National Emblem of the People's Republic of China

The National Emblem of the People's Republic of China contains in a red circle a representation of Tiananmen Gate, the entrance gate to the Forbidden City, where Mao declared the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. Above this representation are the five stars found on the national flag. The largest star represents the Communist Party of China, while the four smaller stars represent the four social classes as defined in Maoism. The emblem is described as being "composed of patterns of the national flag":[1]

...The red color of the flag symbolizes revolution and the yellow color of the stars the golden brilliant rays radiating from the vast red land. The design of four smaller stars surrounding a bigger one signifies the unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

—China Yearbook 2004[2]

The outer border of the red circle shows sheaves of wheat and the inner sheaves of rice, which together represent agricultural workers. At the center of the bottom portion of the border is a cog-wheel that represents industrial workers.

According to The Description of the National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国国徽图案说明), these elements taken together symbolise the revolutionary struggles of the Chinese people since the May Fourth Movement and the coalition of the proletariat which succeeded in founding the People's Republic of China.

National Emblem of the People's Republic of China
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2)
ArmigerPeople's Republic of China
AdoptedSeptember 20, 1950
BlazonRed disc with a representation below of the Tiananmen, the entrance gate of the Forbidden City as seen from the Tiananmen Square in Beijing and five stars above. The outer border is composed of sheaves of wheat and the inner border of sheaves of rice, with a cog-wheel at the center of the bottom portion of the border.
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China
Traditional Chinese中華人民共和國國徽
Simplified Chinese中华人民共和国国徽

History

Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) logo
Emblem of CPPCC, designed by China Central Academy of Fine Arts, which their first round proposal was based on.

On July 10, 1949 the government held a public competition for the design of the national emblem, however no satisfactory designs were selected. Therefore, on September 27, 1949, the First Plenary Session of CPPCC decided to invite designers for the proposals of the national emblem and two groups from two universities were selected in September 1949. Three proposals were selected for the first round discussion:

  • The designers from China Central Academy of Fine Arts, Zhang Ding, Zhang Guangyu, Zhou Lingzhao and Zhong Ling, handed out their proposals with 5 variations on September 25, 1949. The symbolism of their first design was: The red star symbolizes Communism and the Communist party of China. The cog and wheat/rice symbolizes unification of industrial workers and peasants. The rising earth with China in red symbolizes the socialist revolution in China and the world revolution ideal on Asian counties. 31 rays behind the earth symbolizes the 31 provincial administrative divisions at that time. The name of the People's Republic of China is written on the red ribbon below.[3] The design was based on their design of the emblem of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and was influenced by Socialist heraldry of the Eastern Bloc.
  • The designers from the Department of Architecture at Tsinghua University, Liang Sicheng, Lin Huiyin, Mo Zongjiang, Zhu Changzhong, Li Zongjin and Gao Zhuang, handed their proposal on October 30, 1949. According to their proposal, the design was a mixture of traditional Chinese culture and Maoist New Democratic Revolution ideals. The design imitated the style of mirrors in Han dynasty, symbolizing brightness. The disc was made of jade, a symbol of peace and unity. Decorative carvings on the disc was in Tang dynasty style. The stars from national flag and a cog were placed in the center of the disc, surrounded by wheats, symbolizing unity of working class and socialism. The red ribbon tied a smaller jade ring, symbolising the unification of Chinese people.[4]
  • The other proposal by Zhang Ding, Zhang Guangyu, Zhou Lingzhao, was a perspective depiction of Tian'anmen gate.
Emblem of China Draft CAFA 1949-9

Proposals of China Central Academy of Fine Arts, September 25, 1949

PRC Emblem Draft Lin Huiyin

Proposal of Tsinghua University, October 30, 1949

The China National Emblem's Design, Tsinghua University
Second round proposals by Tsinghua University

Members of the first CPPCC committee discussed these three proposals on June 10, 1950. The result of the discussion was, the China Central Academy of Fine Arts proposal was too colorful that would be regarded as trademarks, and proposal from Tsinghua University was regarded as bourgeoisie that contains many traditional symbols. The committee suggested two groups to include the Tian'anmen Gate, a symbol of Chinese revolution which is the location of May Fourth Movement and foundation ceremony of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949.[5]

Two groups then worked on a second round proposals. The second proposal from Tsinghua University standardized the design of the Tian'anmen Gate on the emblem and selected red and yellow as the main colors.[6] Their proposal was selected and the design was standardized and simplified by Gao Zhuang.[7] This design was officially made the national emblem on 20 September 1950 by the Central People's Government.

Draft Zhangding

Proposal of China Central Academy of Fine Arts
June 15, 1950

Emblem of China Draft THU 1950-6-17

Proposal of Tsinghua University
June 17, 1950

Construction

National standard of China: GB 15093-2008 specifies the construction, material and color of the national emblem.

Proportion Construction
GB 15093-2008 Pic 2 GB 15093-2008 Pic 3

City Emblem and Special administrative region Emblem

In April 15, 1985, Taiyuan City officially announced its emblem, becoming the first city in the People's Republic of China to have a city emblem.

Hong Kong and Macao have each its own emblem. The National People's Congress have passed the standardized use of the two special administrative regions' emblems.

City

Special administrative regions

Historic emblems

Twelve Symbols national emblem of China

Emblem of the Republic of China (1912–1927) and the Empire of China (1915–1916)

National Emblem of the Republic of China

Emblem of the Republic of China (1928–present)

National Emblem of the Chinese Soviet Republic

Emblem of the Chinese Soviet Republic (1931–1937)

Emblem of the Emperor of Manchukuo

Emblem and Seal of Manchukuo (1932–1945)

National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2)

Emblem of the People's Republic of China (1950–present)

References

  1. ^ Description of the National Emblem from Chinese Government web portal. Archived 2012-05-02 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ National flag Archived 2007-06-04 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ 国徽图案参考资料, Reference on proposals of national emblem, 1949.
  4. ^ 徐志摩诗文网 Archived 2013-05-14 at the Wayback Machine, 拟制国徽图案说明, Explanation of national emblem proposal
  5. ^ 到底是谁设计了国徽,新华网
  6. ^ 正投影 国徽设计中亮丽的一笔 Archived 2013-05-14 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ 高庄:命运多舛的国徽浮雕定型设计者

External links

See also

1954 Constitution of the People's Republic of China

The 1954 Constitution of the People's Republic of China was adopted and enacted on September 20, 1954, through the first session of the First National People’s Congress in Beijing.

Armorial of Asia

Below is a list of national emblems and coats of arms used by Asian countries, territories and regions.

Chairman of the Central Military Commission

The Chairman of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会主席) is the head of the Central Military Commission of China (CMC) and thereby the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army. The officeholder is usually General Secretary of the Communist Party of China or Chairman of the Communist Party of China.

According to Chapter 3, Section 4 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, "The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country. The Central Military Commission is composed of the following: The Chairman; The Vice-Chairmen; and Members". The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as that of the National People's Congress. Two people currently serve as Vice-Chairmen.

The CMC Chairman is the supreme commander of the world's largest military forces, People's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police and People's Liberation Army militia. Furthermore, the officeholder is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals.

According to the principle of "Party Commands the Gun", the officeholder of this post would also assume the responsibility of the state counterpart.

Chinese Consulate-General, Surabaya

The Consulate-General of the People's Republic of China in Surabaya (Chinese: 中华人民共和国驻泗水总领事馆; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhù Sìshuǐ Zŏnglĭngshìguān) is a diplomatic mission of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Indonesia at Jalan Mayjend Soengkono, No. 105, Dukuh Pakis, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Communist symbolism

Communist symbolism represents a variety of themes, including revolution, the proletariat, peasantry, agriculture, or international solidarity.

Communist states, parties and movements use these symbols to advance and create solidarity within their cause. These symbols often appear in yellow and red. The flag of the Soviet Union incorporated a yellow-outlined red star and a yellow hammer and sickle on red. The flags of Vietnam, China, North Korea, Angola and Mozambique would all incorporate similar symbolism under communist rule.

The hammer and sickle have become the pan-communist symbol, appearing on the flags of most communist parties around the world. Some parties have a modified version of hammer and sickle as their symbol, most notably the Workers' Party of Korea which includes a hammer representing industrial workers, a hoe representing agricultural workers and a brush (traditional writing-implement) representing the intelligentsia.

In Hungary, Latvia, Indonesia, Poland, Ukraine and Lithuania, communist symbols are banned and displays in public for non-educational use are considered a criminal offense.

Constitutional oath of office of China

The constitutional oath of office of China was implemented on January 1, 2016 through a decision by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China. The oath requirement applies to state civil servants elected or appointed by the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee at or above the county level.

Embassy of China, London

The Embassy of China in London is the diplomatic mission of China in the United Kingdom. Established in 1877 as the Chinese Legation, the London mission was China's first permanent overseas diplomatic mission. It has served as the diplomatic mission of the Manchu Qing Empire, Republic of China and (since 1950) the People's Republic of China. It was the location of the Qing Empire's detention of Sun Yat-sen, an important episode in the Chinese revolution of 1911. It remains today the focal point for events relating to China held in the United Kingdom, including celebrations in 2012 to commemorate 40 years of diplomatic relations between the UK and the People's Republic of China.Most applications by UK citizens for visas to China are not handled by the embassy, however, but are instead processed by the China Visa Applications Centre, also located in London. There is a constant police presence outside the embassy.

China also maintains several other buildings in London: a Defence Section at 25 Lyndhurst Road, Hampstead, a Commercial Section at 16 Lancaster Gate, Paddington, a Cultural Section at 11 West Heath Road, Hampstead and a Science & Technology Section at 10 Greville Place, Maida Vale. In addition, there are Chinese consulates-general in Manchester, Edinburgh and Belfast.The embassy has in recent years been the site of protests against actions of the Chinese government, including protests against the imprisonment of artist Ai Weiwei, and in favour of Tibetan independence. There has been a Falun Gong protester sitting opposite the embassy for many years; this is referenced in the novel Saturday by Ian McEwan.

Despite 2013 rumours that the embassy was to move from Portland Place to a new development in Nine Elms, in 2018 the Chinese government purchased Royal Mint Court with plans to develop the site for a new embassy building.

Emblem of Vietnam

The emblem of Vietnam is circular, has red background and a yellow star in the middle which represent the Communist Party of Vietnam, the revolutionary history and bright future of Vietnam. The cog and crops represent the cooperation of agriculture and industrial labor.According to the Constitution of Vietnam:

The National Emblem is circular in shape; in the middle of a red background is a fivepointed gold star framed by rice ears below which is half a cog wheel and the inscription "Socialist Republic of Vietnam".

Exit-Entry Permit for Travelling to and from Hong Kong and Macau

The Exit-Entry Permit for Travelling to and from Hong Kong and Macau (Chinese: 往来港澳通行证), colloquially known as a Two-way Permit (Chinese: 双程证) or EEP (Exit-Entry Permit) is issued to Chinese nationals with residency in Mainland China as a travel document for the sole purpose to travel the Chinese Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau. The Bureau of Exit and Entry Administration of the Chinese Ministry of Public Security is responsible for the issuing of Two-way Permits and exit endorsements.

Due to the "One country, two systems" policy, Hong Kong, Macau and Mainland Chinese residents who are Chinese citizens cannot use their Chinese, Hong Kong, or Macau passports to enter their respective territories, even though those passports are considered legal valid travel document. The Two-way Permit is the sole travel document for personal visit, family reunion, business, and other non-government purposes to and from the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions. Exceptions are Mainland residents who are transiting to or from a third country or region, as they can use their Chinese passports when entering Hong Kong or Macau for a stay of seven days.

Lin Huiyin

Lin Huiyin (Chinese: 林徽因, born 林徽音; pinyin: Lín Huīyīn; known as Phyllis Lin or Lin Whei-yin when in the United States; 10 June 1904 – 1 April 1955) was a noted 20th-century Chinese architect and writer. She is known to be the first female architect in modern China and her husband the famed "Father of Modern Chinese Architecture" Liang Sicheng, both of whom worked as founders and faculty in the newly formed Architecture Department of Northeastern University in 1928 and, after 1949, as professors in Tsinghua University in Beijing. Liang and Lin began restoration work on cultural heritage sites of China in the post-imperial Republican Era of China; a passion which she would pursue to the end of her life. The American artist Maya Lin is her niece.

List of ambassadors of China to Barbados

The Ambassador of the People's Republic of China to Barbados is China's foremost diplomatic representative in Barbados, and in charge of China's diplomatic mission in the island nation.

List of ambassadors of China to Trinidad and Tobago

The Ambassador of the People's Republic of China to Trinidad and Tobago is China's foremost diplomatic representative in Trinidad and Tobago, and in charge of China's diplomatic mission in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

Macao Special Administrative Region passport

The Macao Special Administrative Region passport (Portuguese: Passaporte da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau; Chinese: 澳門特別行政區護照) is a passport issued to Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of Macau.

In accordance with Macau Basic Law, since the transfer of sovereignty over Macau on 20 December 1999, this passport has been issued by the Identification Services Bureau (under the Secretariat for Administration and Justice) of the government of Macau under the prerogative of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China.

The official languages of Macau are Portuguese and Chinese; consequently, all the passport's text is in traditional Chinese characters, Portuguese, and English.

National Supervisory Commission

National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China is the highest anti-corruption agency of the People's Republic of China, at the same administrative ranking as Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate. Its operations are merged with the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China. The National Supervision Commission was formed at the first session of the 13th National People's Congress in 2018. The Commission includes the director, deputy director, and ordinary members and the director is appointed by the National People's Congress.

Outline of China

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to China:

The People's Republic of China is the most extensive country in East Asia and the third or fourth most extensive country in the world. With a population of over 1,300,000,000, it is the most populous country in the world.

The Communist Party of China (CPC) has led the PRC under a one-party system since the state's establishment in 1949. The PRC is involved in a dispute over the political status of Taiwan. The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC). The term "Mainland China" is often used to denote the areas under PRC rule, but sometimes excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.

Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, and large research and development investments, China is considered an "emerging superpower". It has the world's second largest economy (largest in terms of purchasing power parity.) China is also a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Since 1978, China's market-based economic reforms have brought the poverty rate down from 53% in 1981 to 8% by 2001. However, China is now faced with a number of other socioeconomic problems, including an aging population, an increasing rural-urban income gap, and rapid environmental degradation.China plays a major role in international trade. The country is the world's largest consumer of steel and concrete, using, respectively, a third and over a half of the world's supply of each. Counting all products, China is the largest exporter and the second largest importer in the world.

Politics of Macau

Politics of Macau is a framework of political system, dominated by the People's Republic of China. It includes the legislature, the judiciary, the government, and a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Chief Executive.

Second series of the renminbi

The second series of Renminbi banknotes was introduced on March 1, 1955. Together with the introduction of the second series, the decimal point was moved 4 places to the left. As a result, one first series ¥10,000 note is equivalent to one second series ¥1 note.

Socialist heraldry

Socialist heraldry, also called communist heraldry, consists of emblems in a style typically adopted by communist states and filled with communist symbolism. Although commonly called coats of arms, most such devices are not actually coats of arms in the traditional heraldic sense and should therefore, in a strict sense, not be called arms at all. Many communist governments purposely diverged from the traditional forms of European heraldry in order to distance themselves from the monarchies that they usually replaced, with actual coats of arms being seen as symbols of the monarchs.

The Soviet Union was the first state to use socialist heraldry, beginning at its creation in 1922. The style became more widespread after World War II, when many other communist states were established. Even a few non-socialist (or communist) states have adopted the style, for various reasons —usually because communists had helped them to gain independence. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the other communist states in Eastern Europe in 1989–1991, this style of heraldry was often abandoned for the old heraldic practices, with many (but not all) of the new governments reinstating the traditional heraldry that was previously cast aside.

Tiananmen

The Tian'anmen (also Tiananmen or Tienanmen) ([tʰjɛ́n.án.mə̌n]), or the Gate of Heavenly Peace, is a monumental gate in the centre of Beijing, widely used as a national symbol of China. First built during the Ming dynasty in 1420, Tiananmen was the entrance to the Imperial City, within which the Forbidden City was located. Tiananmen is located to the north of Tiananmen Square, separated from the plaza by Chang'an Avenue.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guóhuī
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Culture
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.