National Democratic Party of Germany

The National Democratic Party of Germany (German: Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands or NPD) is a far-right[12] and ultranationalist[13] political party in Germany.

The party was founded in 1964 as successor to the German Reich Party (German: Deutsche Reichspartei, DRP). Party statements also self-identify the party as Germany's "only significant patriotic force".[14] On 1 January 2011, the nationalist German People's Union (German: Deutsche Volksunion) merged with the NPD and the party name of the National Democratic Party of Germany was extended by the addition of "The People's Union".[15]

The party is mostly described as a neo-Nazi organization[16][17][18][6][19] and has been referred to as "the most significant neo-Nazi party to emerge after 1945".[7] The German Federal Agency for Civic Education, or BPB, has criticized the NPD for working with members of organizations which were later found unconstitutional by the federal courts and disbanded,[20][21] while the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (German: Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz), Germany's domestic security agency, classifies the NPD as a "threat to the constitutional order" because of its platform and philosophy, and it is under their observation.[22] An effort to outlaw the party failed in 2003, because the government had a large number of informers and agents in the party, some in high position, who had written part of the material used against them.[68][23]

Since its founding in 1964, the NPD has never managed to win enough votes on the federal level to cross Germany's 5% minimum threshold for representation in the Bundestag; it has succeeded in crossing the 5% threshold and gaining representation in state parliaments 11 times, including one-convocation entry to 7 West German state parliaments between November 1966 and April 1968 and two-convocation electoral success in two East German states of Saxony and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern between 2004 and 2011.[24] Since 2016, the NPD is again not represented in state parliaments. Udo Voigt led the NPD from 1996 to 2011.[22] He was succeeded by Holger Apfel,[25] who in turn was replaced by Udo Pastörs in December 2013. In November 2014, Pastörs was ousted and Frank Franz became the party's leader. Voigt was elected the party's first Member of the European Parliament in 2014. The party lost the seat in the 2019 European Parliament election.

National Democratic Party of Germany

Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
PresidentFrank Franz
Founded28 November 1964
Merger ofGerman Empire Party[1][2]
German National People's Party
German Party
HeadquartersBerlin
NewspaperDeutsche Stimme
("German Voice")
Youth wingJunge Nationaldemokraten
IdeologyNeo-Nazism[3][4][5][6][7]
Ultranationalism[8][9]
Pan-Germanism[9]
Anti-globalism[10]
Anti-immigration
Hard Euroscepticism
Political positionFar-right
European affiliationAlliance for Peace and Freedom
International affiliationNone
European Parliament groupNon-Inscrits
Colours     Black
     White
     Red
     Brown (customary)[11]
Bundestag
0 / 709
State Parliaments
0 / 1,821
European Parliament
0 / 96
Party flag
Flag of the National Democratic Party of Germany
Website
www.npd.de
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD logo until the end of 2010

Platform and ideology

Udo Voigt-Rudolf Hess
Udo Voigt, former leader of the NPD, standing in front of a banner depicting Nazi leader Rudolf Hess. Hess, who died in prison in 1987, is considered a martyr by the NPD,[26] and the party attempted to nominate him for a Nobel Peace Prize in 2007.[27]

The NPD also endorses certain beliefs about human nature. NPD leader Udo Voigt states that the philosophy of the NPD differs from both communism and social liberalism in that it acknowledges people as unequal products of their societies and environments, largely governed by what is called natural law.

The NPD calls itself a party of "grandparents and grandchildren" because the 1960s generation in Germany, known for the leftist student movement, strongly opposes the NPD's policies. The NPD's economic program promotes social security for Germans and control against plutocracy. They discredit and reject the "liberal-capitalist system".[28]

The NPD argues that NATO fails to represent the interests and needs of European people. The party considers the European Union to be little more than a reorganisation of a Soviet-style government of Europe along financial lines.[29] Although highly critical of the EU, as long as Germany remains a part of it, the NPD opposes Turkey's incorporation into the organisation. Voigt envisions future collaboration and continued friendly relations with other nationalists and European national parties.

The NPD's platform asserts that Germany is larger than the present-day Federal Republic, and calls for a return of German territory lost after World War II, a foreign policy position abandoned by the German government in 1990.[30] At one point, a map of Germany was shown on the party website omitting the border that divides Germany from Austria. The NPD also failed to colour in the Oder–Neisse line, the border which established the limits of federal Germany to the east and was agreed upon with Poland in 1990.[31]

In the early 21st century, long-standing efforts to ban the party were renewed.[32] The 2005 report of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution contains the following description:

The party continues to pursue a "people's front" of the nationals [consisting of] the NPD, DVU, and forces not attached to any party, which is supposed to develop into a base for an encompassing 'German people's movement'. The aggressive agitation of the NPD unabashedly aims towards the abolition of parliamentary democracy and the democratic constitutional state, although the use of violence is currently still officially rejected for tactical reasons. Statements of the NPD document an essential affinity with National Socialism; its agitation is racist, antisemitic, homophobic, revisionist, and intends to disparage the democratic and lawful order of the constitution.[33]

Holger Apfel
Holger Apfel, NPD leader 2011-2013

International connections

David Duke and Udo Voigt (2002)
Udo Voigt and prominent American white nationalist David Duke.

Voigt has held meetings with various proponents of white nationalism, including David Duke, a US white nationalist, author, politician, and activist.[34] Between 1989 and 1992, the International Third Position began to ally itself with the NPD in Germany and Forza Nuova in Italy.[35]

They have been in contact with Youth Defence, the Irish anti-abortion group, since 1996.[36] Justin Barrett, former leader of Youth Defence and current President of the National Party of Ireland, has spoken at their events in Passau in 2000.[37][38]

Connections with Croatian far right

The party also has connections with far-right parties and politicians in Croatia. In 2017, according to the claims of Dražen Keleminec, president of the marginal far-right Autochthonous Croatian Party of Rights (A-HSP), NPD party member Alexander Neidlein took part in the party’s march to show their support and declare allegiance to then-recently elected American president Donald Trump. During the march, the party's members, dressed in black uniforms, were waving flags of the NPD and the USA while shouting the Ustasha salute "Za dom spremni". The following day, the U.S. embassy in Zagreb reacted by publishing a statement in which they strongly condemned the march and rejected any attempts to connect the USA with Ustasha ideology.[39]

In 2018, Croatian far-right MP Željko Glasnović took party in party congress in the town of Büdingen, expressing his support for them.[3]

History

Early history

In the 1950s, despite the overall failure of de-Nazification, early right-wing extremist parties in West Germany failed to attract voters away from the moderate government that had presided over Germany's recovery.[40] In November 1964, however, right-wing splinter groups united to form the NDP.[32] One of the four founding members was Adolf von Thadden (1921 - 1996), alleged to have been an agent for the British MI6. Thadden had a British grandmother and was NPD chairman from 1967 to 1971. Owing to von Thadden's effective leadership the NPD achieved success in the late 1960s, winning local government seats across West Germany. In 1966[41] and 1967, fuelled by West German discontent with a lagging economy and with the leadership of Chancellor Ludwig Erhard,[32] the NPD won 15 seats in Bavaria, 10 in lower Saxony, 8 in Hesse, and several other seats. However, the NPD did not then and has never since received the minimum 5% of votes in federal elections that allow a party to send delegates to the German Parliament. The NPD came closest to that goal in the 1969 election, when it received 4.3 per cent of the vote.[42] An economic downturn, frustrations with the emerging leftist youth counter-culture and the emergence of a coalition government between the center-right Christian Democratic Party (CDU), the Christian Social Union (the CDU's present-day sister party), and the center-left Social Democratic Party (SPD) helped to pave the way for those NPD gains. The coalition government had created a vacuum in the traditional political right wing, which the NPD tried to fill.[41] Additionally, the party benefited from hostility to the growing immigrant population and fears that the government would repudiate claims to the "lost territories" (pre-World War II German territory east of the Oder-Neisse River.)[43] The historian Walter Laqueur has argued that the NPD in the 1960s cannot be classified as a neo-Nazi party.[44]

Yet, when the coalition fell apart, around 75 per cent of those who had voted for the NPD drifted back to the center-right. During the 1970s, the NPD went into decline, suffering from an internal split over failing to get into the German Parliament. The issue of immigration spurred a small rebound in popular interest from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s, but the party only saw limited success in various local elections.[41]

Recent history

Electoral history

Since its founding in 1964, the NPD has only won seats in regional assemblies. Its successes in state parliaments can be grouped into two periods: the late 1960s (1966 in Hesse; 1967 in Bremen, Lower Saxony, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Schleswig-Holstein; and 1968 in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria), and former East Germany since reunification (2006 and 2011 in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 2004 and 2009 in Saxony).[24]

In the 2004 state election in Saxony, the NPD won 9.2% of the overall vote. After the 2009 state election in Saxony, the NPD sent eight representatives to the Saxony state parliament, having lost four representatives since the 2004 election. The NPD lost their representation in Saxony at the 2014 state election. They also lost all representation in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern at the 2016 state election.

The NPD maintained a non-competition agreement with the German People's Union (DVU) between 2004 and 2009. The third white nationalist-oriented party, the Republicans (REP), has so far refused to join this agreement. However, Kerstin Lorenz, a local representative of the Republicans in Saxony, sabotaged her party's registration to help the NPD in the Saxony election.[45]

In the 2005 federal elections, the NPD received 1.6 per cent of the vote nationally. It garnered the highest per cent of votes in the states of Saxony (4.9 per cent), Thuringia (3.7 per cent), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (3.5 per cent) and Brandenburg (3.2 per cent). In most other states, the party won around 1 percent of the total votes cast. In the 2006 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, the NPD received 7.3% of the vote and thus achieved state representation there, as well.[46]

The NPD had 5,300 registered party members in 2004.[47] Over the course of 2006, the NPD processed roughly 2,000 party applications to push the membership total over 7,200. In 2008, the trend of a growing number of members has been reversed and NPD's membership is estimated at about 7,000.[48]

In the 2014 European elections, Udo Voigt was elected as the party's first Member of the European Parliament.[49]

2001–2003 banning attempt

In 2001, the federal government, the Bundestag, and the Bundesrat jointly attempted to have the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ban the NPD. The court, the highest court in Germany, has the exclusive power to ban parties if they are found to be "anti-constitutional" through the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. However, the petition was rejected in 2003 after it was discovered that a number of the NPD's inner circle, including as many as 30 of its top 200 leaders were undercover agents or informants of the German secret services, like the federal Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. They include a former deputy chairman of the party and author of an anti-Semitic tract that formed a central part of the government's case. Since the secret services were unwilling to fully disclose their agents' identities and activities, the court found it impossible to decide which moves by the party were based on genuine party decisions and which were controlled by the secret services in an attempt to further the ban. The court determined that so many of the party's actions were influenced by the government that the resulting "lack of clarity" made it impossible to defend a ban. "The presence of the state at the leadership level makes influence on its aims and activities unavoidable," it concluded.[50]

Horst Mahler (NPD), a former member of the far-left terrorist organisation Red Army Faction, defended the NPD before the court. In May 2009, several state politicians published an extensive document[51] which they claim proves the NPD's opposition to the constitution without relying on information supplied by undercover agents. This move was intended to lead up to a second attempt to have the NPD banned.

Merger with DVU

At the 2010 NPD party conference at Bamberg it was announced that the party would ask its members to approve a merger with the German People's Union (DVU).[52] After the merger on 1 January 2011, the combined party briefly used the name NPD – Die Volksunion (NPD - The People's Union).[15] Between 2004 and 2009 the two parties had agreed not to compete against each other in elections. However, on 27 January 2011, Munich's Landgericht (regional court) in a preliminary injunction declared the merger null and void.[53]

World War II and Holocaust commemoration controversies

Dresden demo 2
Supporters of the NPD and other protesters in Dresden, 2009

On 21 January 2005, during a moment of silence in the Saxon state assembly in Dresden to mark the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the Nazi Auschwitz extermination camp, twelve members of the NPD walked out in protest. The NPD stated that they were upset that a moment of silence was being held for those who died in the Auschwitz camp and that none was being given for those who died during the bombing of Dresden in World War II, with the anniversary of both events falling relatively close to each other. Holger Apfel, leader of the NPD in Saxony and deputy leader of the party nationwide, made a speech in the Saxon State Parliament in which he called the Allied forces of the United States and the United Kingdom "mass murderers" because of their role in the bombing. His colleague Jürgen Gansel went on to describe the bombing itself as a "holocaust of bombs".

Voigt voiced his support and reiterated the statement, which some controversially claimed was a violation of the German law which forbids Holocaust denial. However, after judicial review, it was decided that Udo Voigt's description of the 1945 RAF bombing of Dresden as a holocaust was an exercise of free speech and "defamation of the dead" was not the purpose of his statement.[54]

In 2009, the NPD joined the Junge Landsmannschaft Ostdeutschland in a demonstration on the anniversary of the bombing of Dresden in World War II. Roughly 6,000 people came to participate in the event.[55][56]

Activism and controversy

The NPD's strategy has been to create "national free-zones" and circumvent its marginal electoral status by concentrating on regions where support is strongest. In March 2006, musician Konstantin Wecker tried to set up an in-school anti-fascist concert in Halberstadt, Saxony-Anhalt two weeks before the state elections. The NPD argued that because of politics, the date and the in-school venue, the concert "was an unacceptable form of political campaigning."[57] In protest, the NPD vowed to buy the tickets and turn up en masse at Wecker's show, which led local authorities to cancel the event. The Social Democrats and the Greens were outraged by the decision, which the Central Council of Jews in Germany criticized as "politically bankrupt".

The NPD was going to sponsor a march through Leipzig on 21 June 2006, as the 2006 World Cup was going on. The party wanted to show its support for the Iranian national football team, which was playing in Leipzig, and Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. However, the NPD decided against the demonstration; only a counter-demonstration took place that day, in support of Israel.[58] During the World Cup, the party's web site stated that due to the prevalence of people of non-German descent on the German national football team, the team "was not really German".

Later in 2006, the party designed leaflets, which said "White – not just the color of a jersey! For a true National team!"[59] This leaflet was never mass-distributed, but copies were confiscated during a raid on the NPD's headquarters, when authorities had been hoping to find material linking the party to Nazism. Patrick Owomoyela was later informed about the poster after it was noted that the image depicted a footballer wearing a white jersey with Owomoyela's number on it. Owomoyela, of Nigerian descent, had played for the German national team in the years before the World Cup and proceeded to file a lawsuit against the party. The party was able to delay the procedures but in April 2009 three party officials (Udo Voigt, Frank Schwerdt and Klaus Bieler) were sentenced for Volksverhetzung (Voigt and Bieler to 7 months on probation, Schwerdt to 10 months on probation).[60]

In November 2008, shortly after the 2008 United States presidential election, the NPD published a document entitled "Africa conquers the White House" which stated that the election of Barack Obama as the first African-American President of the United States was the result of "the American alliance of Jews and Negroes" and that Obama aimed to destroy the United States' "white identity". The NPD claimed, "A non-white America is a declaration of war on all people who believe an organically grown social order based on language and culture, history and heritage to be the essence of humanity" and "Barack Obama hides this declaration of war behind his pushy sunshine smile." The NPD also stated that the extensive support for Obama in Germany "resembles an African tropical disease."[61][62][63]

In September 2009, another incident involving the NPD and a football player of the German national team was reported. In a television show of a regional channel, NPD spokesman Beier called midfielder Mesut Özil a "Plaste-Deutscher" ("Plastic German" or "ID Card German"), meaning someone who is not born German, but becomes German by naturalisation, particularly for certain benefits. The German Football Association announced that they would immediately file a lawsuit against the NPD and their spokesman, if requested by Özil.[64]

During the Gaza War in 2009, the NPD planned a "Holocaust vigil" for Gaza in support of the Palestinians. Charlotte Knobloch, the head of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, said "joint hatred of everything Jewish is unifying neo-Nazis and Islamists." Knobloch claimed German-Palestinian protestors "unashamedly admitted" that they would vote for the NPD during the next election.[65]

In April 2009, the party was fined 2.5 million Euro for filing incorrect financial statements, resulting, according to German broadcaster Deutsche Welle, in "serious financial trouble" for its administration.[66]

On 23 September 2009, four days before the federal elections, German police raided the Berlin headquarters of the NPD to investigate claims that letters sent from the NPD to politicians from immigrant backgrounds incited racial hatred. The NPD leader in Berlin defended the letters saying that "As part of a democracy, we're entitled to say if something doesn't suit us in this country."[67][68][69][70]

2011 banning attempt

In 2011, authorities were reportedly trying to link the party, and specifically 30-year-old national organization director Patrick Wieschke, to the so-called "Zwickau terrorist cell". This raised the possibility of another effort to outlaw the party. The cell had been implicated in a string of murders and the November robbery of a savings bank in Eisenach. Authorities were also pursuing a gun case against Ralf Wohlleben, former deputy chairman of the party's branch in Thuringia, though the latter case was reportedly unlikely to translate into a national-level challenge to the party's legal standing.[71] The likelihood of success of renewed banning attempts has been questioned, given the Office for the Protection of the Constitution has over 130 informants in the party, some in high positions, raising the question of whether the party is effectively controlled by the government.[72]

2012 Thor Steinar clothing controversy

In June 2012, several NPD members of Saxony's parliament attended the parliament's sittings wearing clothing from Thor Steinar, a clothing brand that is popular amongst neo-Nazis; the legislature responded by saying that such provocative clothing was not permitted to be worn in the parliament and demanded that the NPD members remove and replace their attire; the NPD members refused, resulting in the members being expelled from the parliament and banned from attending the next three parliamentary sittings.[73] The NPD members denied accusations that they wore the shirts as a deliberate provocation.[73]

2012 banning attempt

German officials tried to outlaw the party again in December 2012, with the interior ministers of all 16 states recommending a ban. The Federal Constitutional Court is yet to vote on the recommendation.[74] In March 2013 the Merkel government said it would not try to ban the NPD.[75]

2016 banning attempt

German officials again tried to outlaw the NPD by submitting a request to the Federal Constitutional Court in 2016.[76] On 17 January 2017, the second senate of the Federal Constitutional Court rejected the attempt to outlaw the party. The reasoning behind the decision was that the NPD's political significance is virtually nonexistent at the state and federal levels and that the party has no realstic chance of possing a threat to the constitutional order. However, the Court also openly acknowledged that NPD is unconstitutional based upon its manifesto and ideology, citing "links to neo-Nazis" and that "anti-semitism was a structural element of the party ideology."[77] The Court also indirectly suggested that such a party should not be receiving state grants to further its cause.[77] This prompted calls for the proposal of a constitutional amendment which would forbid anti-constitutional parties' financing to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. The proposal was criticized by the interior policy spokesman of Die Linke,[78] who claimed that such a constitutional amendment could stand to serve as a politically dubious way to remove a political opponent. Law Professor Hans Herbert von Arnim defended the rights of small parties, including the NPD.[78]

chairmans of the NPD

Election results and current representation

Federal Parliament (Bundestag)

Election year Constituency Party list Seats won
Votes % +/– Votes % +/–
1965 587,216 1.8 Increase 1.8 664,193 2.0 Increase 2.0
0 / 518
1969 1,189,375 3.6 Increase 1.8 1,422,010 4.3 Increase 2.3
0 / 518
1972 194,389 0.5 Decrease 3.1 207,465 0.6 Decrease 3.7
0 / 518
1976 136,023 0.4 Decrease 0.1 122,661 0.3 Decrease 0.3
0 / 518
1980 68,096 0.2 Decrease 0.1
0 / 497
1983 57,112 0.1 Decrease 0.3 91,095 0.2 Steady 0.0
0 / 498
1987 182,880 0.5 Increase 0.4 227,054 0.6 Increase 0.4
0 / 497
1990 190,105 0.4 Decrease 0.1 145,776 0.3 Decrease 0.3
0 / 662
1998 45,043 0.1 Decrease 0.3 126,571 0.3 Steady 0.0
0 / 669
2002 103,209 0.2 Increase 0.1 215,232 0.4 Increase 0.1
0 / 603
2005 857,777 1.8 Increase 1.6 748,568 1.6 Increase 1.2
0 / 614
2009 768,442 1.8 Steady 0.0 635,525 1.5 Decrease 0.1
0 / 620
2013 634,842 1.5 Decrease 0.3 560,828 1.3 Decrease 0.2
0 / 630
2017 45,239 0.1 Decrease 1.4 176,715 0.4 Decrease 0.9
0 / 709

European Parliament

Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/–
1979 - - - -
1984 198,633 0.8
0 / 81
Increase 0.8
1989 - - - -
1994 77,227 0.2
0 / 99
Increase 0.2
1999 107,662 0.4
0 / 99
Increase 0.2
2004 241,743 0.9
0 / 99
Increase 0.5
2009 - - - -
2014[79] 301,139 1.0
1 / 99
Increase 1.0
2019[79] 101,323 0.3
0 / 99
Decrease 0.7

Literature

  • Ackermann, Robert: Warum die NPD keinen Erfolg haben kann – Organisation, Programm und Kommunikation einer rechtsextremen Partei. Budrich, Opladen 2012, ISBN 978-3-86388-012-5.
  • Brandstetter, Marc: Die „neue“ NPD: Zwischen Systemfeindschaft und bürgerlicher Fassade. Parteienmonitor Aktuell der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. Bonn 2012 (online)
  • Brandstetter, Marc: Die NPD unter Udo Voigt. Organisation. Ideologie. Strategie (= Extremismus und Demokratie. Bd. 25). Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden 2013, ISBN 978-3-383-29708-3.
  • Prasse, Jan-Ole: Der kurze Höhenflug der NPD. Rechtsextreme Wahlerfolge in den 1960er Jahren. Tectum-Verlag, Marburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8288-2282-5.
  • Philippsberg, Robert: Die Strategie der NPD: Regionale Umsetzung in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Baden-Baden 2009.
  • apabiz e. V.: Die NPD – Eine Handreichung zu Programm, Struktur, Personal und Hintergründen. Zweite, aktualisierte Auflage. 2008. (online) (PDF; 671 kB)

See also

References

  1. ^ Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson & Michalina Vaughan, Neo-Fascism in Europe, Longman, 1991, p. 71
  2. ^ Horst W. Schmollinger, Richard Stöss, Die Parteien und die Presse der Parteien und Gewerkschaften in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1945–1974, Westdeutscher Verlag 1975, S. 187
  3. ^ a b "Neo-Nazi NPD party takes hold in municipal vote in Saxony". thelocal.de/. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  4. ^ "Neo-Nazis push into town councils". thelocal.de. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009. The neo-Nazi NPD party is entering several German city parliaments for the first time after this weekend’s local elections, news magazine Der Spiegel reported on Monday.
  5. ^ "Neonazis in der NPD auf dem Vormarsch". sueddeutsche.de. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. Das neonazistische Spektrum hat seinen Einfluss innerhalb der NPD ausgebaut.
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ a b Peter Davies, Derek Lynch, The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right, Psychology Press, 2002, pg. 315
  8. ^ Verfassungsschutzbericht 2010 (PDF). Ministry of the Interior, Germany. 2011. p. 67. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2011. Die ethnisch homogene „Volksgemeinschaft“ stellt für sie das Kernelement dar.
  9. ^ a b Nagle, John D. (1 December 1970). The National Democratic Party: Right Radicalism in the Federal Republic of Germany. Hardcover.
  10. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-g8-summit-protests-idUSL0720733520070607
  11. ^ Landstagswahl Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2011
  12. ^ Manuela Caiani; Donatella della Porta; Claudius Wagemann (16 February 2012). Mobilizing on the Extreme Right: Germany, Italy, and the United States. OUP Oxford. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-19-964126-0.
  13. ^ Christina Schori Liang (2013). "'Nationalism Ensures Peaces': the Foreign and Security Policy of the German Populist Radical Right After Reunification". In Christina Schori Liang (ed.). Europe for the Europeans: The Foreign and Security Policy of the Populist Radical Right. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4094-9825-4.
  14. ^ "NPD – einzige ernstzunehmende nationale Kraft!". npd.de. 28 September 2009. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  15. ^ a b "NPD – Start". Npd.de. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  16. ^ "Neo-Nazi NPD party takes hold in municipal vote in Saxony". thelocal.de/. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  17. ^ "Neo-Nazis push into town councils". thelocal.de. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009. The neo-Nazi NPD party is entering several German city parliaments for the first time after this weekend’s local elections, news magazine Der Spiegel reported on Monday.
  18. ^ "Neonazis in der NPD auf dem Vormarsch". sueddeutsche.de. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. Das neonazistische Spektrum hat seinen Einfluss innerhalb der NPD ausgebaut.
  19. ^ "Poll shows majority of Germany believe NPD to be non-democratic and damaging to Germany's image". spiegel.de. 22 September 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
  20. ^ "Rechtsextremismus". Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. 2006. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2015. Auch zeigte sich die NPD nun bereit, mit radikalen Kräften aus dem parteiungebundenen Spektrum zusammenzuarbeiten. Formal gilt nach wie vor ein Unvereinbarkeitsbeschluss der NPD-Mitgliedschaft mit der Mitgliedschaft in verbotenen Gruppierungen. Faktisch jedoch setzt sich die NPD mit ihrer Strategie bewusst über die offizielle Verlautbarung hinweg. Die NPD wolle in Zukunft mit denjenigen zusammenzuarbeiten, die dazu bereit seien, "als politische Soldaten zu denken und zu handeln", so die neue Strategie.
  21. ^ "Zusammenspiel zwischen NPD und Neonazis im niedersächsischen Landtagswahlkampf". Landesamt für Verfassungsschutz Bremen. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2009. Die Kooperation zwischen der NPD und den Freien Nationalisten (Angehörige von neonazistischen Kameradschaften) prägt das Auftreten der Partei im niedersächsischen Landtagswahlkampf. Bekannte Neonazis treten für die NPD als Direktkandidaten an, z.B. Dennis BÜHRIG in Bergen, Klaus HELLMUND in Celle, Mathias BEHRENS in Soltau oder Dieter RIEFLING in Hildesheim.
  22. ^ a b Austrian 'neo-Nazi' joins NPD's executive committee Archived 31 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Austrian Times. Published 8 April 2009.
  23. ^ {{Cite web|url=http://www.focus.de/politik/deutschland/v-mann-affaere-fatale-frenz-connection_aid_204938.html%7Ctitle=V-Mann-Affäre%7Clast=%7Cfirst=%7Cdate=FOCUS%7Cwebsite=%7Caccess-date=16 May 2017}
  24. ^ a b Zicht, Wilko. "Wahlergebnisse" (in German). Wahlrecht.de. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  25. ^ Stabwechsel bei der NPD in: Blick nach rechts, accessed 14 11 2011
  26. ^ 23.07.08 (23 July 2008). "Ehemaliger Pfleger von Rudolf Heß wirbt bei NPD". Morgenpost.de. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  27. ^ "After Nominating Rudolf Hess for Nobel Peace Prize: NPD Leader Charged with Inciting Race Hate". Der Spiegel. Reuters. 24 August 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  28. ^ Rechtsextremisten thematisieren die internationale Fianzkrise Verfassungsschutz MV, 2 December 2008
  29. ^ NPD party programme (in German) http://npd.de/inhalte/daten/dateiablage/br_parteiprogramm_a4.pdf
  30. ^ Party program, p. 13. ("Deutschland ist größer als die Bundesrepublik! ... Wir fordern die Revision der nach dem Krieg abgeschlossenen Grenzanerkennungsverträge.")
  31. ^ Map of Germany Map of Germany on NPD's website (www.npd.de). Archived from the original (5 September 2005) Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine at 18 August 2013.
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  37. ^ Scully, Derek (12 October 2002). "'Neo-Nazis' affirm links with Youth Defence". The Irish Times. p. 9. A leading far-right politician in Germany has described the anti-abortion group Youth Defence as "an important part of our international network". Youth Defence is the backbone of the No to Nice Campaign, whose chief spokesman is Mr Justin Barrett.
  38. ^ Humphreys, Joe (12 October 2002). "Barrett admits he attended far-right meeting". The Irish Times. p. 9. Mr Barrett, who earlier this week declined to confirm or deny to The Irish Times his attendance at the meeting in the Bavarian city of Passau in May 2000, yesterday admitted he attended the conference, as well as an estimated two other events linked to the NPD.
  39. ^ US Condemns Croatian Neo-Nazi March for Trump
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External links

Adolf von Thadden

Adolf von Thadden (7 July 1921 – 16 July 1996) was a leading far-right German politician. Born into a leading Pomeranian landowning family – he was born at the noble estate of Gut Trieglaff near Greifenberg in Pomerania – he was the half-brother of Elisabeth von Thadden, a prominent critic of the Nazis who was executed by the Nazi government in September 1944.

Erich Kern

Erich Kern, (born Erich Knud Kernmayr on 27 February 1906 in Graz – died 13 September 1991 in Kammer am Attersee) was an Austrian journalist. He became a writer of revisionist books that sought to glorify the activities of the German soldiers during the Second World War.

Frank Schepke

Frank Schepke (5 April 1935 – 4 April 2017) was a German rower who competed for the United Team of Germany in the 1960 Summer Olympics.

He was born in Königsberg, Germany, in 1935. Kraft Schepke (born 1934) was his brother.At the 1959 European Rowing Championships in Mâcon, he won a gold medal with the eight. At the 1960 Summer Olympics, he was a crew member of the German eight that won gold. At the 1961 European Rowing Championships in Prague, he won a gold medal with the coxed four. He was twice—in 1959 and in 1960—awarded the Silbernes Lorbeerblatt (Silver Laurel Leaf), the highest West German sports award.Both he and his brother retired after the 1961 rowing season from competitive rowing. In the same year, he finished his PhD at the University of Kiel in agricultural sciences. He worked as a consultant for farmers, and later in life founded an industrial cleaning company. Aged 55, he fulfilled his lifelong dream of owning his own farm, and he produced biologically grown produce.He stood in the 1965 West German federal election in the Stormarn – Herzogtum Lauenburg electorate for the National Democratic Party of Germany, a far-right and ultranationalist party founded the previous year. He left the party in 1969. At the 2009 and 2013 German federal elections, he stood as an independent in the Plön – Neumünster electorate. Schepke was the initiator in 2004 behind a regional currency KannWas for Schleswig-Holstein.Schepke died on 4 April 2017 in Kiel.

Friedhelm Busse

Friedhelm Busse (4 February 1929 – 23 July 2008) was a German neo-Nazi politician and activist. In a career taking in some six decades Busse established himself as a leading voice of German neo-Nazism.

Friedrich Thielen

Friedrich-Georg "Fritz" Thielen (25 September 1916 in Bremen – 11 June 1993 in Bremen) was a German politician with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the German Party, the Gesamtdeutsche Partei and the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD).

Thielen was born in Bremen and after working as a sawmill operator in Germany and in brickyards in occupied Ukraine, Thielen became a soldier in 1943 until the end of World War II. After the war he became a successful businessman in the building trade in Bremen.He joined the CDU in 1946 and became a leading figure locally before decamping to join the German Party in 1958, becoming one of its leading figures. In this capacity he merged his party into the newly formed NPD and became the first leader of the party. Replaced by Adolf von Thadden in 1967 he left the NPD and reactivated the German Party locally, with little success.

Günter Deckert

Günter Deckert (born 9 January 1940 in Heidelberg, Baden) is a far-right German political activist. He was the leader of the far-right National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD). He has served five years in prison in Germany for various offences, including Holocaust denial and incitement to racial hatred. He translated the Leuchter report, an investigation from the United States which attempted to cast doubt on the feasibility of mass extermination via the gas chambers in the Holocaust.

Harald Neubauer

Harald Neubauer (born 3 December 1951 in Hamburg) is a German politician and journalist from the far right scene. He was a Member of the European Parliament from 1989 to 1994.

Neubauer was trained as an overseas buyer and undertook military service in the Bundeswehr. He was a member of the National Democratic Party of Germany from 1969 to 1972 and again from 1975 to 1981 but became associated with Gerhard Frey and the German People's Union, editing Frey's newspaper Deutschen Anzeigers (1975-1983).In 1983 he joined Die Republikaner and became press advisor of party founder Franz Schönhuber the following year. He backed Schönhuber in his subsequent power struggle with Franz Handlos and as such when Schönhuber became Chairman in 1985 he appointed Neubauer as secretary. He soon added the roles of regional chairman in Bavaria, federal vice-chairman and Member of the European Parliament to his accolades and was widely seen as the eventual successor to Schönhuber. The two became estranged however as Neubauer followed a more extremist path and for a while in 1990 he even forced the temporary resignation of his former mentor. Ultimately however the leader triumphed in the struggle, forcing Neubauer out of the party and replacing him as vice-chairman with Rolf Schlierer.Neubauer and many of his followers were purged from the Die Republikaner and in January 1991 they regrouped under the title Deutsche Allianz-Vereinigte Rechte, which was renamed German League for People and Homeland later that year. The new group had the declared aim of uniting the many factions on the far-right under a single banner and initially had some success, attracting two other Republikaner MEPs and the support of the influential Nation Europa journal. He was part of a three-man leadership team with Rudolf Kendzia and Jürgen Schützinger. At the time a Member of the European Parliament, Neubauer managed to convince three of his colleagues in that institution, Johanna Grund, Peter Köhler and Hans-Günther Schodruch, to join the new movement. Former NPD chiefs Martin Mussgnug and Franz Glasauer were also given leading roles yet the new group made little impression in the state elections of 1992.In 1992 he became co-editor of Nation und Europa and is a member of the board of the Gesellschaft für Freie Publizistik, a far right writers and publishers organisation.

With the German League for People and Homeland defunct Neubauer ran on the NPD list in the 2005 German federal election in Saxony.

Holger Apfel

Holger Apfel (born 29 December 1970) is a German politician who was the leader of the far-right National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) from 2011 to 2013. He was a member of the Saxon Parliament between 2004 and 2014, serving as the chairman of the NPD parliamentary group and a member of the presidium of the parliament.

Apfel became the NPD's national leader in 2011. On 19 December 2013, he resigned with immediate effect from his leadership positions at both the national and the state level, before leaving the party entirely five days later. He resigned from the Saxon Parliament on 17 January 2014.

Horst Mahler

Horst Mahler (born 23 January 1936) is a German former lawyer and political activist. He once was an extreme-left militant and a founding member of the Red Army Faction but later became a Maoist before switching to neo-Nazism. Between 2000 and 2003, he was a member of the far-right National Democratic Party of Germany. Since 2003, he has repeatedly been convicted of Volksverhetzung ("incitement of popular hatred") and Holocaust denial and served much of a twelve-year prison sentence.

In April 2017, he was ordered back to prison for a further three and a half years, and on 18 April 2017 Mahler fled the Federal Republic of Germany, hoping to avoid the execution of the sentence. His attempt to receive political asylum in Hungary was rejected, and he was deported back to Germany, where he was arrested and put back in jail to finish serving his sentence.

Jürgen Rieger

Jürgen Rieger (11 May 1946, Blexen, Lower Saxony – 29 October 2009) was a Hamburg lawyer, avowed anti-semite, and deputy chairman of the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) (as of October 2009), known for his Holocaust denial.

Rieger represented Arpad Wigand former SS Police Leader of the Warsaw district in Occupied Poland, in his trial for war crimes in Hamburg District Court. Wigand was subsequently found guilty in December 1981, and sentenced to 12.5 years.Rieger was convicted among other for battery, incitement of the people (Volksverhetzung), and the use of prohibited symbols.Rieger joined the NPD in 2006, and became Hamburg chairman in 2007. He worked in the Heathen Artgemeinschaft Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft over many years. In the 1990s he was active in the now-suppressed far-right Wiking-Jugend and Freiheitliche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei.He was an important figure for the NPD, because of his several party donations, the total amount was €500,000.On 29 October 2009 Rieger died in Berlin from a stroke.It is alleged that he used the nom-de-plume Jörg Rieck for some of his publications, including in his contribution to the "programmatic" book of the Thule Seminar, Das unvergängliche Erbe. Rieger was editor of the pseudoscientific racialist Neue Anthropologie, sister journal to Roger Pearson's Mankind Quarterly.He was organiser of annual Rudolf Hess commemorations in Wunsiedel.

Lithuanian National Union

Not to be confused with Lithuanian Nationalist Union.Lithuanian National Union (Lithuanian: Lietuvių Tautos Sąjunga, LITAS) is a radical Neo-Nazi political party in Lithuania, not recognised as a legal Lithuanian political party by the Ministry of Justice.

The party claims to be cooperating with other European radical nationalist and fascist parties. It includes National Democratic Party of Germany, Swedish National Democrats, Party of the Swedes, Finnish Freedom Party, Party of the Danes, Danish National Socialists, Swedish National Socialists, National Renovator Party, Forza Nuova, Jobbik, Latvian association "Antiglobalists" and the Center of Gustavs CelmiņšOne of the most well-known comrades of Murza Visvaldas Mažonas was expelled from the party in October 2011.

Lothar Bolz

Lothar Bolz (3 September 1903 – 28 December 1986) was an East German politician. From 1953 to 1965 he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of East Germany (GDR).

Manfred Roeder

Manfred Roeder (6 February 1929 – 30 July 2014) was a German lawyer, Wehrmacht soldier, prominent Holocaust denier and a far-right activist.

Martin Mussgnug

Martin Mussgnug (22 February 1936 in Heidelberg – 2 February 1997 in Singen) was a German politician and leader of the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) from 1971 to 1991.

He first came to prominence in 1956 when he set up the Bund Nationaler Studenten, a far-right student organisation that was banned in 1963. Whilst leading this group he became involved with the Deutsche Reichspartei, becoming deputy chair of their Heidelberg group and following the party into the NPD in 1964. By 1968 he had been appointed chair of the NPD in Baden-Württemberg and was elected to the state Landtag that same year. He held the seat until 1972 when the party was eliminated from the Landtag. He replaced Adolf von Thadden as party leader in 1971 although the battle for the leadership proved somewhat divisive as his defeated opponent, Siegfried Pöhlmann, split away from the NPD with his supporters the following year in order to establish his own group, Aktion Neue Rechte.Mussgnug followed a largely similar course in party policy terms, in the process becoming the party's longest serving leader to date. Nonetheless he and von Thadden did not enjoy a good relationship, due to Mussgnug's closeness to his rival Gerhard Frey. Von Thadden left the party in 1975 over the issue and Mussgnug secured for Frey a seat on the NPD's Executive Committee. Ultimately Mussgnug resigned on 16 December 1990 following poor results for the party in the 1990 federal election. Succeeded by Deckert, he left the NPD after this and became involved in setting up the German League for People and Homeland (DLVH). He disappeared from politics when this group proved unsuccessful.

National Democratic Party of Germany (East Germany)

The National-Democratic Party of Germany (German: National-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands, NDPD) was an East German political party that served as a satellite party to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, representing former members of the Nazi Party, the Wehrmacht and middle classes. It should not be confused with the National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD), which was a party in West Germany and continues as a minor, non-governmental party in the modern united Germany.

Thies Christophersen

Thies Christophersen (27 January 1918 in Kiel – 13 February 1997 in Molfsee), a farmer by upbringing, was a prominent German Holocaust denier.

Udo Voigt

Udo Voigt (German: [ˈuːdo foːkt]; born 14 April 1952) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany. He is a member of the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD).

He is a member of the European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. He served as leader of NPD from 1996 to 2011. By profession he is a former aviation engineer and captain in the German Air Force and has a master's degree in political science from LMU. Voigt has in recent years become a strong supporter of Vladimir Putin, and more recently also Donald Trump, and has said that Germany should have "a chancellor like Putin."

Wilhelm Stäglich

Wilhelm Stäglich (11 November 1916 – 5 April 2006) was a World War II army officer, later a financial judge in Hamburg, and a prominent Holocaust denier.

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