National Assembly (Mauritius)

The National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is Mauritius's unicameral legislature, which was called the Legislative Assembly until 1992, when the country became a republic. The Constitution of Mauritius provides for the parliament of Mauritius to consist of the President and the National Assembly. The parliament of Mauritius is modelled after the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy, where members of parliament are voted in at regular general elections, on the basis of a first past the post system.

It consists of 70 members, 62 directly elected for five-year terms in multi-member constituencies and 8 additional members, known as "best losers", appointed by the Electoral Supervisory Commission to ensure that ethnic and religious minorities are equitably represented. The Government is primarily responsible to the National Assembly and the prime minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the support of a majority of its members.

Mauritian National Assembly
10th National Assembly of Mauritius
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Maya Hanoomanjee
since December 10, 2014
Pravind Jugnauth, MSM-ML
since January 23, 2017
Xavier Luc Duval, PMSD
since December 19, 2016
Structure
Seats62 plus 8 non-voting members
Seats of Mauritanian National Assembly
Political groups
Government (41)
  •      MSM (32)
  •      ML (7)
  •      OPR (2)

Opposition (28)

  •      PMSD (11)
  •      MMM (10)
  •      MLP (5)
Elections
Last election
December 10, 2014
Meeting place
Port Louis, Parliament Building
Parliament House, Port Louis
Website
Official website

Constitutional role

The National Assembly is supreme and determines the functioning of various constitutional institutions of the country.

President

The President and Vice-President are both elected by the assembly for a five-year term.

Government

The National Assembly is essential to determine which party/group forms the government and therefore the executive of the country. As per the constitution, the prime minister is answerable to and must maintain the support of the assembly. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the president appoints the person who has the support of the House, or who is most likely to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the assembly.

Opposition

The political party or alliance which has the second largest majority forms the Official Opposition and its leader is normally nominated by the President of the Republic as the Leader of the Opposition.

Composition

The Assembly is made of up of 70 members, of whom 62 are directly elected in 21 constituencies. The island of Mauritius is divided into 20 constituencies returning three members each and that of Rodrigues is a single constituency returning two members. After a general election, the Electoral Supervisory Commission may nominate up to a maximum of 8 additional members in accordance with section 5 of the First Schedule of the Constitution with a view to correct any imbalance in community representation in Parliament. This system of nominating members is commonly called the best loser system.

The political party or party alliance which wins the majority of seats in the Assembly forms the government and its leader usually becomes the Prime Minister. It is the Prime Minister who selects the members of the composition of the Cabinet from elected members of the Assembly, except for the Attorney General, who may not be an elected member of the Assembly.

List of political parties represented in the Assembly

A new assembly was elected on December 10, 2014 and a new coalition government was appointed with Sir Anerood Jugnauth as prime minister. The following political parties are represented in the assembly (based on the number of MPs):

Alliance Party Party Leader Seats
Alliance Lepep - 42 seats MSM Pravind Jugnauth 33
Muvment Liberater Ivan Collendaveloo 7
OPR MP Buisson Leopold serves as Leader in the assembly while Serge Clair is currently Chief Commissioner of Rodrigues 2
Parties with no alliance currently - 27 seats MMM Paul Berenger 7+3
PMSD Xavier Luc Duval 7+4
Mouvement Patriotique Alan Ganoo 1
Labour Party Shakeel Mohammed 4
Total 69

Procedures

After a new assembly is elected, the President, by proclamation, may open the new session fixing the date and time of the sitting. The government message (replacing the speech of the throne) is read by the President. The Assembly normally sits on Tuesdays as from 11:30 AM when it is in session. The President acting on the advice of the prime minister may at any time adjourn, prorogue or dissolve the assembly.

Officials/functions of the Assembly

The following positions/body have important functions in the assembly. They are as follows:

  • The Speaker – the main function of the Speaker is to ensure that the Standing Orders and Rules of the National Assembly are complied with. The Speaker interprets and enforces the Standing Orders and for the purpose of interpretation, recourse is often had to Erskine May: Parliamentary Practice, responds to Members' points of order and give rulings when necessary. The Speaker symbolizes the authority of Parliament.
  • The Deputy Speaker – the deputy speaker assists and acts as the speaker when the latter is out of office.
  • The Leader of the House (Prime Minister) – the president acting on the advice of the prime minister may at any time adjourn, prorogue or dissolve the assembly.
  • The Leader of the Opposition – the office holder is usually to level criticism against the policy and administration of Government and to outline the alternative policies.
  • The Attorney General – the office holder is the national legal adviser to the government and the assembly.
  • The Government Chief Whip – along with the Opposition whip, sets the agenda for the parliamentary work.
  • The Opposition Whip – along with the Chief Whip, sets the agenda for the parliamentary work.
  • The Government Deputy Chief Whip – replaces the Chief Whip when the latter is out of office.
  • The Chairperson of Public Accounts Committee
  • The Deputy Chairperson of Committees
  • The Clerk
  • The Mace – symbol of authority
  • The Serjeant-At-Arms
  • The Secretariat
  • The Library
  • The parliamentary reporters

2014 legislative election

Party Votes % Seats
Elected Top-up Total
Alliance Lepep (MSMPMSDML)[a] 1,016,551 49.83 47 4 51
PTR/MMM[b] 785,645 38.51 13 3 16
Mauritian Solidarity Front 41,815 2.05 0 0 0
Rezistans ek Alternativ 23,117 1.13 0 0 0
Rodrigues People's Organisation 21,874 1.07 2 0 2
Mauritian Social Democratic Movement 19,338 0.95 0 0 0
Lalit 11,550 0.57 0 0 0
Rodrigues Movement 11,113 0.54 0 0 0
Agreement for Parliamentary Democracy 10,548 0.52 0 0 0
Les Verts Fraternels 10,191 0.50 0 0 0
Independents 26,516 1.30 0 0 0
Total 2,039,972 100 62 7 69
Source: Electoral Commission
  1. ^ Of the 47 elected Lepep seats, 33 were won by the MSM, 7 by the PMSD and 7 by the ML. All four top-up seats were taken by the PMSD
  2. ^ Of the 13 elected PTR/MMM seats, 9 were won b the MMM and four by the PTR. All three top-up seats were taken by the MMM.

2010 legislative election

 Summary of the 5 May 2010 National Assembly of Mauritius election results
Parties and alliances Votes % Seats Additional seats Total seats
Alliance de L'Avenir (PTR-PMSD-MSM) 1,001,903 49.69 41 4 45
Alliance du Coeur (MMM-UN-MMSD) 847,095 42.01 18 2 20
Front Solidarité Mauricien (FSM) 51,161 2.54 1 1
Mouvement Rodriguais (MR) 20,933 1.04 2 2
Organisation du Peuple Rodriguais (OPR) 18,815 0.93 1 1
Total (Turnout ~78%) 2,016,427 96.21 62 7 69
Source: electoral.gov.mu

See also

External links

Coordinates: 20°09′47″S 57°30′12″E / 20.1630°S 57.5033°E

Abdool Razack Mohamed

Sir Abdul Razack Mohamed (Urdu: عبدل رزاق محمد‎; 1 August 1906 – 8 May 1978) was an India-born former key Mauritian Minister in the pre and post-independence cabinet of Mauritius. He is celebrated as one of the fathers of the modern state of Mauritius, and he was the leader of the political party called the CAM (Comite D'Action Musulman). His work together with Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam of the Mauritian Labour Party is credited with being instrumental in bringing independence to Mauritius.

Born in a rich mercantile Memon family in Calcutta, India in 1906, he was Lord Mayor of Port Louis in 1949, 1953 and 1956. Sir Abdul Razack Mohamed served many different posts for Mauritius, including deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Housing and Land Development and Minister of Social Security from 1967-1976. Sir Abdul Razack Mohamed died in Rose Hill on 8 May 1978.The centenary of his birth was commemorated by the Mauritian Government.

Ajay Daby

Ajay Chattradhari Daby (अजय छट्रधारी द॓बी) is a barrister and the former Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Mauritius. He did his secondary schooling at the Royal College of Curepipe. Called to the Bar of England and Wales in 1978, Ajay Daby studied in the United Kingdom and is a member of The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, London. He is married to Geeta Prayag, a laureate of the Queen Elizabeth College and doctor from the Sheffield University.

Daby started his legal career as a private legal practitioner before joining the State Law Office as State Prosecutor, but only for a very brief period. He soon resigned from his post in the Judiciary to join politics. Elected MP of the PSM in 1982 in Flacq-Bon Acceuil, Constituency No 9 at the age of 26, he became the youngest MP in the country. He was further elected as Deputy Speaker of the Parliament of Mauritius. In 1983, he was one of the founder members of the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM). He was in the same year, re-elected MP of Flacq-Bon Acceuil under the banner of the newly created MSM and went on to become the youngest Speaker of the Commonwealth and Association des Parlementaires de Langue Francaise (AIPLF). He was re-elected in Constituency No 11 (Rose-Belle/Vieux Grand Port) and was called upon to take the post of Speaker of the Legislative Assembly yet again.

In 1990, on a question of principle, Mr Daby refused to give the casting vote much needed by the then government to change the status of Mauritius to that of a republic and sever ties with the British Crown. He voiced his dissent with his leader and party on this question. The MSM - MMM newly formed coalition not having the required three-quarters majority to expel Mr Daby from his Speakership, went ahead to amend the Constitution to enable the removal of the Speaker by a simple majority. On 5 December 1990, the Constitution of Mauritius was amended accordingly. Mr Daby then joined the Mauritius Labour Party, but for a brief spell only.

In 2001, Mr Daby was made Commissionner for Drug Assets Forfeiture under the Government led by Sir Anerood Jugnauth ,and later by Paul Berenger, until 2005, when there was a change of Government following general elections .

Daby is back at the Bar and is regularly seen in high profile cases.

Alan Ganoo

Alan Ganoo (born 17 January 1951) is a Mauritian politician currently serving as First Member for Constituency No.14, Savanne And Black River in the National Assembly. He studied Law at Middle Temple and at King's College London. He served as Speaker of the National Assembly of Mauritius from 1982-1983 and as Leader of the Opposition from January to October 2013.

Arvin Boolell

Arvin Boolell GOSK, MP (born आर्विन बूलेल्ल on May 26, 1953) is a former foreign minister of Mauritius. He was appointed by President Sir Anerood Jugnauth and took office in September 2008 in the cabinet of Navin Ramgoolam. He belongs to the Boolell dynasty and his father was former Foreign Minister Sir Satcam Boolell and he is a cousin of former foreign minister Anil Gayan.

Before serving as Foreign Minister, he was the minister of Agro-Industry and Fisheries of Mauritius, and was involved in negotiations with the European Union over economic issues.

Ashok Jugnauth

Ashok Kumar Jugnauth (born आशोक कुमार जग्नोथ on 4 January 1953) is a former Mauritian Member of Parliament and was the Minister of Health of Mauritius from 2000 to 2005. He served in the cabinet of Anerood Jugnauth from 2000 to 2003 and that of Paul Berenger from 2003 to 2005. He is part of the Jugnauth family. He is the younger brother of Sir Anerood Jugnauth. He was minister during his brother's term as Prime Minister.

Kailash Purryag

Rajkeswur Purryag, GCSK (born 12 December 1947, also known as Kailash Purryag) GCSK, GOSK is a Mauritian politician who served as President of Mauritius from 2012 to May 2015. He was elected as the fifth President of Mauritius by the National Assembly and took office on 21 July 2012. He succeeded Sir Anerood Jugnauth, who spent nine years as President from 2003 until resigning in March 2012. Kailash Purryag previously served as Member of Parliament, Minister and Speaker of the National Assembly; he made his debut in the political arena at an early age in 1976.

Leela Devi Dookhun

Leela Devi Dookhun Luchoomun MP (born ळीला डेवि डूखुन ळुचूमुन on 16 April 1961) is the former Minister of Social Security of Mauritius serving in the cabinet of Navin Ramgoolam having been appointed on 11 May 2010 by President Anerood Jugnauth. She is Member of Parliament representing Constituency No 8, Moka & Quartier Militaire. She is a former Minister of Arts & Culture serving in the cabinet of Paul Berenger for a short period of 6 months.

She was appointed as Parliamentary Private Secretary in September 2000 after the MSM/MMM coalition won the elections. She firstly served in the cabinet of Sir Anerood Jugnauth. She is a member of the Militant Socialist Movement and is the Vice President of the Party. She is also President of the Women Wing of the same political party. She is along with Nando Bodha and Showkatally Soodhun to form the front bench of the MSM in the Ptr-MSM-PMSD coalition government.

She is an Educator by profession. She is well known for being a highly renowned Biology Teacher in the country. Leela Devi Dookhun Luchoomun has a rich political career. In 1996, she joined the Militant Socialist Movement and took part in the municipal elections of Vacoas-Phoenix, then stood as candidate in Constituency No 15, La Caverne & Phoenix in 2000. She was elected and served as 1st Member of parliament for the constituency. In 2005, the MSM/MMM coalition lost to Social Alliance and she was elected 3rd MP for the same constituency but serving in the opposition. She was member of the opposition from 2005 to 2010 before the general elections in 2010.

She holds a BSc Hons from the University of Delhi and completed her Postgraduate Certificate in Education at the MIE and her Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDip) from the University of Brighton. She is also a Part-time lecturer at the Mauritius Institute of Education. She is married and is the mother of two children.

Madan Dulloo

Madan Murlidhar Dulloo, born 20 September 1949, is a barrister, politician and diplomat from Mauritius.

A law graduate from the University of London, member of the Middle Temple, Madan Dulloo was first elected during the 1976 general elections under the banner of the Mauritian Militant Movement.

Madan Dulloo is one of the longest serving Member of Parliament (29 years). Madan Dulloo has been present in constituency No.6 (Grand Baie/Poudre D’Or) since 1976 (34 years); Elected Member of Parliament for constituency No.6 (Grand Baie/Poudre D’Or) at the following General Elections: 1976, 1982, 1983, 1987, 1991, 2000, 2005.

Madan Dulloo is amongst those very few politicians in Mauritius who most of the times have always been elected (7 times).

Madan Dulloo is amongst those very few who stood the most times for General Elections (including by-elections) in Mauritius.

In 2005, Madan Dulloo was at his tenth (10th) elections. He has always been a candidate for the General Elections in constituency No.6 Grand-Baie/Poudre D’or since 1976. It’s a glorious track record.

Madan Dulloo has held the following ministerial portfolios throughout his political career:

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigration

Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Natural Resources

Attorney General and Minister of Justice

Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and CooperationBetween 1986 and 1994, Madan Dulloo was Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigration, Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries & Natural Resources and Attorney General & Minister of Justice.

Between 2005 and 2008, Madan Dulloo was Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Cooperation.

Maya Hanoomanjee

Santi Bai 'Maya' Hanoomanjee GCSK (Hindi:माया हनुमानजी Born GHOSE, on 5 November 1952) is a Mauritian politician and former Civil Servant who was elected as speaker of the National Assembly of Mauritius in December 2014. She is the first woman to hold this constitutional office and accordingly is the highest ranked female in the republic. She is a former Minister of Health of Mauritius who served from 11 May 2010 until the coalition government of Mauritian Labour Party & Militant Socialist Movement dissolved in July 2011. She served in Navin Ramgoolam's Cabinet. She served as 2nd Member of Parliament elected in constituency no 14, Black River & La Savanne from 2005 to 2014. She is a member of the MSM and is the first woman to hold the office of Speaker.

Hanoomanjee is a former civil servant and retired in 2005 as a Permanent Secretary just before officially joining the MSM. She served as the Permanent Secretary for Finance and Health in that time. She was decorated on 2015 national day by President Kailash Purryag and was made Grand Commander of the Star and Key of the Indian Ocean (GCSK). Maya Hanoomanjee has been married for 40 years and has three daughters.

Navin Ramgoolam

Navinchandra Ramgoolam, GCSK, FRCP (born 14 July 1947) is a Mauritian politician who was Prime Minister of Mauritius from 2005 to 2014 and leader of the Labour Party. He was Leader of the Opposition from 1991 to 1995. He served as Prime Minister for the first time from December 1995 until September 2000, and became Leader of the Opposition again from October 2000 to 4 July 2005. On 5 July 2005, he became prime minister for a second term after his Alliance Sociale won the general elections. He served again as Prime Minister from 2005 to 2014, when he was defeated afterwards.

Paul Bérenger

Paul Raymond Bérenger GCSK, MP (born 26 March 1945) is a Mauritian politician who was Prime Minister of Mauritius from 2003 to 2005. He has been Leader of the Opposition on several occasions — from 1983 to 1987, 1997 to 2000, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2013, October 2013 to 15 September 2014, and again since December 2014. Following his party's defeat in the 2014 general elections, he became Leader of the Opposition for the sixth time, making him the longest ever to serve in this constitutional position. He was also Deputy Prime Minister from 1995 to 1997 and again from 2000 to 2003, and he was a cabinet minister in the government of Anerood Jugnauth in 1982 and 1991. Bérenger, a Christian of Franco-Mauritian descent, has been the only non-Hindu Prime Minister of Mauritius.

Radha Poonoosamy

Radha Poonoosamy (née Padayachee, 18 September 1924 – January 2008), was a Mauritian politician, the country's first women cabinet minister, and a feminist activist.

She was born Radha Padayachee on 18 September 1924 in Durban, South Africa. She was born into a family of Indian ancestry.She was educated at the University of Natal, where she was an "outspoken opponent of apartheid", and became a member of the Student Council of the Indian National Congress, which fought against anti-Indian discrimination in South Africa. She went on to become head of the women's section, and also a member of the executive committee of the African National Congress (ANC).She married the physician Dr. Valaydon Poonoosamy, and they settled in Mauritius in 1952. She became a naturalized citizen, and continued her activism there within Mauritius's Labour Party.In 1975, Poonoosamy was elected a Member of Parliament, became the country's first female minister, the inaugural minister in charge of the Ministry of Women's Affairs, and helped pass laws against sex discrimination.

Rajesh Jeetah

Rajesh Jeetah (born 5 July 1962) is the former Minister of Tertiary Education, Science, Research and Technology of Mauritius.

Rama Sithanen

Rama Krishna Sithanen, GCSK, MP (born Tamil: இராம சித்தனன் Hindi: राम कृष्ण सिथनेन on 21 April 1954) is a former finance minister of Mauritius and vice-prime minister of Mauritius and has held the office between 1991 and 1995 when Sir Anerood Jugnauth was Prime Minister and from 2005 to 2010 Navin Ramgoolam's Cabinet .

Rashid Beebeejaun

Ahmed Rashid Beebeejaun, GCSK (born on 22 December 1935) is a former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Public Utilities of Mauritius and he has been in office since 2008. He is the Deputy leader of the Mauritian Labor Party since 2004 and is the first person to hold office of Prime Minister in the Mauritius line of Succession. Navin Ramgoolam Navinchandra Ramgoolam appointed Beebeejaun on 7 July 2005 as deputy prime minister after winning the 2005 general elections. He was born in Riviere du Rempart and was a doctor and practitioner in Mauritius before entering politics. In 2007 he was elevated to the rank of Grand Commander of the Star And Key of Indian Ocean by the President of the country Sir Anerood Jugnauth.

Ahmed Rashid Beebeejaun graduated with a degree in medicine from the University of Birmingham and is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.Beebeejaun was awarded an honorary DUniv by Birmingham University in 2011.

Roshi Bhadain

Roshi Sudarshan Bhadain (born 25 April) is a Mauritian politician. He was also Minister of Financial Services, Good Governance and Institutional Reforms under the government of Militant Socialist Movement. He is the leader of the Reform Party Mauritius, which has been founded in 2017..

Sheilabai Bappoo

Sheilabai Bappoo (born Rama on 16 June 1947 in Beau Bassin, Mauritius) is a Mauritius politician, Minister of Social Security, National Solidarity and Senior Citizens Welfare & Reform Institutions in Mauritius from 2005 to 2010. She also held the ministry of Gender Equality, Child Protection and Family Planning from 1983 to 1995 and from 2010 to 2011.

Xavier-Luc Duval

Charles Gaëtan Xavier Luc Duval GCSK (born 28 January 1958) is a Mauritian politician who was Deputy Prime Minister of Mauritius in the cabinet of Sir Anerood Jugnauth from December 2014 to December 2016. He was also Minister of Tourism & External Communications and serves as 1st Member of Parliament elected from Constituency No 18 Belle Rose & Quatres Bornes. He is the leader of the Mauritian Social Democrat Party (PMSD), which was a minority party in the Alliance Lepep. After the PMSD left the government on 19 December 2016, Xavier-Luc Duval was appointed as the leader of the opposition by the President. His party, the PMSD, has 11 MPs, and he succeeded Paul Berenger.

He served as Vice Prime Minister in the cabinet of Navin Ramgoolam from 2005 to June 2014. He was previously Minister of Tourism from 2005 to 2010, Minister of Social Integration from 2010 to 2011 and Minister of Finance and Economic Development from 2011 to 2014.

His first candidacy was in 1987 where he was elected to serve as Member of Parliament for Constituency No 4, Port Louis North & Montagne Longue. He was candidate of the MSM, part of the MSM/Labour Party alliance led by Sir Anerood Jugnauth.He later joined the Mauritian Social Democrat Party and stood as candidate for the 1991 elections where he was not elected under the Labour Party/Mauritian Social Democrat Party alliance. He later stood as candidate in 1995 under the 'Parti Geatan Duval' in constituency no 17, Curepipe and Midlands.He then created his own party known as the PMXD which was dissolved in 2009 to merge with the Mauritian Social Democrat Party. He was then elected leader of the party. His party was in alliance with the Labour Party in 2005 and 2010. Due to the alliance between the Labour Party and MMM in 2014 elections, he resigned as minister on 6 June 2014 and aligned with the MSM to form the Alliance Lepep which then won a landslide victory. He was since then appointed as Deputy Prime Minister.

Parties with less than 0.5% of the vote 61,714 3.03 0 0 0
Réveille des Jeunes 9,775 0.48 0 0 0
Social Justice Party 8,395 0.41 0 0 0
Free Citizens' Forum 8,210 0.40 0 0 0
Rodrigues Militant Movement–Rodrigues Patriotic Front 5,787 0.28 0 0 0
Malin Party 5,071 0.25 0 0 0
Authentic Mauritian Movement 4,071 0.20 0 0 0
The Liberals 3,256 0.16 0 0 0
Ensam 2,363 0.12 0 0 0
Muvman Travayis Militant 2,216 0.11 0 0 0
Movement Enn Sel Direction 1,853 0.09 0 0 0
Liberal Action Party 1,570 0.08 0 0 0
Union Patriots Ilois Mauriciens 1,293 0.06 0 0 0
Mauritian Workers' Movement 1,027 0.05 0 0 0
Socialist Front 1,005 0.05 0 0 0
Mauritian People's Party 585 0.03 0 0 0
Militant Lepep Movement 563 0.03 0 0 0
Parti Tireurs de Sable 542 0.03 0 0 0
Link to Build 448 0.02 0 0 0
Independent Forward Bloc 423 0.02 0 0 0
Ti Zwazo 398 0.02 0 0 0
Rodrigues Independence Movement 388 0.02 0 0 0
Mauritian Socialist Rally 351 0.02 0 0 0
Poor People Party 349 0.02 0 0 0
Mauritian Democratic Party 320 0.02 0 0 0
Mauritian Patriotic Front 314 0.02 0 0 0
National Liberation Front 271 0.01 0 0 0
Movement for People's Liberation 171 0.01 0 0 0
Regional Assembly Man-Animal-Nature 156 0.01 0 0 0
Mauritius New Generation Forces 145 0.01 0 0 0
National Socialist Movement 121 0.01 0 0 0
Mauritian National Congress 115 0.01 0 0 0
Four Cats Political Party 66 0.00 0 0 0
Mauritian Action Committee 63 0.00 0 0 0
Mauritius Party Rights 33 0.00 0 0 0
Subdivisions
Politics
Economy
Society
Legislatures in Africa
Sovereign states
Federal
Unitary
Dependent and
other territories
Non-UN states
Historical
Related

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.