The National Bureau of Classification (NBC), previously the Film Censor Board of Maldives, is a government office founded on 21 May 1956 with the objective of presenting and promoting cinema and theatrical performances for the benefit of the Maldivian people.
|National Bureau of Classification|
|Purpose||Film and Literature ratings|
The Government of Maldives first formed a Film Censor Board on 21 May 1956 under the President’s Office. This Board was formed with the objective of presenting and promoting cinema and theatrical performances for the benefit of the Maldivian people. On 15 May 1983 the Film Censor Board was transferred under the mandate of the Ministry of Home Affairs and Housing. The mission of the five-member Board was to check films and theatrical dramas to see if they had issues that conflicted:
1. The tenets of Islam. 2. The Constitution, Laws and Regulations of the Maldives. 3. The Maldivian Culture.
On 1 April 1998 the Film Censor Board became a subsidiary of the Ministry of Information, Arts and Culture and on 29 December 2005, the Film Censor Board was re-branded as the National Bureau of Classification, NBC. This change was brought as the government believed that classification and education was the key to manage and regulate different content so as to protect values of artistic productions and safeguard consumer interests at the same time. Presently, the National Bureau of Classification is under the Ministry of Youth and Sports.
Classification Certificates issued by NBC are based on the following categories:
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.
The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit "0").
Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.Motion picture content rating system
A motion picture content rating system is designated to classify films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex, violence, substance abuse, profanity, impudence or other types of mature content. A particular issued rating can be called a certification, classification, certificate or rating. Ratings typically carry age recommendations in an advisory or restrictive capacity, and are often given in lieu of censorship. In some jurisdictions the legal obligation of administering the rating may be imposed on movie theaters.
In countries such as Australia and Singapore, an official government body decides on ratings; in other countries, such as the United States, it is done by industry committees with little if any official government status. In most countries, however, films that are considered morally offensive have been censored, restricted, or banned. Even if the film rating system has no legal consequences, and a film has not explicitly been restricted or banned, there are usually laws forbidding certain films, or forbidding minors to view them.
The influence of specific factors in deciding a rating varies from country to country. In countries such as the United States, films with strong sexual content tend to be restricted to older viewers, though those same films are very often considered suitable for all ages in countries such as France and Germany. In contrast, films with violent content which would be rated leniently in the United States and Australia are often subject to high ratings and sometimes even censorship in countries such as Germany and Finland.
Other factors may or may not influence the classification process, such as being set within a non-fictional historical context, whether the film glorifies violence or drug use, whether said violence or drug use is carried out by the protagonist, with whom the viewer should empathize, or by the antagonist. In Germany, for example, films depicting explicit war violence in a real war context (such as the Second World War) are handled more leniently than films with purely fictional settings.
A film may be produced with a particular rating in mind. It may be re-edited if the desired rating is not obtained, especially to avoid a higher rating than intended. A film may also be re-edited to produce an alternate version for other countries.The O.C. (season 2)
The second season of The O.C. commenced airing in the United States on November 5, 2004, concluded on May 19, 2005, and consisted of 24 episodes. It aired Thursdays at 8:00 p.m. ET in the US on FOX, a terrestrial television network. In addition to the regular 24 episodes, two special episodes aired before the season premiere. "The O.C.: Obsess Completely" documented the show's influence on popular culture in its first year. The following week, "Welcome to The O.C.: A Day in the Life," provided a behind-the-scenes look at the show.Continuing the stories about the characters living in Newport Beach, California, the second season would be "no longer about Ryan's past; now it's going to be about Ryan's future", said Josh Schwartz, The O.C.'s creator. Schwartz added that this season would "slow down the storytelling a little bit (...) and evolve the characters". The focus of the series was on the romantic developments between Ryan and Marissa, and Seth and Summer, while Sandy and Kirsten face choices that could ruin their 20-year marriage, Julie's past comes back to haunt her, and Ryan's ex-con brother Trey gives living in Newport a try. The season was released on DVD as a seven-disc boxed set under the title The O.C.: The Complete Second Season on August 23, 2005 by Warner Bros. Home Video. On September 7, 2008 the season became available to purchase for registered users of the US iTunes Store. In the United Kingdom the season premiered January 11, 2005 on Channel 4. In Canada the season aired on CTV Television Network and in Australia it was broadcast by Network Ten.