold its stake in the partnership to the Fox Entertainment Group.The National Geographic Channel was launched in Scandinavia in September 1997 when BSkyB launched the Sky News & Documentaries channel, carrying National Geographic between 8 p.m. and 2 p.m. (CET) with The Computer Channel between 6 and 8 p.m. and Sky News the remaining time. The broadcasting hours has since then been extended and as of 2006 the channel is broadcasting from noon to 6 a.m., showing CNBC Nordic in the morning.

Programmes and continuity has English audio, with subtitles in Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian. Advertising has sound in different languages.

The channel is carried on most digital cable networks in the region, including TDC Kabel TV and Com Hem. Initially it was only available on satellite from Canal Digital, but it launched on the Viasat satellite platform on 15 August 2006.

In the digital terrestrial networks the channel has been available from the launch of the RiksTV platform in September 2007. In March 2008, the channel received a license to broadcast terrestrially in Sweden, but its launch has been postponed. It is also available terrestrially on the Faroe Islands. The channel is not available in the Finnish terrestrial network.

The sister channel Adventure One had moderate carriage for some time in Scandinavia. Adventure One was replaced by Nat Geo Wild in some cable networks in 2007. On 24 February 2009, Nat Geo Wild was launched on the Viasat satellite platform. It had then already launched on the Swedish Com Hem network on 8 January 2009.The National Geographic Channel HD was launched into the Nordic region on the Canal Digital platform on 1 April 2007. In January 2008, the HD channel was launched on the Viasat platform. It came to Com Hem in Sweden on 23 May 2008.On 13 May 2009 special feeds of the channel for the Danish and Norwegian markets were launched.

National Geographic (TV network)

National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network and flagship channel that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.

The flagship channel airs non-fiction television programs produced by National Geographic and other production companies. Like History and Discovery Channel, the channel features documentaries with factual content involving nature, science, culture, and history, plus some reality and pseudo-scientific entertainment programming. Its primary sister network worldwide, including the United States, is Nat Geo Wild, which focuses on animal-related programming, including the popular Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan.

As of February 2015, National Geographic is available to approximately 86,144,000 pay television households (74% of households with television) in the United States.

National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational organizations in the world. Founded in 1888, its interests include geography, archaeology, and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. The National Geographic Society's logo is a yellow portrait frame—rectangular in shape—which appears on the margins surrounding the front covers of its magazines and as its television channel logo. In partnership with 21st Century Fox, the Society operates the magazine, TV channels, a website, worldwide events, and other media operations.

StarPlus

StarPlus is an Indian pay television channel owned by Star India. The network's programming consists of family dramas, comedies, youth-oriented reality shows, shows on crime and television films. It is also distributed internationally by Fox Networks Group, subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.

Star Jalsha

Star Jalsha (স্টার জলসা) is a leading Bengali Language General Entertainment (GEC) television channel owned by STAR India.

Its programming includes a mix of family dramas, comedies, reality shows, shows on crime and telefilms. The channel also airs the latest Bengali films. The channel launched its HD feed on 14 April 2016.

The channel is distributed worldwide by Fox International Channels, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.

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