National-anarchism is a radical, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist and anti-statist ideology. National-anarchists advocate a post-capitalist stateless society in which communities of different ethnic or racial groups would be free to develop separately in their own autonomous tribal communes. These national autonomous zones would be directly democratic, mutualistic and self-sufficient.
The term national-anarchism dates back as far as the 1920s. The few scholars who have studied national-anarchism conclude that it represents a further evolution in the thinking of the radical right rather than an entirely new dimension. National-anarchism has elicited skepticism and outright hostility from both left- and right-wing critics. Some accuse national-anarchists of being white nationalists who promote ethnic and racial separatism while others argue they want the militant chic of calling themselves anarchists without the historical and philosophical baggage that accompanies such a claim.
The term national-anarchist dates back as far as the 1920s, when Helmut Franke, a German conservative revolutionary writer, used it to describe his political stance. However, it would be the writings of other members of the conservative revolutionary movement such as Ernst Jünger which would later provide the philosophical foundation of the contemporary National-Anarchist Movement.
In the mid-1990s, Troy Southgate, a former member of the British far-right National Front and founder of the International Third Position, began to move away from Strasserism and Catholic distributism towards post-left anarchism and the primitivist green anarchism articulated in Richard Hunt's 1997 book To End Poverty: The Starvation of the Periphery by the Core. However, he fused his anarchist ideology with the radical traditionalism of Italian esotericist Julius Evola and the ethnopluralism and pan-European nationalism of French new right philosopher Alain de Benoist to create a newer form of national-anarchism.
In 1998, inspired by the concepts of the political soldier and leaderless resistance, Southgate formed the National Revolutionary Faction (NRF) as a clandestine cell system of professional revolutionaries conspiring to overthrow the British state. The NRF stressed this was a "highly militant strategy" and advised that some members may only fund the organization. Southgate claims that the NRF took part in anti-vivisection protests in August 2000 alongside hunt saboteurs and the Animal Liberation Front by following a strategy of entryism, but its only known public action under the national-anarchist name was to hold an anarchist heretics fair in October 2000 in which a number of fringe groups participated. However, after a coalition of green anarchists and anti-fascists blocked three further events from being held in 2001 Southgate and the NRF abandoned this strategy and retreated to purely disseminating their ideas in Internet forums. The NRF had long been aware of the bridging power of the Internet which provided it with a reach and influence hitherto not available to the groupuscular right. Thus, it became part of the Euro-American radical right, a virtual community of European and American right-wing extremists seeking to establish a new pan-national and ethnoreligious identity for all people they believe belong to the Aryan race. Southgate disbanded the NRF in 2003.
Shortly after, Southgate and other NRF associates became involved with Synthesis, the online journal of a forum called Cercle de la Rose Noire which seeks a fusion of anarchism, occultism and metapolitics with the contemporary concerns of the ecological and global justice movements. Thus, through the medium of musical subcultures (black metal and neofolk music scenes) and the creation of permanent autonomous zones for neo-völkisch communes they hope to disseminate their subversive ideas throughout society in order to achieve cultural hegemony.
The national-anarchist idea has spread around the world over the Internet, assisted by groups such as the Thule-Seminar which set up web sites in the 1990s. In the United States, only a few web sites have been established, but there has been a trend towards a steady increase. National-anarchism in the United States began as a relatively obscure movement made up of probably fewer than 200 individuals led by Andrew Yeoman of the Bay Area National Anarchists (BANA) based in the San Francisco Bay Area and a couple of other groups in Northern California and Idaho. Organizations based on national-anarchist ideology have gained a foothold in Russia and have been accused of sowing turmoil in the environmental movement in Germany. There are adherents in England, Spain and Australia, among other nations.
On 8 September 2007 in Sydney, Australia, the anti-globalization movement mobilized against neoliberal economic policies by opposing the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit. During the street protests, national-anarchists infiltrated the left-anarchist black bloc, but the police had to protect them from being expelled by irate activists. Since then, national-anarchists have joined other marches in Australia and in the United States. In April 2008, they protested on behalf of the Tibetan independence movement against the Chinese government during the Olympic torch relay in both Canberra, Australia and San Francisco. National-anarchists in the United States are carefully studying the successes and failures of their more prominent international counterparts as they attempt to similarly win converts from the radical environmentalist and white nationalist movements in the United States.
On May Day 2010, BANA participated in the Golden Gate Minutemen's march in front of San Francisco City Hall in support of Arizona's anti-illegal immigration senate bill. The march took place during International Workers' Day demonstrations as an attempt to counter mass protest against the bill in San Francisco's Mission District. Local news media reported that Yeoman and four other national-anarchists were physically assaulted by about 10 protesters as they left the march.
The conservative revolutionary concept of the anarch as articulated by Ernst Jünger is central to national-anarchism. National-anarchists see modernity, liberalism, materialism, consumerism, immigration, multiracialism, multiculturalism and globalization as the primary causes of the social decline of nations and cultural identity. They stress a strategic and ideological alliance of racial separatists in the Western world, neo-Eurasianists in Russia, Islamists in Muslim-majority countries, autonomist and secessionist movements in the least developed countries and anti-Zionists everywhere to resist the New World Order—globalization viewed as an instrument of Jewish-dominated international banking and American imperialism—that is inevitably leading to global economic collapse and ecological collapse.
National-anarchism echoes most strains of anarchism by expressing a desire to reorganize human relationships, with an emphasis on replacing the hierarchical structures of the state and capitalism with local community decision-making. However, national-anarchists aim towards a decentralized social order where each new tribe builds and maintains a permanent autonomous zone for a self-sufficient commune which is politically directly democratic, economically mutualistic, socially and culturally traditional and ecologically sustainable.
Asserting the right to difference, national-anarchists publicly advocate a model of society in which communities that wish to can practice racial, ethnic, religious or sexual separatism are able to peacefully coexist alongside mixed or integrated communities without requiring force. They claim that national autonomous zones could exist with their own rules for permanent residence without the strict ethnic divisions and violence advocated by other forms of "blood and soil" ethnic nationalism.
Many national-anarchists are influenced by the perennial philosophy of Julius Evola and the radical traditionalist school which calls for a "revolt against the modern world". Thus, they have a pessimistic vision of modern Western culture yet optimistically believe that the "decline of the West" will pave the way for its materialism to be expunged and replaced by the idealism of primordial tradition. Many national-anarchists reject Christianity because they believe it is a Semitic religion that usurped the Aryan legacy of Mithraic mysteries as the historically dominant religion and moral system of the West. Some embrace a spiritual anarchism based on different forms of neopaganism, occultism and ethnic mysticism, especially Nordic racial paganism, which they view as genuine expressions of Western spirituality, culture and identity that can also serve as an antidote to the socially alienating effects of consumer culture. Other national-anarchists hold racial segregation and cultural revitalization through the establishment of confederations of autonomous tribal communes ("volk autonomy") as the ultimate barrier against globalized racial and cultural homogenization.
According to American panarchist Keith Preston, national-anarchism and classical American ideals of Jeffersonian democracy are reconcilable despite the anti-Americanism of European national-anarchists and the patriotism of American paleoconservatives because of their common values, namely regionalism, localism, agrarianism and traditionalism.
While the combination of post-left anarchist opposition to statism and capitalism with right-wing support for ethnic and racial separatism makes its classification on the left–right political spectrum problematic, the following scholars who have examined national-anarchism consider it to be on the radical right.
In 2003, Roger Griffin argued that national-anarchism is a segment of the groupuscular right which has evolved towards a "mazeway resynthesis" between "classic fascism, third positionism, neo-anarchism and new types of anti-systemic politics born of the anti-globalization movement", whose main ideological innovation is a stateless palingenetic ultranationalism.
In 2005, Graham D. Macklin, in his essay Co-opting the Counter Culture: Troy Southgate and the National Revolutionary Faction, building off of the writings of Griffin, argued that the conservative revolutionary concept of the anarch provides sanction for the ideological shapeshifting and unrestrained eclecticism of national-anarchism, allowing its adherents to assert they have transcended the dichotomy of conventional politics to embrace higher political forms that are "beyond left and right". Macklin further argued that despite a protean capacity for change, far-right groupuscules retain some principes which he calls core fascist values (namely palingenesis, ultranationalism, anti-liberal and anti-Marxist Third Positionism and violent direct action). Macklin therefore concludes that national-anarchism is a synthesis of anarchism and fascism, or more precisely the radical traditionalism of Julius Evola which represents a "revolt against the modern world".
In his 2005 book The Radical Right in Britain: Social Imperialism to the BNP, Alan Sykes argued that national-anarchism represents a further evolution in the thinking of the radical right rather than an entirely new dimension, a response to the new situation of the late 20th century in which the apparent triumph of materialist capitalism on a global scale requires a greater assertion of the centrality of anti-materialist nationalism.
National-anarchism has critics on both the left and right of the political spectrum as they both look upon their politics with skepticism if not outright hostility in part because they find it difficult to consolidate national-anarchism into the traditional right–left spectrum.
Left-wing critics assert that national-anarchism is a "Trojan horse for white nationalism" and represents what many anti-fascists see as the potential new face of fascism. They argue that it is a form of crypto-fascism which hopes to avoid the stigma of classic fascism by appropriating symbols, slogans and stances of the left-wing anarchist movement while engaging in entryism to inject some core fascist values into the anti-globalization and environmental movements. They further argue that national-anarchists hope to draw members away from traditional white nationalist groups to their own synthesis of ideas which they claim are "neither left nor right". These critics warn that the danger national-anarchists represent is not in their marginal political strength, but in their potential to show an innovative way that neo-fascist groups can rebrand themselves and reset their project on a new footing. Even if the results are modest, this can disrupt left-wing social movements and their focus on egalitarianism and social justice, instead spreading separatist ideas based on naturalistic fallacy, racism, antisemitism, heterosexism and antifeminism amongst grassroots activists.
Some far-right critics argue that neo-Nazis joining the National-Anarchist Movement will lead to them losing credit for the successes of their anti-Zionist struggle if it is co-opted by left-wing anarchists. They further argue that national-anarchists want the militant chic of calling themselves anarchists without the historical and philosophical baggage that accompanies such a claim, namely the link with 19th-century Jewish anarchists.
Milton Alexander Linder (born June 30, 1966) is the owner-operator of Vanguard News Network (VNN), an antisemitic, white separatist, white supremacist, neo-Nazi, Holocaust denying, fascist, and white nationalist website which he launched in 2000. VNN is one of the most active white supremacist sites on the Internet, according to the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). Its motto is "No Jews. Just Right."Anarchism and nationalism
Anarchism and nationalism both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution of 1789, and have a long and durable relationship going back at least to Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) and his involvement with the Pan-Slavic movement prior to his conversion to anarchism. There has been a long history of anarchist involvement with nationalism all over the world, as well as with internationalism.
Nevertheless, anarchism as a political movement was very supportive during the early 20th century of anationalism as well as of the Esperanto language. After the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, Francoist Spain persecuted anarchists and Catalan nationalists, among whom the use of Esperanto was extensive.Anti-statism
Anti-statism is opposition to state intervention into personal, social and economic affairs. Anti-statism means opposition to the state and any artificial form of government and it differs from traditional anarchism which means the opposition not only to the state, but to any form of rulership.Antipodean Resistance
Antipodean Resistance (AR) is a neo-Nazi hate group in Australia. The group, formed in October 2016, makes use of Nazi symbols such as the swastika and the Nazi salute. AR‘s logo features the Black Sun and Totenkopf (skull head) with an Akubra hat, a laurel wreath and a swastika.
Antipodean Resistance promotes and incites hatred and violence, as seen through some of its anti-Jewish and anti-homosexual posters, with graphic images of shooting Jews and homosexuals in the head. One poster called to "Legalise the execution of Jews." As of December 2018, its website was shut down by its hosting provider.Aryan Nations
Aryan Nations is an anti-Semitic, neo-Nazi, white supremacist terrorist organization that was originally based in Hayden, Idaho. Richard Girnt Butler founded the group in the 1970s, as an arm of the Christian Identity organization Church of Jesus Christ–Christian. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has called Aryan Nations a "terrorist threat", and the RAND Corporation has called it the "first truly nationwide terrorist network" in the United States.Australian nationalism
Australian nationalism asserts that the Australians are a nation and promotes the national and cultural unity of Australia. Australian nationalism has a history dating back to the late 19th century as Australia gradually developed a distinct culture and identity from that of Britain, beginning to view itself as a unique and separate entity and not simply an extension or a derivation of British culture and identity.Candour (magazine)
Candour is a British far right-wing magazine founded and edited by A. K. Chesterton until his death in 1973.Front Comtois
The Front Comtois is a French small political group, located in France, in the region Franche-Comté. Its ideologies include racism, islamophobia, antisemitism, historical revisionism, homophobia, opposition to the legalization of abortion and neo-nazism. It was created in 2008. Members degraded a mosque with blood and a pig's head and racist inscriptions. Now Front Comtois has between 30 to 100 members, and make a lot of demonstrations in Montbéliard, Belfort and Besançon and many other small cities. The organisation was condemned and fined in 2011 for incitement to racial and religious hatred, at 6400 euros of penalty.James H. Madole
James Hartung Madole (July 7, 1927 – May 6, 1979) was a prominent fascist and leader of the National Renaissance Party in the United States. He is now recognized as a pivotal figure in the development of post-war occult-fascism.Kinism
Kinism is a white supremacist interpretation of Christianity. The ideology is a "movement of anti-immigrant, 'Southern heritage' separatists who splintered off from Christian Reconstructionism to advocate the belief that God's intended order is 'loving one's kind' by separating people along 'tribal and ethnic' lines to live in large, extended-family groups."NSDAP/AO (1972)
The NSDAP/AO is an American neo-Nazi organization. It was founded in 1972 by United States citizen Gary Rex Lauck (born in 1953) in Lincoln, Nebraska. The organization stands for "NSDAP Aufbau- und Auslandsorganisation" (English: NSDAP Development and Foreign Organization). Lauck's organization claims to be a continuation of the original NSDAP and supplies neo-Nazis worldwide with propaganda material. Since 1973 this new NSDAP/AO publishes Nazi magazines ("NS-Kampfruf", for example) - by his own account in ten languages. As one of its political aims it declares the readmission of NSDAP as an eligible party in Germany and Austria. The group has also been active in a number of countries across Europe, both co-ordinating with local movements and distributing propaganda individually.National Vanguard (American organization)
National Vanguard is an American white nationalist, neo-Nazi organization based in Charlottesville, Virginia, founded in 2005 by Kevin Alfred Strom and former members of the National Alliance.Neotribalism
This article concerns the sociological concept of neotribalism and not the reemergence of ethnic identities that followed the end of the Cold War.Neotribalism (a.k.a. neo-tribalism and modern tribalism) is a sociological concept which postulates that human beings have evolved to live in tribal society, as opposed to mass society, and thus will naturally form social networks constituting new "tribes".Nipster
Nipster is a slang term used in Germany to refer to young neo-Nazis who have embraced aspects of hipster culture. Historically, German neo-Nazis promoted an ultra-masculine and extreme right-wing image, preferring short hair, violent imagery and combat gear—in keeping with the white power skinhead or casual subcultures—while rejecting most modern pop culture. This has changed, with young "nipsters" embracing causes such as animal rights and environmentalism alongside historically far right positions, including anti-immigration views. Nipsters, rather than rejecting modern pop culture, seek instead to appropriate it to promote neo-Nazi ideals. This has also been seen in the New Right and National Anarchism movements.
Rolling Stone magazine profiled Patrick Schroeder, one of the founders of the nipster movement, who said he desires to "give the German National Socialist movement a friendlier, hipper face". Schroeder says that neo-Nazis who can "live within the mainstream", such as nipsters, are "the future of the movement". Social networking websites like Tumblr frequently host nipster content. A video showing a young neo-Nazi dancing to the Harlem Shake gained over 17,000 views on YouTube between 2013 and 2014. There are also German neo-Nazi hip-hop and reggae bands such as MaKss Damage and Mr. Bond.Right-wing anarchism
Right-wing anarchism may refer to:
National-anarchismRock Against Communism
Rock Against Communism (RAC) was the name of white power rock concerts in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and has since become the catch-all term for music with racist lyrics. The lyrics usually focus on racism and antisemitism, though this depends on the band.Social-National Assembly
The Social-National Assembly of Ukraine (S.N.A.) was an assemblage of the ultra-nationalist and neo-Nazi radical organizations and groups founded in 2008 that share the social-national ideology and agree upon building a social-national state in Ukraine. It is located on the far right of the Ukrainian politics and built around the "Patriot of Ukraine". In late November 2013 both the S.N.A. and the "Patriot of Ukraine" entered in an association with several other Ukrainian far-right groups which led to the formation of the Right Sector. The S.N.A. is also reported to be close to Svoboda, and Yuriy Zbitnyev, the leader of the nationalist political party "Nova Syla" (New Force). The S.N.A.'s activities are largely Kiev-based.Third Position
Third Position is an ideology that was developed in the 20th century by political parties including Terza Posizione in Italy and Troisième Voie in France. It emphasizes opposition to both communism and capitalism. Advocates of Third Position politics typically present themselves as "beyond left and right" while syncretizing ideas from each end of the political spectrum, usually reactionary right-wing cultural views and radical left-wing economic views.Thomas Robb (activist)
Thomas Robb (born 1946) is an American far-right activist, Ku Klux Klan leader, and Christian Identity pastor. He is national director of The Knights Party, also known as the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, taking control of the organization after David Duke.