National Bureau of Statistics of China

The National Bureau of Statistics (Chinese: 国家统计局), abbreviated as NBS, is an deputy-cabinet level agency directly under the State Council of the People's Republic of China. It is responsible for collection, investigation, research and publication of statistics concerning the nation's economy, population and other aspects of the society. Ning Jizhe is the commissioner of the bureau since 2016.

National Bureau of Statistics
国家统计局
Guójiā Tǒngjìjú
NBS logo 2
Logo of NBS
Agency overview
Formed7 August 1952
HeadquartersXicheng District, Beijing
Agency executive
Parent agencyState Council of the People's Republic of China
Websitewww.stats.gov.cn
National Bureau of Statistics
Simplified Chinese国家统计局
Traditional Chinese國家統計局

Responsibilities

The bureau's authority and responsibilities are defined in China's Statistics Law. It is responsible for the research of the nation's overall statistics and oversee the operations of its local counterparts. [1]

Organizations

The bureau is lead by a commissioner, joined by several deputy commissioner (currently four), a chief methodologist, a chief economist, and a chief information officer.[2] It is composed of 18 departments, oversees 12 affiliated institutions and manages 32 survey organizations stationed in respective provinces. It also operates China Statistics Press.[2]

The national bureau has a headcount of 535 employees as authorized by the state council.

Commissioner

The current commissioner is Ning Jizhe, who assumed office in February 2016.

  • Xue Muqiao (August 1952 – November 1958)
  • Jia Qiyun (November 1958 – June 1961)
  • Wang Sihua (June 1961 – December 1969)
  • Chen Xian (September 1974 – October 1981)
  • Li Chengrui (October 19891 – May 1984)
  • Zhang Sai (May 1984 – February 1997)
  • Liu Hong (February 1997 – June 2000)
  • Zhu Zhixin (June 2000 – March 2003)
  • Li Deshui (March 2003 – March 2006)
  • Qiu Xiaohua (March 2006 – October 2006)
  • Xie Fuzhan (October 2006 – September 2008)
  • Ma Jiantang (September 2008 – April 2015)
  • Wang Bao'an (April 2015 – January 2016)
  • Ning Jizhe (February 2016 – present)

Access

Its Statistical Communiqué on the National Economic and Social Development and the China Statistical Yearbook are the bureau's most notable publications. It also runs and publishes the national census of economy, population and agriculture.[3]

Internet

National Data (National Statistical Data Repository) is operated by the bureau, which have both Chinese and English interfaces. All publishable statistical results by the bureau are released on this website, includes monthly, quarterly, and annual data of price indices, industrial data etc.[4]

Since the December of 2018, the agency began to release detailed dataset to authorized researchers and universities, which uses an application-based system for researchers resides within China. This includes dataset from the 3rd economic census, 6th population census, 3rd agricultural census, sampled 1% population survey of 2015, residents income survey and financials survey on industrial enterprises above designated size.[5]

Archive

The bureau also operates an archive filled with almanacs ever published by the bureau since 1982, some of the files are not digitalized, hence only accessible through the archive. Citizens can access the archive with their national identification card.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Statistics Law of the People's Republic of China".
  2. ^ a b "Organizational Chart". National Bureau of Statistics of China.
  3. ^ "Statistical Communique". National Statistics Bureau of China.
  4. ^ "National Data". data.stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  5. ^ "国家统计局向科研机构开放六大类微观数据-新华网". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.

External links

Anhui

Anhui (安徽; formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked province in Eastern China. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a short section in the north.

With a population of 62 million, Anhui is the 8th most populous province in China. It is the 22nd largest Chinese province based on area, and the 12th most densely-populated region of all 34 Chinese provincial regions. Anhui's population is mostly composed of Han Chinese. Languages spoken within the province include Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, and the Gan and Wu varieties of Chinese.

The name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities: Anqing and Huizhou (now Huangshan City). The abbreviation for Anhui is "Chinese: 皖; pinyin: wǎn" after the historical State of Wan, Mount Wan, and the Wan river.

The administration of Anhui is composed of the provincial administrative system, led by the Governor, Provincial Congress, The People's Political Consultative Conference, and Provincial Higher people's Court. Anhui is known as a province with political tradition in China's government system. Aside from managing provincial government departments, the provincial government manages 16 cities, 62 counties, 43 county-level districts and 1,522 townships. By the end of 2016, the population registered in Anhui was 70.27 million.

The total GDP of Anhui Province is listed as 12th of all 31 provincial regions in 2017.

Autonomous regions of China

An autonomous region (AR; simplified Chinese: 自治区; traditional Chinese: 自治區; pinyin: zìzhìqū) is a first-level administrative division of China. Like Chinese provinces, an autonomous region has its own local government, but an autonomous region has more legislative rights. An autonomous region is the highest level of minority autonomous entity in China, which has a comparably higher population of a particular minority ethnic group.

The Inner Mongolia autonomous region was established in 1947; Xinjiang was made autonomous in 1955; Guangxi and Ningxia in 1958, and Tibet in 1965. The designation of Guangxi and Ningxia as Zhuang and Hui autonomous areas, respectively, was bitterly protested by the local Han Chinese, who made up two-thirds of the population of each region. Although Mongols made an even smaller percentage of Inner Mongolia than either of these, the ensuing Chinese Civil War gave little opportunity for protest.

Chen Xian (politician)

Chen Xian (Chinese: 陈先; December 1919 – 1 September 2018) was a Chinese politician who served as Director of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and Deputy Director of the State Planning Commission.

Gansu

Gansu (甘肃; formerly romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province.

The seventh-largest administrative district by area at 453,700 square kilometres (175,200 sq mi), Gansu lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus and borders Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province), Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south and Shaanxi to the east. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Part of Gansu's territory is located in the Gobi desert. The Qilian mountains are located in the south of the Province.

Gansu has a population of 26 million, ranking 22nd in China. Its population is mostly Han, along with Hui, Dongxiang and Tibetan minorities. The most common language is Mandarin. Gansu is among the poorest administrative divisions in China, ranking 31st in GDP per capita. Most of Gansu's economy is based on the mining industry and the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. Tourism also plays a role in Gansu's economy.

The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu and went on to form the first known Empire in what is now China. The Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor, which passes through Gansu, resulting in it being an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire.

The city of Jiayuguan, the second most populated city in Gansu, is known for its section of the Great Wall and the Jiayuguan Pass fortress complex.

Guizhou

Guizhou (贵州; alternately Kweichow), is a landlocked province in Southwest China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the central part of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to the south, Yunnan to the west, Sichuan to the northwest, the municipality of Chongqing to the north, and Hunan to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 34 million, ranking 19th among the provinces in China.

Dian Kingdom, which inhabited the present-day area of Guizhou, was annexed by the Han dynasty in 106 BC. Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413 during the Ming dynasty. After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March between 1934 and 1935. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Mao Zedong promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from Soviet and American attacks.

Compared to other provinces of China, Guizhou has not benefited substantially from the Chinese economic reform. Guizhou is rich in natural cultural and environmental resources. Its natural industry includes timber and forestry, and the energy and mining industries constitute an important part of its economy. Notwithstanding, Guizhou is considered a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, with the third-lowest GDP per capita in China, ahead of Gansu neighboring Yunnan. However, it is also one of China's fastest-growing economies. The Chinese government is looking to develop Guizhou as a data hub.Guizhou is a mountainous province, although its higher altitudes are in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. Demographically, it is one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population, including sizable populations of the Miao, Bouyei, Dong, Tujia and Yi peoples, who speak languages distinct from Chinese. The main language spoken in Guizhou is Southwestern Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin.

Hebei

Hebei (河北; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province in Northern China. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province (Zhili Province). Its capital and largest city is Shijiazhuang. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.The modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928. A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào (燕趙), after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.

Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, and Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.

With a population of over 74 million people, Hebei is China's sixth most populous province. The Han majority comprise 96% of the population, followed by a minority of Manchu, Hui and Mongol peoples.

Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang (黑龙江; formerly romanized as Heilungkiang) is a province in Northeast China. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia (Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai and Zabaykalsky Krai) to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.

The province takes its name from the Heilong River (Chinese name of the Amur), which marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe City along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri rivers).

Heilongjiang is China's largest agricultural base, as well as an important industrial area mainly based on oil, timber, coal, and machinery manufacturing.

Hubei

Hubei (湖北; formerly Hupeh) is a landlocked province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China.

Hubei is officially abbreviated to "鄂" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei is "楚" (Chǔ), after the powerful State of Chu that existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty. It borders Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, and Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located at Yichang, in the west of the province.

Hunan

Hunan (湖南) is a landlocked province in Central China. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed, it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west, and Chongqing to the northwest. Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous province by population and the 10th most extensive province by area.

The name Hunan literally means "south of the lake". The lake that is referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province; Vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked Xiāng (Chinese: 湘), after the Xiang River, which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province.

The area of Hunan first came under Chinese rule around 350 BC, when the province became part of the State of Chu. Hunan was the birthplace of Chinese communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China. Hunan today is home to some ethic minorities, including the Tujia and Miao, along with the Han Chinese, who make up a majority of the population. Varieties of Chinese spoken include Xiang, Gan, and Southwestern Mandarin.

Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River. The site of Wulingyuan was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. Changsha, the capital, is located in the eastern part of the province; it is now an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation centre.

Jiangsu

Jiangsu (江苏; formerly Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.

Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center, partly due to the construction of the Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou and Shanghai (separated from Jiangsu in 1927) are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development. It is widely regarded as China's most developed province, when measured by its Human Development Index (HDI).Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment, chemicals and textiles. It has also been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006. Its 2014 nominal GDP was more than 1 trillion US dollars, which is the sixth-highest of all country subdivisions.

Jiangxi

Jiangxi (江西; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi) is a landlocked province in Eastern China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (江南西道; 'Circuit of Western Jiangnan'; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The abbreviation for Jiangxi is "赣" (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".

After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution. The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin, which is sometimes called the "Former Red Capital" (红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu), or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan'an.

The southern half of Jiangxi is hilly and mountainous, with ranges and valleys interspersed; notable mountains and mountains ranges include Mount Lu, the Jinggang Mountains and Mount Sanqing. The northern half is comparatively lower in altitude. The Gan River flows through the province.

Although the majority of Jiangxi's population is Han Chinese, Jiangxi is linguistically diverse. It is considered the center of Gan Chinese; Hakka Chinese, a close variety of Gan, is also spoken to some degree. Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium, thorium, tantalum, niobium.

Jilin

Jilin (吉林; formerly romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea (Rasŏn, North Hamgyong, Ryanggang and Chagang) and Russia (Primorsky Krai) to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. The name "Jilin" translates to "Auspicious Forest" in Chinese, and originates from girin ula, a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river".

The Manchu people once inhabited the area of Jilin, thus making Jilin part of the historical region of Manchuria. The area had been heavily contested, successively falling under the rule of the non-Han states of Xiongnu, Xianbei state, Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, and the Mongol Yuan dynasty. With the adoption of Han culture and the Chinese languages by the Manchu people, the Manchu language is considered a critically endangered language. Koreans comprise about 4% of the population, owing to its proximity to the Korean Peninsula. The majority of the province speaks Mandarin.

Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.

Liaoning

Liaoning (辽宁) is a northern coastal province in Northeast China on the shore of Yellow Sea, being the smallest but the most populous province in the region. The modern Liaoning province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and was renamed Liaoning in 1929, also known as Mukden Province at the time for the Manchu pronunciation of Shengjing, the former name of the provincial capital Shenyang. Under the Japanese-puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name, but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945 and again in 1954.

Liaoning is the southernmost province of Northeast China, historically also known as Manchuria. It is also known in Chinese as "the Golden Triangle" from its shape and strategic location, with the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay and Bohai Sea) in the south, North Korea's North Pyongan and Chagang provinces in the southeast, Jilin to the northeast, Hebei to the southwest, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The Yalu River marks its border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong in Liaoning and Sinuiju in North Korea.

List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita

The article lists China's first-level administrative divisions by their gross domestic product per capita in main years. All figures are given in the national currency, renminbi (CNY), and in USD at nominal values according to recent exchange rates as well as according to purchasing power parity (PPP). The average CNY exchange rate used here is from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, and CNY PPP exchange rates are estimated according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

For comparison purposes, this article also displays the GDPs of Taiwan, which is administered by the Republic of China and not the People's Republic of China, and the special administrative regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau, which maintain separate economic systems and currencies. These figures are shown in USD based on PPP, as estimated by the International Monetary Fund.[1]

List of Chinese administrative divisions by population

This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of China in order of their total resident populations. It includes all provinces, autonomous regions, direct-controlled municipalities and special administrative regions.

Ning Jizhe

Ning Jizhe (Chinese: 宁吉喆; pinyin: Níng Jízhé; born December 1956) is a Chinese economist and senior official currently serving as the director of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and Vice Chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission (minister-level rank).

Qinghai

Qinghai (青海; formerly romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai or Kokonur) is a landlocked province in Northwestern China. As one of the largest province-level administrative divisions of China by area, the province is ranked fourth-largest in area and has the third-smallest population. Its capital and largest city is Xining.

Qinghai borders Gansu on the northeast, Xinjiang on the northwest, Sichuan on the southeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region on the southwest. Qinghai province was established in 1928 under the Republic of China period during which it was ruled by Chinese Muslim warlords known as the Ma clique. The Chinese name "Qinghai" is after Qinghai Lake (cyan sea lake), the largest lake in China. The province was known formerly as Kokonur in English, derived from the Oirat name for Qinghai Lake.

Located mostly on the Tibetan Plateau, the province has long been a melting pot for a number of ethnic groups including the Han, Tibetans, Hui, Tu, Mongols and Salars. Tibetans constitute a fifth of the population of Qinghai and the Hui compose roughly a sixth of the population. There are over 37 recognized ethnic groups among Qinghai's population of 5.2 million, with national minorities making up a total of 45.5% of the population.

The area of Qinghai was brought under Chinese rule from 1724. After the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the region came under Chinese Muslim warlord Ma Qi's control until the Northern Expedition by the Republic of China consolidated central control in 1928, creating the province.

Shaanxi

Shaanxi (Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: Shǎnxī; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂàn.ɕí] (listen); alternately Shensi) is a landlocked province in Northwest China. It lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N).

Shaanxi covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people, the 16th highest in China. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the capital and largest city in the province. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.

Shaanxi comprises the Wei Valley and much of the surrounding fertile Loess Plateau, stretching from the Qin Mountains and Shannan in the south to the Ordos Desert in the north. Along with areas of adjacent Shanxi and Henan provinces, it formed the cradle of Chinese civilization, with its Guanzhong region sheltering the capitals of the Zhou, Han, Jin, Sui, and Tang dynasties in addition to the Qin. It does not include the full territory of the Yellow River's Ordos Loop, with the Great Wall of China separating it from the grasslands and deserts of Inner Mongolia.

The vast majority of the population of Shaanxi is Han Chinese. Mandarin is mainly spoken in Shaanxi, including Zhongyuan Mandarin and Southwestern Mandarin; another variety of Chinese, Jin, is also spoken.

Shaanxi is China's 15th largest economy, ranking within the middle among China's administrative divisions. The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi province. The high technology sector includes aircraft and aerospace industries, and Shaanxi produces more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial air industry.Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi is one of the oldest cities in China, and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals. Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of Shaanxi and the central-northwest region. It is the most populous city in Northwest China.

Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short (Chinese: 西藏; pinyin: Xīzàng; Mandarin pronunciation: [ɕí.tsâŋ]; literally: 'Western Tsang'; Tibetan: བོད་, Wylie: Bod, ZYPY: Poi, Tibetan pronunciation: [pʰø̀ʔ]), is a province-level autonomous region in southwest China. It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet Area, an administrative division the People's Republic of China (PRC) took over from the Republic of China (ROC) about five years after the dismissal of the Kashag by the PRC following the 1959 Tibetan uprising, and about 13 years after Tibet's incorporation into the PRC in 1951.

The current borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region were generally established in the 18th century and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. The Tibet Autonomous Region is the second-largest province-level division of China by area, spanning over 1,200,000 km2 (460,000 sq mi), after Xinjiang, and mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain, is the least densely populated provincial-level division of the PRC.

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