National Fascist Community

The National Fascist Community (Czech: Národní obec fašistická, NOF, sometimes translated as National Fascist League) was a Czechoslovak Fascist movement led by Radola Gajda, and based on the Fascism of Benito Mussolini.[4]

National Fascist Community

Czech: Národní obec fašistická
Slovak: Národná obec fašistická
LeaderRadola Gajda
FoundedMarch 1926
Dissolved22 November 1938
Merged intoParty of National Unity
HeadquartersPrague[1]
IdeologyCzech nationalism
Fascism[2][3]
Antisemitism[3]
Pan-Slavism[3]
Political positionFar-right
Colours     Black
Slogan"Blaho vlasti budiž nejvyšším zákonem"
(English: Let the Welfare of the Homeland be the Supreme Law)
Anthem
"Hej, Slované"[3]
"Hey, Slavs"
Party flag
Flag-used-combination-white-blue-red

Formation and ideology

The party was formed in March 1926 by the merger of a group of dissident National Democrats known as the "Red-Whites" with various other rightist groups across Bohemia and Moravia.[5] It was distinguished by a strong current of opposition to Germany, which continued even after Adolf Hitler had come to power. The NOF instead looked to Italy as its model, and based itself wholly on Mussolini's National Fascist Party. In this respect it differed markedly from its chief rival Vlajka, which was firmly in the Hitler camp.[4] Groups targeted by the NOF for criticism included the Jews, communists, the Czechoslovak government and the Magyars.[5] It set up a youth group and a trade union movement, although the latter was minor. The group also advocated a policy of Pan-Slavism, and hoped to take a joint lead with Poland of a grand Slavic alliance that would overthrow communism in the Soviet Union. They also believed in a corporatist economy with a large agricultural sector.[4] The NOF attracted some early support from veterans of the Czechoslovak Legions.[6] It was estimated by a government informer that the NOF had as many as 200,000 followers in 1926, although it had virtually no support in the Slovak area as the far right there was dominated by an indigenous movement.[5]

Activity

National Fascist Community Badge
Badge of the National Fascist Community with official party motto.

The NOF regularly indulged in street-fighting tactics, clashing frequently with the National Labour Party, a moderate left-wing party led by Jaroslav Stránský. Such was the frequency of NOF attacks on Stránský and fellow leader Václav Bouček in 1927 that both men were provided with bodyguards by the government.[7] The NOF even made plans for a possible coup d'etat and secured the support of Slovak paramilitary group Rodobrana in this endeavour although ultimately the plans were intercepted by Brno police and thus shelved.[8]

Decline

RadolaGajda
Poster of General Radola Gajda.

In the 1929 elections the NOF ran under the name "Against Fixed-Order Lists",[9] but won three seats. Gajda was elected to Parliament, but the party failed to maintain its support, and received only 2% of the vote and seven seats in Chamber of Deputies in the elections of 1935.[4]

The NOF attempted a comeback during the German occupation,[9] although the Nazis had no time for the NOF due to their earlier criticism and their overall minor status. Ultimately the NOF were disbanded and largely absorbed into the puppet National Partnership, Gajda having been bribed to leave politics.[10] The party's demise was sealed in late 1939 when they organised a rally in Prague's Wenceslas Square and only managed to attract 300 supporters.[11]

Electoral results

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1935 167,433 (#12) 2.0
6 / 300
Increase 6
Senate
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1935 145,125 (#13) 2.0
0 / 150
Increase

References

  1. ^ Dana, Massowová (2007). "Národní obec fašistická na Bučovicku za první republiky" (PDF) (in Czech). Masaryk University. p. 11. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  2. ^ http://slechta.bigbloger.lidovky.cz/c/392077/Ceskym-fasistum.html
  3. ^ a b c d Nakonečný, Milan (2006). Český fašismus (in Czech). Vodnář. p. 428. ISBN 80-86226-73-5.
  4. ^ a b c d Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism 1914-1945, London, Roultedge, 2001, p. 309
  5. ^ a b c Andrea Orzoff, Battle for the castle: the myth of Czechoslovakia in Europe, 1914-1948, Oxford University Press US, 2009, p. 100
  6. ^ Andrew C. Janos, East Central Europe in the modern world: the politics of the borderlands, Stanford University Press, 2002, p. 170
  7. ^ Orzoff, Battle for the castle, p. 102
  8. ^ Orzoff, Battle for the castle, p. 101
  9. ^ a b Vincent E McHale (1983) Political parties of Europe, Greenwood Press, p149 ISBN 0-313-23804-9
  10. ^ Payne, A History of Fascism, p. 426
  11. ^ Benjamin Frommier, National cleansing: retribution against Nazi collaborators in postwar Czechoslovakia, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 21
1935 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

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1935 Czechoslovak presidential election

The 1935 Czechoslovak presidential election took place on 18 December 1935. Edvard Beneš was elected the second President of Czechoslovakia and replaced Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Beneš's victory was considered unlikely due to lack of support in a parliament but negotiations helped him to win much larger support than Masaryk has ever received.

1935 Slovak provincial election

Provincial elections were held in Slovak Province on 26 May 1935. They elections were marked by victory of Autonomous Bloc of Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, Slovak National Party, Autonomous Agrarian Union and others.

Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890

The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.

It contains entries for what the author regards as "the 500 major figures on the radical right, extreme right, and revolutionary right from 1890 to the present" (publisher's blurb).

It was published, as a 418-page hardcover, in New York by Simon & Schuster in 1990 (ISBN 0-13-089301-3).

In the introduction Rees discusses his criterion for inclusion in the book. He describes the extreme right as "opposed to parliamentary forms of democratic representation and hostile to pluralism."(xvii)

Among those it covers are Argentinian nationalists, Mexican sinarquistas, American nativist demagogues, Brazilian Integralists, German National Socialists, Portuguese National Syndicalists, Spanish Falangists, and Belgian Rexists.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Elections in the First Czechoslovak Republic

Parliamentary elections in the First Czechoslovak Republic were held in 1920, 1925, 1929 and 1935. The Czechoslovak National Assembly consisted of two chambers, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, both elected through universal suffrage. During the First Republic, many political parties struggled for political influence and only once did a single party muster a quarter of the national vote. Parties were generally set up along ethnic lines.

Fascism in Europe

Fascism in Europe was composed of numerous ideologies that were present during the 20th century and they all developed their own differences with each other. Fascism was born in Italy, but subsequently several fascist movements emerged across Europe and they borrowed influences from the Italian Fascism. The origins of fascism in Europe began outside of Italy and can be observed in the combining of a traditional national unity and revolutionary anti-democratic rhetoric espoused by integral nationalist Charles Maurras and revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel in France. The first foundations of fascism can be seen in the Italian Regency of Carnaro, many of its politics and aesthetics were taken from Gabriele D'Annunzio's rule and they were subsequently used by Benito Mussolini and his Italian Fasci of Combat which he had founded as the Fasci of Revolutionary Action in 1914. Despite the fact that its members referred to themselves as "fascists", the ideology was based around national syndicalism. The ideology of fascism would not fully develop until 1921 when Mussolini transformed his movement into the National Fascist Party which then in 1923 incorporated the Italian Nationalist Association. The INA was a nationalist movement that established fascist tropes, colored shirt uniforms for example, and also received the support of important proto-fascists like D'Annunzio and nationalist intellectual Enrico Corradini.

The first declaration of the political stance of fascism was the Fascist Manifesto written by national syndicalist Alceste De Ambris and futurist poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published in 1919. Many of the contents of the manifesto such as centralization, the abolition of the senate, formation of national councils loyal to the state, expanded military and support for militias (Blackshirts for example) were adopted by Mussolini's regime whilst other calls such as universal suffrage and a peaceful foreign policy were abandoned. De Ambris would later become a prominent anti-fascist. In 1932 The Doctrine of Fascism was published written by Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile providing an outline of fascism that better represented Mussolini's regime.

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A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

List of political parties in Czechoslovakia

This article lists political parties in Czechoslovakia (1918–1992).

NOF

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National Fascist Community (Národní Obec Fašistická), a Czechoslovakian Fascist movement

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Olšany Cemetery

Olšany Cemeteries (Olšanské hřbitovy in Czech, Wolschan in German) is the largest graveyard in Prague, Czech Republic, once laid out for as many as two million burials. The graveyard is particularly noted for its many remarkable art nouveau monuments.

Order of the Falcon (Czechoslovakia)

The Order of the Falcon of Štefánik (Czech: Štefánikův Řád Sokola), also known unofficially as the Štefánikův Order was a Czechoslovak order established in November 1918.

Party of National Unity (Czechoslovakia)

The Party of National Unity (Czech: Strana národní jednoty or Strana národního sjednocení) was a party created on 21 November 1938 in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia after the occupation of large parts of the country by Germany (Munich Agreement) and Hungary (First Vienna Award) as a kind of last attempt to unify forces to save Czechoslovakia from disappearing. Its Slovak equivalent in the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia was the Hlinka's Slovak Peoples Party - Party of Slovak National Unity created on 8 November.

It included most of all previous Czech political parties - absolute majority of Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants, National Unification, Czechoslovak Traders' Party, National Fascist Community, minor parties like National League, Czechoslovak Christian Social Party, National People's Party and part of Czechoslovak People's Party and Czechoslovak National Social Party

Ideologically the party was corporatist and quasi-fascist. The Party's chairman was the Prime Minister Rudolf Beran.

The party was forcibly dissolved after the creation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939. A part of the membership created the Národní souručenství (in English approx. National Partnership), the only Czech political organization permitted by the Germans in the Protectorate.

Radola Gajda

Radola Gajda, born as Rudolf Geidl (14 February 1892, Kotor, Kingdom of Dalmatia, Austria-Hungary – 15 April 1948, Prague, Czechoslovakia was a military commander and politician.

Vlajka

Vlajka means flag in Czech. You may be after the flag article, or the flag of the Czech Republic.Český národně socialistický tábor — Vlajka (Czech National Socialist Camp — Vlajka) or simply Vlajka (in Czech The Flag) was the name of a small Czech fascist, antisemitic and nationalist movement, and its corresponding publication. The publication itself was founded in 1928, its first editor being Miloš Maixner. During the time of German occupation the organisation collaborated with the Nazis for which it was banned and its members were punished after the liberation.

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