National Anthem of the Republic of China

The "National Anthem of the Republic of China" is the national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan. It was originally adopted in 1937 by the ROC as its national anthem and was used as such until the late 1940s. It replaced the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud", which had been used as the Chinese national anthem before. In mainland China, this national anthem serves a historical role as the current national anthem of the People's Republic of China is the "March of the Volunteers". The national anthem was also adopted in Taiwan on 25 October 1945 after the surrender of Japan.

The national anthem's words are adapted from a 1924 speech by Sun Yat-sen, via the partisan anthem of the Kuomintang (KMT) in 1937. The lyrics relate to how the vision and hopes of a new nation and its people can be achieved and maintained. Informally, the song is sometimes known as San Min Chu-i from its opening line which references the Three Principles of the People (Sanmin Zhuyi), but this name is never used in formal or official occasions.

National Anthem of the Republic of China
中華民國國歌
Zhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
National anthem of ROC score
Sheet music

National anthem of  the Republic of China (Taiwan)
LyricsSun Yat-sen, 1924[a]
MusicCheng Maoyun, 1928
Adopted1928 (de facto, in China)
1943 (de jure, in China)
1945 (in Taiwan)
Relinquished1949 (Mainland China)
Audio sample
Instrumental version of the National Anthem of the Republic of China
  • file
  • help

History

The text of was the collaboration between several Kuomintang (KMT) party members: Hu Hanmin, Tai Chi-tao, Liao Zhongkai, and Shao Yuanchong. The text debuted on July 16, 1924, as the opening of a speech by Sun Yat-sen at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy. After the success of the Northern Expedition, the Kuomintang party chose the text to be its party anthem and publicly solicited for accompanying music. Cheng Maoyun won in a contest of 139 participants.

On March 24, 1930, numerous Kuomintang party members proposed to use the speech by Sun as the lyrics to the national anthem. At the time, the national anthem of the republic was the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud". Due to opposition over using a symbol of a political party to represent the entire nation, the National Anthem Editing and Research Committee (國歌編製研究委員會) was set up, which endorsed the KMT party song. On June 3, 1937, the Central Standing Committee (中央常務委員會) approved the proposal, and in the 1940s, the song formally became the official national anthem of the Republic of China.

Lyrics

National Anthem of the Republic of China
ROCanthemBySunYatSen
The original Whampoa Military Academy speech in Sun's handwriting.
Traditional Chinese中華民國國歌
Simplified Chinese中华民国国歌
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese三民主義
Simplified Chinese三民主义
Hanyu PinyinSānmín Zhǔyì
Literal meaningThree Principles of the People
Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese
(with Hanyu Pinyin)

ㄙㄢㄇㄧㄣˊㄓㄨˇㄧˋㄨˊㄉㄤˇㄙㄨㄛˇㄗㄨㄥ
ㄧˇㄐㄧㄢˋㄇㄧㄣˊㄍㄨㄛˊㄧˇㄐㄧㄣˋㄉㄚˋㄊㄨㄥˊ
ㄦˇㄉㄨㄛㄕˋㄨㄟˋㄇㄧㄣˊㄑㄧㄢˊㄈㄥ
ㄙㄨˋㄧㄝˋㄈㄟˇㄒㄧㄝˋㄓㄨˇㄧˋㄕˋㄘㄨㄥˊ
ㄕˇㄑㄧㄣˊㄕˇㄩㄥˇㄅㄧˋㄒㄧㄣˋㄅㄧˋㄓㄨㄥ
ㄧˋㄒㄧㄣㄧˋㄉㄜˊㄍㄨㄢˋㄔㄜˋㄕˇㄓㄨㄥ

三民Sānmín主义zhǔyìdǎngsuǒzōng
jiàn民国Mínguójìn大同dàtóng
ěr多士duōshìwèimín前锋qiánfēng
夙夜Sùyèfěixiè主义zhǔyìshìcóng
Shǐqínshǐyǒngxìnzhōng
xīn贯彻guànchèshǐzhōng

The lyrics are in classical literary Chinese. For example,

  • ěr () is a literary equivalent of both singular and plural "you" (which are differentiated in modern Chinese) depending on the context. In this case, it is plural "you".
  • fěi () is a classical synonym of "not" ( fēi). And
  • () is a classical, archaic interjection, and is not used in this sense in the modern vernacular language.

In this respect, the national anthem of the Republic of China stands in contrast to the People's Republic of China's "The March of the Volunteers", which was written a few years later entirely in modern vernacular Chinese.

As well as being written in classical Chinese, the national anthem follows classical poetic conventions. The ancient Fu style follows that of a four-character poem, where the last character of each line rhymes in -ong or -eng, which are equivalent in ancient Chinese.

Phonetic transcription (IPA)

[sán.mǐn t͡ʂù.î ǔ tàŋ swɔ̀ t͡sʊ́ŋ]
[ì t͡ɕjɛ̂n mǐn.kwɔ̌ ì t͡ɕîn tâ.tʰʊ̌ŋ]
[t͡sɹ̩́ àɚ twɔ́.ʂɻ̩̂ wɛ̂i mǐn t͡ɕʰjɛ̌n.fɤ́ŋ]
[sû.jɛ̂ fɛ̀i ɕjɛ̂ t͡ʂù.î ʂɻ̩̂ t͡sʰʊ̌ŋ]
[ʂɻ̩̀ t͡ɕʰǐn ʂɻ̩̀ jʊ̀ŋ pî ɕîn pî t͡ʂʊ́ŋ]
[î ɕín î tɤ̌ kwân.t͡ʂʰɤ̂ ʂɻ̩̀ t͡ʂʊ́ŋ]

English translations

The official translation by Du Tingxiu (Theodore B. Tu)[1] appears in English-language guides to the ROC published by the government.

Official Literal
San Min Chu-i,

Our aim shall be:
To found a free land,
World peace, be our stand.
Lead on, comrades,
Vanguards ye are.
Hold fast your aim,
By sun and star.
Be earnest and brave,
Your country to save,
One heart, one soul,
One mind, one goal...

Three Principles of the People,

The foundation of our party.
Using [this], [we] establish the Republic;
Using [this], [we] advance into a state of total peace.
Oh, you, righteous men,
For the people, [be] the vanguard.
Without resting day or night,
Follow the Principles.
Swear [to be] diligent; swear [to be] courageous.
Obliged to be trustworthy; obliged to be loyal.
[With] one heart and one virtue,
[We] carry through until the very end...

Transcription in other Chinese languages

Cantonese Yale Pe̍h-ōe-jī

Sāam màhn jyú yih, ngh dóng só jūng,
Yíh gin màhn gwok, yíh jeun daaih duhng,
Jī yíh dō sih, wàih màhn chìhn fūng,
Sūk yeh féi gaai, jyú yih haih chùhng,
Chí kàhn chí yúhng, bīt seun bīt jūng,
Yāt sām yāt dāk, gun chit chí jūng!

Sam bîn chú gī, ngô͘ tóng só͘ chong,
Í kiàn Bîn-kok, í chìn tāi tông,
Chu ní to sū, ûi bîn chiân hong,
Siok iā húi hāi, chú gī sī chiông,
Sí khîn sí ióng, pit sìn pit tiong,
i̍t sim i̍t tek, koàn thiat sí tiong!

Notes

  1. ^ Adapted from a speech.

References

  1. ^ Cassel, Susie Lan (2002). The Chinese in America: A History from Gold Mountain to the New Millennium. Rowman Altamira. p. 279. ISBN 9780759100015. Retrieved 30 August 2016.

Further reading

  • Reed W. L. and Bristow M. J. (eds.) (2002) "National Anthems of the World", 10 ed., London
  • Cassell, p. 526. ISBN 0-304-36382-0

External links

Preceded by
Song to the Auspicious Cloud
(1913–1928)
Three Principles of the People
1943–present
(1943–1949 in the Mainland)
Succeeded by
March of the Volunteers
(1949–1966 and 1976–today), in the Mainland
Anthem of China

Anthem of China may refer to:

March of the Volunteers, the national anthem of the People's Republic of China

National Anthem of the Republic of China, the national anthem of the Republic of China (Taiwan)

Military anthem of China

National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China, used in Taiwan

Historical Chinese anthems

CTS Main Channel

CTS Main Channel is a free-to-air terrestrial television channel of the Chinese Television System network and is the third oldest free-to-air terrestrial television channel in the Republic of China (Taiwan) after TTV Main Channel and CTV Main Channel.

Cheng Maoyun

Cheng Maoyun (Chinese: 程懋筠; pinyin: Chéng Màoyún; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng Mao-yün), 25 August 1900 – 31 July 1957) was a Chinese composer and a professor at National Central University and Hangzhou Societal University (杭州社會大學). He composed the "National Anthem of the Republic of China".

He was born in Xinjian (新建), Jiangxi to a family of officials. He studied music in Jiangxi Provincial Higher Normal School (江西省立高等师范学校 Jiāngxī shěnglì gāoděng shīfàn xuéxiào), and the Ueno Music Academy (上野音樂學院) in Tokyo. He majored in violin, then music theory, and composition. In 1928, his submission of the melody of "Three Principles of the People" was chosen. In 1947, he travelled to Taiwan for the first time, where Hsiao Er-hua (蕭而化 Xiāo Érhuà), head of the College of Music in the Taiwan Provincial Normal University, offered Cheng Maoyun a position, but he refused. He never returned to Taiwan again. He had a stroke in 1951 in Xi'an, and he died of second stroke July 31, 1957.The official university song of the National Central University, now on Taiwan, is also composed by Cheng.

His wife and son are also musicians. Zhang Yongzhen (张咏真), Cheng's wife, is a piano professor at the Xi'an Music Academy. His son, Zhang Jiannan (张坚男) (born 1945), is a composer.

China Heroically Stands in the Universe

"China Heroically Stands in the Universe" (simplified Chinese: 中国雄立宇宙间; traditional Chinese: 中國雄立宇宙間; pinyin: Zhōngguó xióng lì yǔzhòujiān) was the national anthem of the Republic of China (in use 1915–1921) and the Empire of China.

Chinese Taipei Olympic flag

The Chinese Taipei Olympic flag is used by the Republic of China (ROC) team, which competes under the title "Chinese Taipei" during the Olympic Games and other events, in place of the flag of the Republic of China. This is a result of the complex Cross-Strait relations between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. The Olympic flag has been in use since 1980, following the decision by the International Olympic Committee that the ROC could not compete under the country's name or flag.

Due to this restriction, the National Anthem of the Republic of China also could not be played when the team wins medals, so, instead, the National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China was played during the flag raising of the medal ceremony.

The flag shows the Blue Sky with a White Sun (the emblem of the Republic of China and the Kuomintang) and the Olympic rings, encircled by a five-petaled Prunus mei (the ROC's national flower) drawn in red, white, and blue (the colors of the ROC flag).

Chinese Taipei at the 2008 Summer Olympics

The Republic of China (Taiwan) competed Chinese Taipei at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where it sent 80 competitors in a record 15 sports. Since 1984, athletes from Taiwan have competed at the Olympics as "Chinese Taipei", not as the "Republic of China (ROC)", due to opposition from the People's Republic of China.According to the Taipei Times,

For the Beijing Olympics, Taiwan has asked the International Olympic Committee to guarantee that there will be no political interference and no discrimination against Taiwanese athletes. China has promised that it will treat Taiwanese players fairly and in line with the Olympic Charter.

As in previous editions of the Summer Olympics, the flag of the Republic of China was not displayed. Instead, the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag was waved by fans, and displayed, if the team won a medal. Had athletes from Chinese Taipei won gold medals, the National Banner Song, not the National Anthem of the Republic of China, would have been played at the medal ceremony.

Chinese Taipei at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

Chinese Taipei competed at the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, China. The delegation consisted of seventeen competitors in six sports: archery, track and field athletics, powerlifting, shooting, swimming, and table tennis. The athletes were ten men and seven women ranging in age from 27 to 53 years old."Chinese Taipei" is the delegation name used since 1979 by athletes from Taiwan and the Taiwan Area at the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Thus, Chinese Taipei's participation in the Beijing Paralympics did not contradict the One China policy and was not objected to by the People's Republic of China.

As in previous editions of the Summer Paralympics, the flag of the Republic of China was not displayed. Instead, the Chinese Taipei Paralympic flag was used when Taiwanese athletes won medals. When Lin Tzu-hui of Chinese Taipei won a gold medal, the National Banner Song, not the National Anthem of the Republic of China, was played at the medal ceremony.Three days before the beginning of the Games, the Taipei Times reported that two of Chinese Taipei's star athletes, double Paralympic champion Chiang Chih-chung and world athletics champion Chen Ming-tsai, had been barred from attending by the International Paralympic Committee. The Times added that no reason had been given for the ban, even after the Chinese Taipei Paralympic Committee had requested an explanation from the IPC. A representative of the CTPC stated that the People's Republic of China may have "interfered for political reasons" to prevent Chiang and Chen from participating in the Games. The Taipei Times article was subsequently reproduced on the Taiwanese government's website.

Chinese Taipei at the Olympics

The Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan) currently competes as "Chinese Taipei" at the Olympic Games. The ROC first participated at the Summer Olympic Games in 1932. After the Chinese Civil War the ROC retreated to the island of Taiwan and only Taiwan-based athletes have competed in its team since then. The ROC boycotted the Olympics starting from the 1976 Summer Games until it returned to the 1984 Winter Games, and started participating as Chinese Taipei.

Due to pressure from the People’s Republic of China, since 1984, Taiwanese athletes have competed under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag instead of the flag of the Republic of China. For any medal ceremony, the National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China is played instead of the National Anthem of the Republic of China.

Taiwanese athletes won their first Olympic medal in 1960, and their first gold medal in 2004.

Great Unity

The Great Unity (Chinese: 大同; pinyin: dàtóng) is a Chinese utopian vision of the world in which everyone and everything is at peace. It is found in classical Chinese philosophy which has been invoked many times in the modern history of China.

Guoge

Guoge is Chinese for "the national anthem".

It may refer to:

"The March of the Volunteers", long the provisional and since 1982 the official national anthem of the People's Republic of China

The National Anthem of the Republic of China

The National Anthem (film), a 1999 film about the composition of "The March of the Volunteers"

The National Anthem (series), a 27-episode drama on the composition of the Chinese national anthem

"The East Is Red" (song), an unofficial anthem during the late 1960s and early 1970s amid the PRC's Cultural Revolution

Other historical Chinese anthems

Other countries' national anthems

Historical Chinese anthems

Historical Chinese anthems comprise a number of Chinese official and unofficial national anthems composed during the early 20th century.

"Chinese national anthem" may refer to:

"March of the Volunteers" in the People's Republic of China

"National Anthem of the Republic of China" in the Republic of China on Taiwan

National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China

The National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國國旗歌; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē), also unofficially known as the "National Banner Song", is a patriotic song typically played during the raising and lowering of the flag of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan. It is also played at international sporting events such as the World Baseball Classic and Olympic Games, where Taiwan participates officially under the name of Chinese Taipei. The song is thus considered to be in effect a secondary national anthem; Taiwanese citizens stand when it is performed and salute it as they would salute the national anthem.

Republic of China Military Academy

The Republic of China Military Academy is the military academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung. Previously commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy, the military academy produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.

The military academy was officially opened on May 1, 1924 under the Kuomintang (KMT), but the first lessons began on June 16, 1924. The inauguration was on Changzhou Island offshore from the Whampoa (Huangpu) dock in Guangzhou, thus earning its name. During the inaugural ceremonies, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that was later to become the lyrics of the national anthem of the Republic of China. It has been considered one of the most important institutions of the Republic of China with National Chengchi University, which is a prestigious incubator for senior civil service.

After the Republic of China government retreated from mainland China to Taiwan, the academy was re-established as the Republic of China Military Academy in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.

Rhymed prose

Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. This form has been known in many different cultures. In some cases the rhymed prose is a distinctive, well-defined style of writing. In modern literary traditions the boundaries of poetry are very broad (free verse, prose poetry, etc.), and some works may be described both as prose and poetry.

Shao Yuanchong

Shao Yuanchong (Chinese: 邵元沖; pinyin: Shào Yuánchōng; 1890 – 14 December 1936) was a founding member of the Xinhai Revolution and a politician of the Republic of China. He served as the vice president of the Legislative Yuan and the mayor of Hangchow and was one of the authors of the National Anthem of the Republic of China.

Song to the Auspicious Cloud

The Song to the Auspicious Cloud (Chinese: 卿雲歌; pinyin: Qīng Yún Gē, literally "Auspicious Cloud Song") was the title of two historical national anthems of the Republic of China. The first version, composed by Jean Hautstont (born in 1867) and was in 1896 in China, a Belgian composer and esperantist, was in use from 1913 to 1915 as a provisional anthem. The second version, composed by Xiao Youmei, was in use from 1921 to 1928 as an official national anthem. The lyrics of both songs were based on Commentary of Shang Shu (尚书大传) written by Fu Sheng in 200–100 BCE.

Auspicious Cloud represents heaven and good luck in Chinese culture.

TTV Main Channel

TTV Main Channel is the primary free-to-air terrestrial television channel of the Taiwan Television company and is the first television channel luanched in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Three Principles

The Three Principles may refer to:

The Three Principles of the People in Nationalist China

"The Three Principles of the People", the national anthem of the Republic of China

The Three Principles of Appeal, an approach towards persuasion

The Three Principles, an approach to self-help, first articulated by Sydney Banks in the 1970s

Three Principles of the People

The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people. He believed that the economic livelihood of the people, its influence and legacy of implementation, is most apparent in the governmental organization of the Republic of China (ROC), which currently administers Taiwan, Penghu, Quemoy, and Matsu Islands. This philosophy has been claimed as the cornerstone of the Republic of China's policy as carried by the Kuomintang (KMT). The principles also appear in the first line of the National Anthem of the Republic of China.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
Bopomofoㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄜ
Wade–GilesChung1-hua2 Min2-kuo2 kuo2-ke1
Yale RomanizationJung1 hwa2 Min2 gwo2 gwo2 ke1
IPA[ʈʂʊ́ŋxwǎ mǐŋkwǒ kwǒkɤ́]
other Mandarin
Xiao'erjingﺟْﻮ ﺧُﻮَ مٍ ﻗُﻮَع ﻗُﻮَع قْ
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationJūng'wà Màn'gwok Gwokgō
JyutpingZung1waa4 Man4gwok3 Gwok3go1
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTiong-hôa-bîn-kok Kok-koa
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinSānmín Zhǔyì
Wade–GilesSan1-min Chu3-i4
IPA[sánmǐn ʈʂùî]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSāammàn Jyúyih
Chinese patriotic songs
Qing dynasty
Republic of China
1912–1949
Chinese Soviet Republic and the
People's Republic of China
Republic of China on Taiwan
since 1949
National
Regional
Organisations
Former
anthems

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.