National Book Award

The National Book Awards are a set of annual U.S. literary awards.[1][2] At the final National Book Awards Ceremony every November, the National Book Foundation presents the National Book Awards and two lifetime achievement awards to authors.

The National Book Awards were established in 1936 by the American Booksellers Association,[3][4] abandoned during World War II, and re-established by three book industry organizations in 1950. Non-U.S. authors and publishers were eligible for the pre-war awards. Now they are presented to U.S. authors for books published in the United States roughly during the award year.

The nonprofit National Book Foundation was established in 1988 to administer and enhance the National Book Awards and "move beyond [them] into the fields of education and literacy", primarily by sponsoring public appearances by writers.[5] Its mission is "to celebrate the best literature in America, expand its audience, and ensure that books have a prominent place in American culture."[6]

In 2018, there were 1,637 books nominated for the five award categories, led by the Nonfiction category with 546 nominations. The 2018 ceremony was held on November 14 in New York City.[7]

National Book Award
Sponsored byU.S. books industry
DateNovember
Hosted byNational Book Foundation
First awarded1950 (1949 publications) and 1936–42 (1935–41)
Last awardedActive
Websitenationalbook.org

Winners and finalists

Current process

National Book Awards are currently given to one book (author) annually in each of five categories: fiction, nonfiction, poetry, translated literature, and young people's literature. There have been awards in many other categories but they have been retired or subsumed in the current five. The National Book Foundation also presents two lifetime achievement awards each year: the "Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters" and the "Literarian Award for Outstanding Service to the American Literary Community".[9]

Only publishers nominate books for the National Book Awards, but panelists may request particular nominations from publishers. Each panel comprises five judges, including writers, librarians, booksellers, and literary critics. In 2013, the judging panels were expanded to include experts in the literary field in addition to established writers.[10]

Each panel considers hundreds of books each year in each of the five categories. In 2013, the Foundation announced the addition of a National Book Awards longlist—announced in September and consisting of ten titles per category—to precede the finalists list, announced in October and comprising five titles per category.[11] A fifth category, the National Book Award for Translated Literature, was added in 2018, recognizing works in translation for the first time since 1983.[12] At the National Book Awards Ceremony and Dinner held in New York City each November, the chair of each judging panel announce the winners of the year's National Book Awards. All finalists receive $1,000, a medal, and a citation written by the judging panel; winners gets $10,000 and a bronze sculpture.[13]

History

Pre-war awards by booksellers

The first National Book Awards were presented in May 1936 at the annual convention of the American Booksellers Association, one month after The New York Times reported institution of the "new annual award". The winners were authors of four 1935 books selected by a vote of ABA members. Virginia Kirkus chaired the central committee of seven including the ABA president, three bookshops, Publishers Weekly, and American News Company. Three were called "the most distinguished of 1935" (novel, biography, and general nonfiction) and one "the most original" (novel).[3][4] Two of the books were advertised by their publishers as "The most distinguished autobiography of 1935" and "The most distinguished general non-fiction book of 1935" in NYTimes on May 12, the same day that the newspaper reported yesterday's awards.[a]

For the next six years, 1937 to 1942, the awards were announced mid-February to March 1 and evidently presented at the May convention.[14][15][16][17][18][19]

The "Most Distinguished" Nonfiction, Biography, and Novel (for 1935 and 1936)[3][4][14] were reduced to two and termed "Favorite" Nonfiction and Fiction beginning 1937. Master of ceremonies Clifton Fadiman declined to consider the Pulitzer Prizes (not yet announced in February 1938) as potential ratifications. "Unlike the Pulitzer Prize committee, the booksellers merely vote for their favorite books. They do not say it is the best book or the one that will elevate the standard of manhood or womanhood. Twenty years from now we can decide which are the masterpieces. This year we can only decide which books we enjoyed reading the most."[15]

The Bookseller Discovery officially recognized "outstanding merit which failed to receive adequate sales and recognition" (quoted by NYT)[16] Finally that award stood alone for 1941 and the New York Times frankly called it "a sort of consolation prize that the booksellers hope will draw attention to his work".[19]

The winning authors and books were selected by a nationwide poll of booksellers (ABA members); during the 1937/38 cycle, ballots were received from 319 stores, triple the number who voted in the first rendition early in 1936.[15] In a 1941 advertisement, the Booksellers described the "significance of the awards" thus:[20]

In effect, his ballot says, "Of all the books of the year these are the three I enjoyed most – in two ways! I enjoyed reading them; and I enjoyed selling them." And that to a bookseller means people who, on his recommendation, read and enjoyed – and sent in other people who also read and enjoyed. The National Book Awards give you perhaps a greater guarantee of reading pleasure than any other literary prizes.

Reestablished by the book industry

In January 1950 three book industry organizations announced that "works by Americans published here" would be recognized by three awards in March (at the annual convention?). There would be three distinct panels of five judges.[21]

That winter Harper placed several advertisements promoting the awards.

"first annual NBA dinner of the book industry in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel on Thursday" [March 16] with speakers Senator Paul Douglas, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Lewis Allen. A one-half hour program from the Awards Dinner, including Mrs. Roosevelt's address, was broadcast locally at 9:30 and again at 10:00pm.[22]

The awards were administered by the National Book Committee from 1950 to 1974, when the Committee disbanded after publishers withdrew support.[23][24]

In 1950 and 1967, at least, the prize sponsors were three book-industry organizations American Booksellers Association, the American Book Publishers Council and the Book Manufacturers Institute.[21][23]

In 1973 NYTimes still called the National Book Committee a nonprofit funded "by publishers and by organizations involved in the book trade"[25] A temporary Committee on Awards Policy handled 1975.[24]

New categories and split awards

In 1964 Nonfiction was divided in three.[26]

The National Book Award for Translation was introduced in 1967 and split between two books,[27] the first split.[25]

Children's literature was first recognized as one of seven categories in 1969.[28]

Two awards were split in 1973 for the first time.[25]

Publishers dropped their support after 1974 and the National Book Committee was disbanded.[24] In 1975 the temporary administrator "begged" judges not to split awards.[24]

Three of 27 awards were split in 1983[29] before the drastic cutback that also required selection of a single winner in all three categories for 1984.[30][31]

The currently active Poetry category was added in 1991, followed by Young People's Literature in 1996, and Translated Literature in 2018.[32]

"American Book Awards"

In 1980 the "National Book Awards" were canceled and replaced by "American Book Awards" on the film industry model (Oscars). "It will be run almost exactly the way the Academy Awards are run," a spokesman told reporters."[33] There would be nearly 30 awards presented in an extravagant TV-friendly ceremony, to winners selected by a standing "academy" of more than 2,000 people in the book industry.[33] Implementation was poor, the episode a disaster.[33]

Most new categories survived only one to four cycles, 1980 to 1983. There were seven awards categories in 1979, twenty-eight in 1980, nineteen in 1983 (plus graphics awards, see below), three in 1984.[34][35]

In 1983 there were 30 award winners in 27 categories including 14 categories of literary achievement in writing for adults; in turn, five for hardcover editions, six for paperback editions, and three general.[29]

1983 awards categories (27)

  • 8 for graphics: Pictorial Design, Typographical Design, Illustration Collected Art, Illustration Original Art, Illustration Photographs, Cover Design, Jacket Design[b]
  • 5 for children's literature: (Children's) Fiction hardcover and paperback, Nonfiction, Picture Books hardcover and paperback
  • 14 for adults' literature: General Nonfiction hardcover and paperback, History hardcover and paperback, Biography hardcover and paperback, Science hardcover and paperback, Translation, Fiction hardcover and paperback, Poetry, First Novel, Original Paperback

Late that year, the AAP Board voted to fund a new version of the Awards, which had been "close to expiring from lack of support". At the time, AAP and Harper & Row president Brooks Thomas anticipated "probably fewer than ten" categories, including some "only for original paperbacks, not reprints". Edwin McDowell reported that "many book-industry officials hope ... [to] rank in importance with the $15,000 Booker McConnell Prize for Fiction" (British).[36]

For 1983 publications (January to October) there would be no awards. A committee comprising American Book Awards executive director Barbara Prete and four publishers designed the new and improved program, implemented fall 1984 for a publication year beginning November 1983. They cut the roster to merely three (Nonfiction, Fiction, and First Work of Fiction), moved the ceremony from early spring to late fall, and redefined eligibility to require publication during the calendar year of the awards (roughly, see Annual eligibility).[30] There were only fiction and nonfiction awards in 1986.[37]

In 1987 the "National" award returned in name. Covering the November ceremony, Edwin McDowell of The New York Times remarked upon the recurring changes in format and contrasted 1983 in particular, when there were 96 finalists in 27 awards categories (listed above).

The surviving awards for general Fiction and Nonfiction, now with precisely five finalists each, were administered by National Book Awards, Inc., whose Chairman of the Board was the president of Hearst Trade Book Group. He declaimed that "Book people are really not actors, and there's a realization now that we should not try to reward things like who did the best book blurb."[38] The fixed number five finalists was retained through 2012,[39] while the number of book categories has doubled with the addition of Poetry in 1991 and Young People's Literature in 1996.[8] Beginning with 2013, the Foundation announced there would be a "longlist" of 10 titles in each of the four categories in September (40 titles), followed by a "finalist" list of 5 titles in October (20 titles), and then the winners in November (4 titles).[11] In 2018 a fifth award category was announced, an Award for Translated Literature.[40] It is for living translators and authors and for fiction and non-fiction. The foundation previously gave a translation award from 1967-1983, but did not require the author to be living and was for fiction only.

Annual eligibility

Currently a book must be published "between December 1 of the previous year and November 30 of the current year." Its publisher must complete a nomination in the spring and mail copies to the panelists. The panelists read all the valid nominees during this time, and the panels compile shortlists in September.[39][41]

The pre-war awards were announced in the winter, usually February, and described with reference to the year of publication, if any; for example, "National Book Awards for 1939" announced February 1940.[42] The 1950 to 1983 awards, as the National Book Foundation now labels them, were presented in the spring to works published during the preceding calendar year.[29][43] From 1984 the NBAs are presented in the fall, usually November, to books published roughly during the current calendar year (December of the previous year through November ).[30][41]

Medal for Distinguished Contribution (lifetime)

The Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters is a lifetime achievement award presented by the Foundation at the final ceremony for the Book Awards. The medal comes with a cash prize of $10,000. It recognizes someone who "has enriched [American] literary heritage over a life of service, or a corpus of work."[5]

Five of the seventeen medalists through 2004 were previous National Book Award winners (Bellow, Welty, McCullough, Updike, and Roth, all but McCullough for fiction). Between 2005 and 2018, all of the medalists except Leonard and Allende have been previous National Book Award winners.

Literarian Award for Outstanding Service (lifetime)

The Literarian Award for Outstanding Service to the American Literary Community is a lifetime achievement award presented by the Foundation annually from 2005. It recognizes "an individual for outstanding service to the American literary community, whose life and work exemplify the goals of the National Book Foundation to expand the audience for literature and to enhance the cultural value of literature in America."[52]

Criticism

Laura Miller, writing in Salon (October 12, 2011), said the fiction award has become a Newbery Medal for adults: Good for you whether you like it or not. She said "the impression has arisen that already-successful titles are automatically sidelined in favor of books that the judges feel deserve an extra boost of attention. the nominated books [often] exhibit qualities – a poetic prose style, elliptical or fragmented storytelling – that either don't matter much to nonprofessional readers, or even put them off." She claims the NBA has become irrelevant to average readers and of more interest to professional writers.[60] Craig Fehrman, writing in The New York Times (October 28, 2011), said "the National Book Awards [are] known for this sort of thing. They're awards for insiders."[33]

In response to these criticisms, the award "has been taking a tough look at itself, hiring a consultant to survey industry insiders – booksellers, editors and even critics – to see if the award process itself needs to be reformed to attract more attention."[61]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Both on page 21: Vincent Sheean's autobiography Personal History advertised by Doubleday, Doran; Anne Morrow Lindbergh's North to the Orient advertised by Harcourt, Brace & Co.
      By 1937/38, if not earlier, there would be "National Book Award Editions" of some books.
  2. ^ Only seven graphics awards are listed here, as in the contemporary source. Multiple sources say 27 and 19.

References

  1. ^ "National Book Award", Infoplease: Arts and Entertainment: Awards: Book, Magazine, Newspaper Awards. Infoplease.com. Retrieved before 2011-10.
  2. ^ "Seattle's Egan wins National Book Award", Mary Ann Gwynn, The Seattle Times, November 15, 2006. Retrieved before 2011-10.
  3. ^ a b c "Books and Authors", The New York Times, 1936-04-12, page BR12.
  4. ^ a b c "Lewis is Scornful of Radio Culture: Nothing Ever Will Replace the Old-Fashioned Book ...", The New York Times, 1936-05-12, page 25.
  5. ^ a b National Book Foundation: Awards: "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters". Retrieved before 2012-01-07.
  6. ^ National Book Foundation: "Mission and History of the National Book Foundation". Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  7. ^ National Book Foundation: About Us: "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 2012-01-05.
  8. ^ a b National Book Foundation: Awards: "National Book Award Winners: 1950 – 2009". Retrieved 2012-01-05.
  9. ^ National Book Foundation: About Us: "History of the National Book Awards". Retrieved before 2011-10.
  10. ^ "How the National Book Awards Work". www.nationalbook.org. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b "National Book Foundation Announces Changes in the National Book Awards Review and Selection Process". National Book Award. January 15, 2013. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
  12. ^ "Book Awards Honor Translated Literature For The First Time Since 1983". NPR.org. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  13. ^ National Book Foundation: Awards: "National Book Award Selection Process". Retrieved before 2011-10.
  14. ^ a b "5 Honors Awarded on the Year's Books: Authors of Preferred Volumes Hailed at Luncheon of Booksellers Group", The New York Times, 1937-02-26, page 23.
  15. ^ a b c
    "Booksellers Give Prize to 'Citadel': Cronin's Work About Doctors Their Favorite--'Mme. Curie' Gets Non-Fiction Award TWO OTHERS WIN HONORS Fadiman Is 'Not Interested' in What Pulitzer Committee Thinks of Selections", The New York Times 1938-03-02, page 14.
  16. ^ a b "Book About Plants Receives Award: Dr. Fairchild's 'Garden' Work Cited by Booksellers", The New York Times 1939-02-15, page 20.
  17. ^ "1939 Book Awards Given by Critics: Elgin Groseclose's 'Ararat' is Picked as Work Which Failed to Get Due Recognition", The New York Times, 1940-02-14, page 25.
  18. ^ "Books and Authors", The New York Times, 1941-02-16, page BR12.
  19. ^ a b "Neglected Author Gets High Honor: 1941 Book Award Presented to George Perry for 'Hold Autumn In Your Hand'", The New York Times, 1942-02-11, page 18.
  20. ^ "The Booksellers of America Announce Their National Awards", The New York Times, February 23, 1941, page BR21.
    • More than half of the advertisement featured the three prize books of 1937, announced earlier that month. The "Discovery of the Year" sported a dust jacket with stylized "First Prize" ribbon affixed and the Novel was promoted in its "National Book Award Edition" (also advertised ten days earlier: February 13, 1941, page 17).
  21. ^ a b "Book Trade Plans to Honor Writers: Industry Will Award Annual Prizes for Poetry, Fiction ...", The New York Times, January 22, 1950, page 68.
  22. ^ "PROGRAMS ON THE AIR" (radio), The New York Times, March 16, 1950, page 46.
  23. ^ a b "Book Award Goes to 'La Vida'; 'The Fixer' Wins Fiction Prize: 3 Others Will Be Honored at a Cerem[ony] ...", The New York Times, March 5, 1967, page 39.
  24. ^ a b c d "The Last of the National Book Awards?" (The Guest Word), William Cole, The New York Times, May 4, 1975, page 288.
  25. ^ a b c "2 Book Awards Split for First Time", Eric Pace, The New York Times, April 11, 1973. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
  26. ^ "National Book Awards – 1964". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-01-31. Compare 1963 (via menu at top of page).
  27. ^ "National Book Awards – 1967". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-01-31. Compare 1966 (via menu at top of page).
  28. ^ "National Book Awards – 1969". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-01-31. Compare 1968 (via menu at top of page).
  29. ^ a b c "American Book Awards Announced", Edwin McDowell, The New York Times, April 14, 1983, page C30.
  30. ^ a b c "11 Nominated for American Book Awards", Edwin McDowell, The New York Times, October 18, 1984, page C25.
  31. ^ "Three Writers Win Book Awards". The New York Times, November 16, 1984, page C32.
  32. ^ "National Book Foundation - Browse Awards by Year". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  33. ^ a b c d "The Short, Unsuccessful Life of the American Book Awards", Craig Fehrman, The New York Times, October 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-31.
  34. ^ "National Book Awards – 1979". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
  35. ^ "National Book Awards – 1980". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-02-04. Compare 1983 and 1984 (via menu at top of page).
  36. ^ "Publishing: New Life for American Book Awards", Edwin McDowell, The New York Times, November 4, 1983, page C28.
  37. ^ "National Book Awards - 1986". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  38. ^ "An Upset at the Book Awards", Edwin McDowell, The New York Times, November 10, 1987, page C13.
  39. ^ a b National Book Foundation: Awards: "How the National Book Awards Work". Retrieved 2012-01-05.
  40. ^ Alexandra Alter (January 31, 2018). "The Globalization of the National Book Awards". New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  41. ^ a b "National Book Awards Entry Rules & Guidelines, The National Book Foundation". www.nationalbook.org. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  42. ^ "1939 Book Awards Given by Critics: Elgin Groseclose's 'Ararat' is Picked as Work Which Failed to Get Due Recognition", The New York Times, February 14, 1940, page 25.
  43. ^ "Book Publishers Make 3 Awards: ... Gold Plaques", The New York Times, March 17, 1950, page 21.
  44. ^ Alison Flood (September 20, 2012). "Elmore Leonard to be honoured by National Book Foundation". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
  45. ^ "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, 2013". Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  46. ^ Baker, Jeff (September 9, 2014). "Ursula K. Le Guin wins big honor from National Book Foundation". oregonlive.com. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
  47. ^ "The 2014 Medalist For Distinguished Contribution To American Letters". September 9, 2014.
  48. ^ "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters". National Book Foundation. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  49. ^ "Robert A. Caro to Receive 2016 Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters". penguinrandomhouse.com. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  50. ^ "The National Book Foundation's Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters". National Book Foundation. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  51. ^ https://www.nationalbook.org/watch-the-2018-national-book-awards-ceremony-live/
  52. ^ National Book Foundation: Awards: "Literarian Award – 2005". Retrieved before 2011-10.
  53. ^ Leslie Kaufman (November 14, 2012). "Novel About Racial Injustice Wins National Book Award". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  54. ^ "The Literarian Award, 2013". Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  55. ^ "Literacy advocate Kyle Zimmer to receive honorary National Book Award". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. September 3, 2014. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-03.
  56. ^ "The Literarian Award, 2015". National Book Foundation. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  57. ^ "Cave Canem » Blog Archive » Cave Canem Awarded the 2016 Literarian Award from the National Book Foundation". cavecanempoets.org. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  58. ^ Williams, John (2017-09-20). "Richard Robinson of Scholastic Honored for Lifetime of Work in Children's Publishing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  59. ^ Italie, Hillel (2018-09-18). "Sloan Foundation programmer to receive honorary book award". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  60. ^ "How the National Book Awards made themselves irrelevant", Laura Miller, Salon, October 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-13. Archived copy.
  61. ^ Leslie Kaufman (November 11, 2012). "Book Awards Seek a Bigger Splash, Red Carpet and All". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
Citations
  • The New York Times.
One historical source is microfilm, in many library holdings. Another is ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2007). Another is the New York Times online. ProQuest and NYTimes.com both offer subscription services that some libraries purchase.

External links

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It won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award, but critical reviews were mixed and it is considered one of Faulkner's lesser works. Historically, it can be seen as a precursor to Joseph Heller's Catch-22.

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McCarthy's fifth novel, Blood Meridian (1985), was on Time magazine's 2005 list of the 100 best English-language books published since 1923.For All the Pretty Horses (1992), he won both the National Book Award and National Book Critics Circle Award. His 2005 novel No Country for Old Men was adapted as a 2007 film of the same name, which won four Academy Awards, including Best Picture. All the Pretty Horses, The Road, and Child of God have also been adapted as motion pictures, while Outer Dark was turned into a 15-minute short.

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List of winners of the National Book Award

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National Book Award for Poetry

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Taking place mostly in rural Georgia, the story focuses on the life of African-American women in the Southern United States in the 1930s, addressing numerous issues including their exceedingly low position in American social culture. The novel has been the frequent target of censors and appears on the American Library Association list of the 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 2000–2009 at number seventeen because of the sometimes explicit content, particularly in terms of violence. In 2003 the book was listed on the BBC's The Big Read poll of the UK's "best-loved novels."

The Fixer (novel)

The Fixer is a novel by Bernard Malamud published in 1966 by Farrar, Straus & Giroux. It won the U.S. National Book Award for Fiction (his second)

and the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.The Fixer provides a fictionalized version of the Beilis case. Menahem Mendel Beilis was a Jew unjustly imprisoned in Tsarist Russia. The "Beilis trial" of 1913 caused an international uproar and Beilis was acquitted by a jury.

The book was adapted into a 1968 film of the same name starring Alan Bates (Yakov Bok) who received an Oscar nomination.

The Grapes of Wrath

The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939. The book won the National Book Award

and Pulitzer Prize for fiction, and it was cited prominently when Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962.Set during the Great Depression, the novel focuses on the Joads, a poor family of tenant farmers driven from their Oklahoma home by drought, economic hardship, agricultural industry changes, and bank foreclosures forcing tenant farmers out of work. Due to their nearly hopeless situation, and in part because they are trapped in the Dust Bowl, the Joads set out for California. Along with thousands of other "Okies", they seek jobs, land, dignity, and a future.

The Grapes of Wrath is frequently read in American high school and college literature classes due to its historical context and enduring legacy. A celebrated Hollywood film version, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford, was released in 1940.

The Shipping News

The Shipping News is a novel by American author E. Annie Proulx and published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1993. It won the Pulitzer Prize, the U.S. National Book Award, as well as other awards. It was adapted as a film of the same name which was released in 2001.

The Underground Railroad (novel)

The Underground Railroad, published in 2016, is the sixth novel by American author Colson Whitehead.

The alternate history novel tells the story of Cora and Caesar, two slaves in the southeastern United States during the 19th century, who make a bid for freedom from their Georgia plantations by following the Underground Railroad, which the novel depicts as primarily a rail transport system in addition to a series of safe houses and secret routes.The Underground Railroad was a critical and commercial success, hitting the best seller lists and winning several notable prizes. It won the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, the 2016 National Book Award for Fiction, the Arthur C. Clarke Award and the 2017 Andrew Carnegie Medal for Excellence. It was longlisted for The 2017 Man Booker Prize.

W. S. Merwin

William Stanley Merwin (September 30, 1927 – March 15, 2019) was an American poet who wrote over fifty books of poetry and prose, and produced many works in translation. During the 1960s anti-war movement, Merwin's unique craft was thematically characterized by indirect, unpunctuated narration. In the 1980s and 1990s, his writing influence derived from an interest in Buddhist philosophy and deep ecology. Residing in a rural part of Maui, Hawaii, he wrote prolifically and was dedicated to the restoration of the island's rainforests.

Merwin received many honors, including the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1971 and 2009; the National Book Award for Poetry in 2005, and the Tanning Prize—one of the highest honors bestowed by the Academy of American Poets—as well as the Golden Wreath of the Struga Poetry Evenings. In 2010, the Library of Congress named him the 17th United States Poet Laureate.

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