National Congress of Brazil

The National Congress of Brazil (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional do Brasil) is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government. Unlike the state Legislative Assemblies and Municipal Chambers, the Congress is bicameral, composed of the Federal Senate (the upper house) and the Chamber of Deputies (the lower house). The Congress meets annually in Brasília, from 2 February to 27 July and from 1 August to 22 December.

The Senate represents the 26 states and the Federal District. Each state and the Federal District has a representation of three Senators, who are elected by popular ballot for a term of eight years. Every four years, renewal of either one third or two-thirds of the Senate (and of the delegations of the States and the Federal District) takes place.

The Chamber of Deputies represents the people of each state, and its members are elected for a four-year term by a system of proportional representation. Seats are allotted proportionally according to each state's population, with each state eligible for a minimum of 8 seats (least populous) and a maximum of 70 seats (most populous). Unlike the Senate, the whole of the Chamber of Deputies is renewed every four years.

Until recently it was common for politicians to switch parties and the proportion of congressional seats held by each party would often change. However, a decision of the Supreme Federal Court has ruled that the seats belong to the parties and not to the politicians, and that one can only change parties and retain his seat in a very limited set of cases. Consequently, politicians who abandon the party for which they were elected now face the loss of their Congressional seat.

Each house of the Brazilian Congress elects its President and the other members of its directing board from among its members.

The President of the Senate is ex officio the President of the National Congress, and in that capacity summons and presides over joint sessions, as well as over the joint services of both Houses. The President of the Chamber is second in the presidential line of succession while the President of the Senate (and of Congress) is third.

National Congress

Congresso Nacional
56th Legislature of the National Congress
Coat of arms of Brazil
Coat of arms of Brazil
HousesFederal Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Founded6 May 1826
New session started
1 February 2019
Davi Alcolumbre, DEM
since 2 February 2019
Rodrigo Maia, DEM
since 14 July 2016
Seats'594 members:
81 Senators
513 Federal Deputies
Composition of the Federal Senate
Federal Senate political groups
Government (56)
  •      MDB (12)
  •      PSD (8)
  •      PSDB (8)
  •      PODE (7)
  •      PP (6)
  •      DEM (6)
  •      PODE (6)
  •      PSL (4)
  •      PTB (3)
  •      PRB (1)
  •      PR (2)
  •      PSC (1)

Opposition (20)

  •      PT (6)
  •      PPS (3)
  •      PSB (3)
  •      PDT (4)
  •      REDE (4)

Independent (4)

Composition of the Chamber of Deputies
Chamber of Deputies political groups
Government (344)
  •      PSL (55)
  •      PP (37)
  •      MDB (34)
  •      PSD (34)
  •      PR (33)
  •      PRB (30)
  •      PSDB (29)
  •      DEM (29)
  •      PODE (17)
  •      PTB (10)
  •      NOVO (8)
  •      PSC (8)
  •      PATRI (9)

Opposition (145)

  •      PT (55)
  •      PSB (32)
  •      PDT (28)
  •      PSOL (10)
  •      PCdoB (10)
  •      PPS (8)
  •      REDE (1)

Independent (24)

  •      PROS (8)
  •      AVANTE (7)
  •      PV (4)
  •      SD (13)
  •      PMN (3)
  •      PTC (2)
  •      DC (1)
Federal Senate voting system
Plurality voting, alternating every four years between single-member elections (FPTP) and dual-member elections (Block voting)
Chamber of Deputies voting system
Open list proportional representation
Last general election
7 October 2018
Meeting place
Brasilia Congresso Nacional 05 2007 221
National Congress building
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Federal Senate
Chamber of Deputies


Federal Senate

The Federal Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was inspired in United Kingdom's House of Lords, but with the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 it became closer to the United States Senate.

Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later. When one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate; when two seats are up for election, each voter casts two votes, and the voter cannot give his two votes for the same candidate, but, in elections for the renewal of two-thirds of the Senate, each party can present two candidates for election. The candidate in each State and the Federal District (or the first two candidates, when two thirds of the seats are up for election) who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected.

Chamber of Deputies

The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) is the lower house of the National Congress, it is composed of 513 federal deputies, who are elected by a proportional representation of votes to serve a four-year term. Seats are allotted proportionally according to each state's population, with each state eligible for a minimum of 8 seats (least populous) and a maximum of 70 seats (most populous).

In 2010, 22 out of the country's 35 political parties were able to elect at least one representative in the Chamber, while fifteen of them were able to elect at least one Senator.

See the Latest election section for election results table.

The building

In early 1900s, the Brazilian National Congress happened to be in separate buildings. The Senate was located near Railway Central Station, beside the Republica Square, at Moncorvo Filho Street, where there is today a Federal University of Rio de Janeiro students' center. The Federal Chamber of Deputies was located at Misericórdia Street, which would later be the location of the State of Rio de Janeiro's local Chamber of Deputies. From the 1930s to early 1960s, the Senate occupied the Monroe Palace, which was demolished in the 1970s to allow the construction of the subway Cinelândia Station. The Federal Chamber of Deputies moved to Brasília in early 1960s as well, but for a couple of years temporarily occupied a building near the Municipal Theater.

Since the 1960s, the National Congress has been located in Brasília. As with most of the city's government buildings, the National Congress building was designed by Oscar Niemeyer in the modern Brazilian style.

The semi-sphere on the left is the seat of the Senate, and the semi-sphere on the right is the seat of the Chamber of the Deputies. Between them are two vertical office towers. The Congress also occupies other surrounding office buildings, some of them interconnected by a tunnel.

The building is located in the middle of the Monumental Axis, main street of Brasília. In front of it there is a large lawn where demonstrations take place. At the back of it, is the Praça dos Três Poderes (Three Powers Plaza), where lies the Palácio do Planalto and the Supreme Federal Court.

On December 6, 2007, the Institute of Historic and Artistic National Heritage (Portuguese: Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional) decided to declare the building of the National Congress a historical heritage of the Brazilian people. The building is also among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as part of Brasília's original urban buildings, since 1987.

Similar high-rises

At least two other high-rise buildings are similar to the National Congress building:


National Congress building


Committee room

Solenidades. Homenagens (19535447888)

Noble Room of the Senate

Brazilian National Congress

Exterior, on a rainy day

Brasilia Congress xenia antunes

Exterior view of the Chamber of Deputies

Senat de Brasilia

Exterior view of the Senate chamber

Congresso Nacional

The National Congress building at night

National Congress of Brazil

Front facade and lawn.


The Congress as seen from the Monumental Axis

Polícia Legislativa do Senado Federal (25071947354)

Legislative police officers outside the National Congress building.

Manifestação (25509017660)

Protesters during an anti-government demonstration in front of the Congress, 13 March 2016.

Coordinates: 15°47′59″S 47°51′51″W / 15.79972°S 47.86417°W

Latest election

 Summary of the 5 October 2014 National Congress election results
Coalition Parties Chamber Senate
Votes % of votes Seats % of seats +/– Votes % of votes Elected seats Total seats % of seats +/–
Coalition With the
Strength of the People
(Coligação Com a Força do Povo)
  Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) 13.554.166 14,00% 70 13,65% –18 15.155.818 17,00% 2 12 14,81% –2
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, PMDB) 10.791.949 11,15% 66 12,87% –13 12.129.969 13,61% 5 18 22,22% –2
  Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrático, PSD) 5.967.953 6,16% 37 7,21% New 7.147.245 8,02% 2 3 3,70% New
  Progressive Party (Partido Progressista, PP) 6.178.949 6,38% 36 7,02% –5 1.931.738 2,17% 1 5 6,17% ±0
  Republic Party (Partido da República, PR) 5.633.054 5,82% 34 6,63% –7 696.462 0,78% 1 4 4,94% ±0
  Brazilian Republican Party (Partido Republicano Brasileiro, PRB) 4.408.641 4,55% 21 4,09% +13 301.162 0,34% 0 1 1,23% ±0
  Democratic Labour Party (Partido Democrático Trabalhista, PDT) 3.469.168 3,58% 19 3,70% –9 3.609.643 4,05% 4 8 9,88% +4
  Republican Party of the Social Order (Partido Republicano da Ordem Social, PROS) 1.977.117 2,04% 11 2,14% New 2.234.132 2,51% 0 1 1,23% New
  Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil, PC do B) 1.913.015 1,98% 10 1,95% –5 803.144 0,90% 0 1 1,23% −1
Total 53.894.012 55,66% 304 59,26% +4 44.009.313 49,36% 15 53 65,43% +3
Coalition Change Brazil
(Coligação Muda Brasil)
  Brazilian Social Democratic Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, PSDB) 11.071.772 11,43% 54 10,53% +1 23.880.078 26,79% 4 10 12,35% −1
  Brazilian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, PTB) 3.914.193 4,04% 25 4,87% +4 2.803.999 3,15% 2 3 2,47% −3
  Democrats (Democratas, DEM) 4.080.757 4,21% 22 3,94% –21 3.515.426 4,29% 3 5 6,17% −1
  Solidariedade (Solidariedade, SD) 2.637.961 2,72% 15 2,92% New 370.507 0,42% 0 1 1,23% New
  National Labor Party (Partido Trabalhista Nacional, PTN) 720.878 0,74% 4 0,78% +4 2.741 0,00% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Party of National Mobilization (Partido da Mobilização Nacional, PMN) 467.777 0,48% 3 0,58% –1 57.911 0,06% 0 0 0,00% −1
  National Ecologic Party (Partido Ecológico Nacional, PEN) 663.108 0,69% 2 0,39% New 65.597 0,07% 0 0 0,00% New
  Christian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Cristão, PTC) 338.117 0,35% 2 0,39% +1 21.993 0,02% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Labour Party of Brazil (Partido Trabalhista do Brasil, PTdoB) 812.206 0,84% 1 0,19% –2 11.300 0,01% 0 0 0,00% ±0
Total 24.706.769 25,52% 128 24,95% +3 30.729.552 34,47% 9 19 23,46% −5
Coalition United for Brazil
(Coligação Unidos pelo Brasil)
  Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Brasileiro, PSB) 6.267.878 6,47% 34 6,63% ±0 12.123.194 13,60% 3 7 8,64% +4
  Popular Socialist Party (Partido Popular Socialista, PPS) 1.955.490 2,02% 10 1,95% –2 0 0,00% 0 0 0,00% −1
  Humanist Party of Solidarity (Partido Humanista da Solidariedade, PHS) 917.647 0,95% 5 0,97% +3 0 0,00% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Progressive Republican Party (Partido Republicano Progressista, PRP) 723.965 0,75% 3 0,58% +1 170.527 0,19% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Social Liberal Party (Partido Social Liberal, PSL) 808.710 0,84% 1 0,19% ±0 0 0,00% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Free Homeland Party (Partido Pátria Livre, PPL) 141.254 0,15% 0 0,0% New 29.366 0,03% 0 0 0,00% ±0
Total 10.814.944 11,17% 53 10,33% +2 12.323.087 13,82 3 7 8,64% +3
Out of coalition (Fora de coligação)   Social Christian Party (Partido Social Cristão, PSC) 2.448.898 2,53% 12 2,34% –5 19.286 0,02% 0 0 0,00% −1
  Green Party (Partido Verde, PV) 2.004.464 2,07% 8 1,56% –7 536.978 0,60% 0 1 1,23% +1
  Socialism and Liberty Party (Partido Socialismo e Liberdade, PSOL) 1.745.470 1,80% 5 0,97% +2 1.045.275 1,17% 0 1 1,23% −1
  Christian Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata Cristão, PSDC) 500.021 0,52% 2 0,39% +2 31.011 0,03% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Trabalhista Brasileiro, PRTB) 450.393 0,47% 1 0,19% –1 38.429 0,04% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  United Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado, PSTU) 182.760 0,19% 0 0,00% ±0 345.200 0,39% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro, PCB) 66.615 0,07% 0 0,00% ±0 68199 0,08% 0 0 0,00% ±0
  Workers' Cause Party (Partido da Causa Operária, PCO) 12.969 0,01% 0 0,00% ±0 8.561 0,01% 0 0 0,00% ±0
Total valid votes 96.827.315 100,00% 513 100,00% ±0 89.154.621 100,00% 27 81 100,00% ±0
Sources: Chamber, Senate


The Legislatures are counted from the first meeting of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate, on 6 May 1826, in the imperial era (the Chamber of Deputies met for preparatory sessions from 29 April 1826 onwards to elect its officers and conduct other preliminary business, but the Legislature was formally opened on 6 May). The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate were created by Brazil's first Constitution, the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, adopted in 1824. The previous Constituent and Legislative Assembly of the Empire of Brazil, a unicameral National Assembly, that was convened in 1823 and that was dissolved by Emperor Pedro I before adopting a Constitution is not counted among the Legislatures. Thus, the numbering includes only the bicameral Legislatures that existed from 1826 to the present day, and includes only Legislatures elected after the adoption of the first Brazilian Constitution.

In the imperial era, the national legislature was named General Assembly. It was made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Senators were elected for life and the Senate was a permanent institution, whereas the Chamber of Deputies, unless dissolved earlier, was elected every four years. When Brazil became a Republic and a Federal State the model of a bicameral Legislature was retained at the Federal level, but the Parliament was renamed National Congress. The National Congress is made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Both Houses have fixed terms and cannot be dissolved earlier. Under Brazil's present Constitution, adopted in 1988, Senators are elected to eight-year terms, and Deputies are elected every four years.

The numbering of the Legislatures is continuous, including the Legislatures of the imperial General Assembly and of the republican National Congress. The inauguration of a new composition of Chamber of Deputies for a four-year term of office marks the start of a new Legislature.

Legislature Period Legislature Period Legislature Period Legislature Period Legislature Period
1st Legislature 1826 - 1829 13th Legislature 1867 - 1868 25th Legislature 1900 - 1902 37th Legislature 1935 - 1937 49th Legislature 1991 - 1995
2nd Legislature 1830 - 1833 14th Legislature 1869 - 1872 26th Legislature 1903 - 1905 38th Legislature 1946 - 1950 50th Legislature 1995 - 1999
3rd Legislature 1834 - 1837 15th Legislature 1872 - 1875 27th Legislature 1906 - 1908 39th Legislature 1951 - 1954 51st Legislature 1999 - 2003
4th Legislature 1838 - 1841 16th Legislature 1876 - 1877 28th Legislature 1909 - 1911 40th Legislature 1955 - 1958 52nd Legislature 2003 - 2007
5th Legislature 1842 - 1844 17th Legislature 1878 - 1881 29th Legislature 1912 - 1914 41st Legislature 1959 - 1962 53rd Legislature 2007 - 2011
6th Legislature 1845 - 1847 18th Legislature 1882 - 1884 30th Legislature 1915 - 1917 42nd Legislature 1963 - 1967 54th Legislature 2011 - 2015
7th Legislature 1848 - 1848 19th Legislature 1885 - 1885 31st Legislature 1918 - 1920 43rd Legislature 1967 - 1970 55th Legislature 2015 - 2019
8th Legislature 1849 - 1852 20th Legislature 1886 - 1889 32nd Legislature 1921 - 1923 44th Legislature 1971 - 1975
9th Legislature 1853 - 1856 21st Legislature 1890 - 1891 33rd Legislature 1924 - 1926 45th Legislature 1975 - 1979
10th Legislature 1857 - 1860 22nd Legislature 1891 - 1893 34th Legislature 1927 - 1929 46th Legislature 1979 - 1983
11th Legislature 1861 - 1863 23rd Legislature 1894 - 1896 35th Legislature 1930 - 1930 47th Legislature 1983 - 1987
12th Legislature 1864 - 1866 24th Legislature 1897 - 1899 36th Legislature 1933 - 1935 48th Legislature 1987 - 1991

See also

External links

1904 in Brazil

Events in the year 1904 in Brazil.

1905 in Brazil

Events in the year 1905 in Brazil.

2008 Brazilian federal budget

The 2008 Brazilian federal budget was submitted to the National Congress of Brazil by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on 5 September 2007.

2009 Brazilian federal budget

The 2009 Brazilian federal budget was submitted to the National Congress of Brazil by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on August 27, 2008.

2017 Brazilian general strike

The 2017 Brazilian general strike took place on April 28, 100 years after Brazil's first general strike in June 1917. The movement was a protest against reforms of labor laws, which were later adopted and social security proposed by Michel Temer government and pending in National Congress of Brazil.More than 150 cities recorded stoppages, and according to the organizers, there were 40 million people, with no official admission balance or the number of protesters on the streets. With wide coverage in international media, the strike was minimized by the Brazilian press according to the journalist Paula Cesarino Costa, with emphasis given to conflicts between police and strikers. With diverse reactions, politicians who support the government reduced the impact of the strike while oppositionists defended it as popular expression. Political scientist Marco Antonio Teixeira, in an interview for the BBC, said that the strike was "smaller than organizers expected, but larger than the government would like".

Arlindo Chinaglia

Arlindo Chinaglia (born 24 December 1949) is a Brazilian politician and former President of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil 2007–2009. He represents the state of São Paulo in the National Congress of Brazil for the Workers' Party.

Brazilian battleship Minas Geraes

Minas Geraes, spelled Minas Gerais in some sources, was a dreadnought battleship of the Brazilian Navy. Named in honor of the state of Minas Gerais, the ship was laid down in April 1907 as the lead ship of its class, making the country the third to have a dreadnought under construction and igniting a naval arms race between Brazil, Argentina, and Chile.

Two months after its completion in January 1910, Minas Geraes was featured in Scientific American, which described it as "the last word in heavy battleship design and the ... most powerfully armed warship afloat". In November 1910, Minas Geraes was the focal point of the Revolt of the Lash. The mutiny spread from Minas Geraes to other ships in the Navy, including its sister São Paulo, the elderly coastal defense ship Deodoro, and the recently commissioned cruiser Bahia. Led by the "Black Admiral" João Cândido Felisberto, the mutineers threatened to bombard the Brazilian capital of Rio de Janeiro if their demands were not met. As it was not possible to end the situation militarily—the only loyal troops nearby being small torpedo boats and army troops confined to land—the National Congress of Brazil gave in and the rebels disbanded.

When Brazil entered the First World War in 1917, Britain's Royal Navy declined Brazil's offer of Minas Geraes for duty with the Grand Fleet because the ship was outdated; it had not been refitted since entering service, so range-finders and a fire-control system had not been added. São Paulo underwent modernization in the United States in 1920; in 1921, Minas Geraes received the same treatment. A year later, Minas Geraes sailed to counter the first of the Tenente revolts. São Paulo shelled the rebels' fort, and they surrendered shortly thereafter; Minas Geraes did not fire its guns. In 1924, mutineers seized São Paulo and attempted to persuade the crews of Minas Geraes and several other ships to join them, but were unsuccessful.

Minas Geraes was modernized at the Rio de Janeiro Naval Yard in the 1930s, and underwent further refitting from 1939 to 1943. During the Second World War, the ship was anchored in Salvador as the main defense of the port, as it was too old to play an active part in the war. For the last nine years of its service life, Minas Geraes remained largely inactive, and was towed to Italy for scrapping in March 1954.

Chamber of Deputies (Brazil)

The Chamber of Deputies (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. The chamber comprises 513 deputies, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. The current President of the Chamber is the deputy Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), who was elected in July 14, 2016 to serve for the remainder of the 2015–2016 term.

Coat of arms of the Federal District (Brazil)

The coat of arms of the Federal District, Brazil was conceived by the poet Guilherme de Almeida, and instituted on September 12, 1960. Avoiding traditional heraldry, the design features innovative shapes, similar to the architecture of the Brazilian capital created by Oscar Niemeyer.

The shield, whose format is based on the columns of the Palácio da Alvorada, is divided into green and gold. The colours, however, are not of the shade of the Brazilian flag, resembling more the ones used on the flag of the Federal District. It bears, in the center, a green shield with the so-called Cross of Brasília, formed of four diverging arrows that symbolize the action of power, topped by a meeting table, indicating to be there the place of the National Congress of Brazil. Below, in Latin, the motto of the Federal District: venturis ventis ("coming winds").

Davi Alcolumbre

Davi Samuel Alcolumbre Tobelem (born 19 June 1977) is a Brazilian politician. He is currently the President of the Senate of Brazil and has been a Senator, representing the state of Amapá, since 2015. Before that, he was a Congressman from the same state from 2003 to 2015. He is a member of the Democrats. Alcolumbre is the first Jewish lawmaker to hold both the presidencies of the Federal Senate and of the National Congress of Brazil.

Environment of Brazil

The environment of Brazil is characterized by high biodiversity with a population density that decreases away from the coast.

Brazil's large area comprises different ecosystems, which together sustain some of the world's greatest biodiversity. Because of the country's intense economic and demographic growth, Brazil's ability to protect its environmental habitats has increasingly come under threat.

Extensive legal and illegal logging destroys forests the size of a small country per year, and with it a diverse series of species through habitat destruction and habitat fragmentation. Between 2002 and 2006, an area of the Amazon Rainforest equivalent in size to the State of South Carolina was completely deforested for the purposes of raising cattle and woodlogging. In April 2012 Brazil's powerful farm lobby won a long-sought victory after the National Congress of Brazil approved a controversial forestry bill that environmentalists say will speed deforestation in the Amazon as more land is opened for producing food. By 2020, at least 50% of the species resident in Brazil may become extinct.There is a general consensus that Brazil has the highest number of both terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates of any single country in the world. Also, Brazil has the highest primate diversity, the highest number of mammals, the highest number of amphibians, the second highest number of butterflies, the third highest number of birds, and second highest number of reptiles. There is a high number of endangered species, many of them living in threatened habitats such as the Atlantic Forest.

Esperidião Amin

Esperidião Amin Helou Filho (December 21, 1947) is a Brazilian politician. Born to a family of businessmen and politicians of Lebanese origin, he was twice elected governor of the state of Santa Catarina and twice mayor of the city of Florianópolis, its capital. He was Senator of the Republic between 1991 and 1999 and national president of the Progressive Party. In 1994, he ran for President of Brazil, but was not elected. He is married to Angela Amin, a federal congresswoman in the National Congress of Brazil and twice mayor of Florianópolis.

Amin studied Business Administration and Law at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC). He completed his master's degree in management and is a professor in the areas of business, economics, law and planning at UFSC.

Federal Senate

The Federal Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was initially similar to the United Kingdom's House of Lords. Since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate.

Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later. When one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate; when two seats are up for election, each voter casts two votes, and the voter cannot give his two votes for the same candidate, but, in elections for the renewal of two-thirds of the Senate, each party can present two candidates for election. The candidate in each State and the Federal District (or the first two candidates, when two thirds of the seats are up for election) who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected.

The current president of the Brazilian Senate is Davi Alcolumbre, from the Democrats of Amapá. He was elected in early 2019 for a two-year term.

Glenn Greenwald

Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, and author, best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper beginning in June 2013, detailing the United States and British global surveillance programs, and based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden. Greenwald and the team he worked with won both a George Polk Award and a Pulitzer Prize for those reports. He has written several best-selling books, including No Place to Hide.

Greenwald's work on the Snowden story was featured in the documentary Citizenfour, which won the 2014 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. Greenwald appeared on-stage with director Laura Poitras and Snowden's girlfriend, Lindsay Mills, when the Oscar was given. In the 2016 Oliver Stone feature film Snowden, Greenwald was played by actor Zachary Quinto.Before the Snowden file disclosures, Greenwald was considered one of the most influential opinion columnists in the United States. After working as a constitutional attorney for ten years, he began blogging on national security issues before becoming a Salon contributor in 2007 and then moving to The Guardian in 2012. He currently writes for and co-edits The Intercept, which he founded in 2013 with Laura Poitras and Jeremy Scahill.

Monumental Axis

The Monumental Axis ("Eixo Monumental" in Portuguese) is a central avenue in Brasília's city design.

The avenue begins on the National Congress of Brazil building and is considered part of the DF-002 road. Its first section is known as "Ministries Esplanade" ("Esplanada dos Ministérios"), as it is surrounded by ministries buildings. Many important government buildings, monuments and memorials are located on the Monumental Axis.

A common urban legend persists that the Monumental Axis is the widest road in the world, where "[100 to 160] cars can drive side by side". This is untrue, as the road consists of two avenues with six lanes on either side; a total of twelve lanes. However, the street has been featured in the Guinness Book of Records as having the widest central reservation of a dual carriageway in the world.

On April 21, 2008, a year before they formally broke up, the Mexican pop group RBD performed a free concert to a crowd of 500,000 on the Monumental Axis during Empezar Desde Cero Tour 2008. The show was to celebrate the 48th Anniversary of the founding of Brasilia. It was recorded and released as a DVD titled Live in Brasilia. The crowd in attendance was the largest for which the group had performed.

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (December 15, 1907 – December 5, 2012), known as Oscar Niemeyer (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈoskaʁ ni.eˈmajeʁ]), was a Brazilian architect considered to be one of the key figures in the development of modern architecture. Niemeyer was best known for his design of civic buildings for Brasília, a planned city that became Brazil's capital in 1960, as well as his collaboration with other architects on the headquarters of the United Nations in New York. His exploration of the aesthetic possibilities of reinforced concrete was highly influential in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Both lauded and criticized for being a "sculptor of monuments", Niemeyer was hailed as a great artist and one of the greatest architects of his generation by his supporters. He said his architecture was strongly influenced by Le Corbusier, but in an interview, assured that this "didn't prevent [his] architecture from going in a different direction". Niemeyer was most famous for his use of abstract forms and curves and wrote in his memoirs:

I am not attracted to straight angles or to the straight line, hard and inflexible, created by man. I am attracted to free-flowing, sensual curves. The curves that I find in the mountains of my country, in the sinuousness of its rivers, in the waves of the ocean, and on the body of the beloved woman. Curves make up the entire Universe, the curved Universe of Einstein.

Niemeyer was educated at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and after graduating, he worked at his father's typography house and as a draftsman for local architectural firms. In the 1930s, he interned with Lúcio Costa, with the pair collaborating on the design for the Palácio Gustavo Capanema in Rio de Janeiro. Niemeyer's first major project was a series of buildings for Pampulha, a planned suburb north of Belo Horizonte. His work, especially on the Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, received critical acclaim and drew international attention. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Niemeyer became one of Brazil's most prolific architects, working both domestically and overseas. This included the design of the Edifício Copan (a large residential building in São Paulo) and a collaboration with Le Corbusier (and others) on the United Nations Headquarters, which yielded invitations to teach at Yale University and the Harvard Graduate School of Design.

In 1956, Niemeyer was invited by Brazil's new president, Juscelino Kubitschek, to design the civic buildings for Brazil's new capital, which was to be built in the centre of the country, far from any existing cities. His designs for the National Congress of Brazil, the Cathedral of Brasília, the Palácio da Alvorada, the Palácio do Planalto, and the Supreme Federal Court, all designed by 1960, were experimental and linked by common design elements. This work led to his appointment as inaugural head of architecture at the University of Brasília, as well as honorary membership of the American Institute of Architects. Due to his largely leftist ideology, and involvement with the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), Niemeyer left the country after the 1964 military coup and opened an office in Paris. He returned to Brazil in 1985, and was awarded the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1988. A socialist and atheist from an early age, Niemeyer had spent time in both Cuba and the Soviet Union during his exile, and on his return served as the PCB's president from 1992 to 1996. Niemeyer continued working at the end of the 20th and early 21st century, notably designing the Niterói Contemporary Art Museum (1996) and the Oscar Niemeyer Museum (2002). Over a career of 78 years he designed approximately 600 projects. Niemeyer died in Rio de Janeiro on December 5, 2012, at the age of 104, ten days before his 105th birthday.

Paulo Delgado

Paulo Gabriel Godinho Delgado is a Brazilian politician.

Delgado is one of the founders of the Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores - PT). He is Professor of Social Sciences at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. In the 1980s he served as Secretary of Organization of the Workers's Party immediately following the party's creation. Later, in the 2000s, he was the party's Secretary of International Relations.From 1987 to 2011 he represented the State of Minas Gerais in the National Congress of Brazil.

President of the Chamber of Deputies (Brazil)

The President of the Chamber of Deputies is the speaker of the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil, elected by his peers for a two-year term.

Rodrigo Maia, a deputy from Rio de Janeiro and a member of Democrats, currently holds the office since 14 July 2016.


Francisco Everardo Oliveira Silva (born 1 May 1965), best known by his stage name Tiririca, is a Brazilian actor, clown, comedian, humorist, politician and singer-songwriter. He currently represents the state of São Paulo as a representative in the Chamber of Deputies of the National Congress of Brazil.

Tiririca first met national prominence as a singer-songwriter, when his first album Florentina (1997) topped charts. Proving to be a one-hit wonder, he abandoned his musical career after recording two more albums and started work as an actor and comedian in television; Later, again received attention in Brazilian media in 2010, during his run for representative for São Paulo in the lower house Congress, eventually becoming the second-most-voted congressman in Brazil's history.

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