Nasal bone

The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face and by their junction, form the bridge of the nose.

Each has two surfaces and four borders.

Nasal bone
Illu facial bones
Nasal bone visible at center, in dark green.
Gray852
Cartilages of the nose. Side view. (Nasal bone visible at upper left.)
Details
Identifiers
Latinos nasale
MeSHD009295
TAA02.1.10.001
FMA52745
Anatomical terms of bone

Structure

The two nasal bones are joined at the midline internasal suture and make up the bridge of the nose.

Surfaces

The outer surface is concavo-convex from above downward, convex from side to side; it is covered by the procerus and nasalis muscles, and perforated about its center by a foramen, for the transmission of a small vein.

The inner surface is concave from side to side, and is traversed from above downward, by a groove for the passage of a branch of the nasociliary nerve.

Articulations

The nasal articulates with four bones: two of the cranium, the frontal and ethmoid, and two of the face, the opposite nasal and the maxilla.

Other animals

In primitive bony fish and tetrapods, the nasal bones are the most anterior of a set of four paired bones forming the roof of the skull, being followed in sequence by the frontals, the parietals, and the postparietals. Their form in living species is highly variable, depending on the shape of the head, but they generally form the roof of the snout or beak, running from the nostrils to a position short of the orbits. In most animals, they are generally therefore proportionally larger than in humans or great apes, because of the shortened faces of the latter. Turtles, unusually, lack nasal bones, with the prefrontal bones of the orbit reaching all the way to the nostrils.[1]

Additional images

Gray153

Lateral wall of nasal cavity, showing ethmoid bone in position.

Gray155

Right nasal bone. Outer surface.

Gray156

Right nasal bone. Inner surface.

See also

References

  1. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 217–241. ISBN 0-03-910284-X.

External links

Andoque

Andoque (or Andoke) are an indigenous people in Colombia. They live along the Aduche tributary of the Japurá River.

Anterior ethmoidal artery

The anterior ethmoidal artery, also anterior ethmoid artery is an artery of the head.

Austriadraco

Austriadraco is a genus of pterosaur living during the Late Triassic in the area of present Austria. Its only species—Austriadraco dallavecchiai—was previously attributed to Eudimorphodon, and its closest relatives may have been Eudimorphodon or Arcticodactylus.In June 1994, near Seefeld in Austrian Tirol, at a 1600 metres high mountain trail to the Reither Spitze, in the vicinity of the Reither Joch-Alm, Bernd Lammerer discovered a pterosaur skeleton. The remains have been secured as five stone plates, removed on several occasions. In 2003, Peter Wellnhofer identified the fossil as a specimen of Eudimorphodon, a cf. E. ranzii. As it was 10 to 25% shorter than the latter's holotype, Wellnhofer considered it a juvenile. The same year Fabio Marco Dalla Vecchia doubted the comparability to E. ranzii and suggested that it represent a separate Eudimorphodon species. In 2009, Dalla Vecchia concluded that the specimen was neither a juvenile nor closely related to Eudimorphodon.In 2015, Alexander Kellner named the separate genus Austriadraco, with the type species Austriadraco dallavecchiai. The generic name is a combination of the Latin words Austria and draco, "dragon". The specific name honours Dalla Vecchia. The Life Science Identifiers are for the genus 120B3003-6DE3-41B4-AF6B-6F242FB2A777 and for the species 6E123721-07EA-419CB755-9981CC7D9209.The holotype, BSP 1994 I 51, was found in a layer of the Seefeld Formation, dating from the late Norian. It consists of a partial and disarticulated skeleton with skull. It contains both frontal bones, a left jugal, the lower jaws, loose teeth, vertebrae of the neck, back and tail, the shoulder girdle, both humeri, a first wing phalanx, the pelvis, a shinbone and a calf bone. The fused frontals had in 2003 been incorrectly identified as a breast bone by Wellnhofer. The bones have been partly preserved as impressions only and many are fragmented. The fossil is part of the collection of the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie at Munich.Austriadraco dallavecchiai is a small species. Humerus length is about four centimetres. In 2015 Kellner indicated several distinguishing traits. Some of these are autapomorphies. The frontal bone has a short front branch. The jugal bone has short branches to the front, in the direction of the maxilla and the nasal bone, and a long narrow upwards branch running towards the postorbital bone. In the outer rear side of the lower jaw an opening is present, the mandibular fenestra. The coronoid process of the surangular bone is low. The shoulder blade is considerably longer, 62%, than the coracoid.Additionally, a unique combination of in themselves not unique traits is present. The coracoid is broad, with a constricted shaft. In the pelvis, the ischipubic plate, the fusion of the pubic bone with the ischium, is deep. The shinbone is relatively long, with a length of 57.7 millimetres attaining 70% of the length of the humerus and 92% of the length of the first phalanx of the (fourth) wingfinger.According to Dalla Vecchia's analysis, Austriadraco would have a very basal position in the Pterosauria. Kellner concluded that its affinities were uncertain and placed Austriadraco in a separate, undefined, Austriadraconidae. He suggested a close relationship with Arcticodactylus as both taxa shared the trait of a short coracoid.

Eoceratops

Eoceratops is a genus of ceratopsian dinosaur containing the single species Eoceratops canadensis. It is a chasmosaurine ceratopsian which lived during the Late Cretaceous period, in what is now Western Canada.

In 1901, Lawrence Morris Lambe at the Berry Creek in Alberta discovered a dinosaur skull. In 1902, he named it as a new species of the genus Monoclonius: Monoclonius canadensis. The specific name referred to the provenance from Canada.The holotype, NMC 1254, was found in an layer of the Belly River Group dating from the middle Campanian. It consists of a partial skull, lower jaw and front back vertebra, of a juvenile animal. The head elements include a right eye socket with brow horn, the right squamosal and parietal corner of the neck frill and the rear left lower jaw. Lambe thought he had also discovered a right jugal but this was later identified as the right nasal bone. In addition Lambe referred a right lower jaw, specimen NMC 284 found in 1897, and another brow horn, specimen NMC 190.In 1905, in a publication by Timothy William Stanton and John Bell Hatcher, the species was assigned to the genus Ceratops, as a Ceratops canadensis. This was confirmed in Hatcher's posthumous publication of 1907. On this occasion, Hatcher additionally referred a maxilla and a tooth and suggested an identity with Monoclonius, later Chasmosaurus, belli.

In 1915, Lambe made it a separate genus, Eoceratops. The generic name adds a Greek ἠώς, eos, "dawn", to Ceratops, in view of the greater age. The combinatio nova is Eoceratops canadensis. The type species is Monoclonius canadensis.

After 1915, several specimens have been referred to Eoceratops. One of these was a fossil in 1913 discovered by William Edmund Cutler and unearthed by him in 1920. After Cutler's untimely death, American paleontologists presumed it had been stored in Calgary Zoo and had eventually been destroyed. However, in 2010 it transpired that Cutler had sold it to the British Museum of Natural History and that it was still in its collection as Chasmosaurus specimen BMNH R4948. Another specimen is UALVP 40, a skull excavated by George Fryer Sternberg in 1921, and in 1923 referred to Eoceratops by Charles Whitney Gilmore. In 1933, Richard Swann Lull considered it a possible female of Chasmosaurus kaiseni. In 1990, Thomas Lehman combined the Chamosaurus kaiseni material with Eoceratops into a new species of Chasmosaurus: Chasmosaurus canadensis.In 2010, Nicholas R. Longrich named and described skull TMP 1983.25.1, by Lehman referred to C. canadensis, as a new genus and species, Mojoceratops perifania. Longrich concluded that the holotype of Eoceratops, as that of C. kaiseni, probably belongs to Mojoceratops. This would make Eoceratops a possible senior synonym of Mojoceratops. However, Longrich also considered the Eoceratops type specimen as too poorly preserved for a reliable determination, especially as it belonged to a juvenile individual. He stated that Eoceratops is a nomen dubium. Longrich also considered the C. kaiseni type specimen nondiagnostic and stated it too is a nomen dubium. In 2015, Takuya Konishi redescribed UALVP 40, which had been further prepared. He noted the presence of a long supraorbital horncore curving upwards. He referred the specimen to a Chasmosaurus sp. which in his opinion might be identical to Chasmosaurus canadensis.Campbell and colleagues, in their 2016 analysis of Chasmosaurus specimens found Eoceratops and C. kaiseni to be referable to a Chasmosaurus sp. as both their holotypes lacked a preserved parietal. They also agreed with Maidment & Barrett 2011 that Mojoceratops is a synonym of Chasmosaurus russelli.The holotype represents a rather small individual. The squamosal has, measured along the outer curve, a length of fifty-seven centimetres and a width of thirty-eight centimetres. There are six episquamosalia. The juvenile status is confirmed by the short and wide squamosal, a short snout and the epinasal not being fused. At the base of the nasal horn, in a crescent-shaped depression, the contact facet with the nasal bone is visible, seeming to imply the horn is a separate ossification that Lambe in 1915 coined the "epinasal". The brow horns of Eoceratops are markedly longer than those of Chasmosaurus and with a length of 216 millimetres attaining twice their base length. The brow horns are curved to the rear. Lambe assumed that this curvature would not change during growth and thus was a valid distinguishing trait of the taxon. Today however, it is understood that the horn curvature in chasmosaurines typically reorients itself to the front when an adult age is reached. The squamosal side of the neck shield is strongly hooked in front, a basal trait.In 1902, Lambe placed Monoclonius canadensis in the Ceratopsidae. In 1915, Lambe created a separate Eoceratopsinae, to which group also Anchiceratops, Triceratops and Diceratops were thought to belong, in distinction to a Chasmosaurinae. The eoceratopins were assumed to distinguish themselves by more compact and resistant neck shields. Today all these forms, including Eoceratops itself, are considered Chasmosaurinae.

Ichthyosauriformes

The Ichthyosauriformes are a group of marine reptiles, belonging to the Ichthyosauromorpha, that lived during the Mesozoic.

The stem clade Ichthyosauriformes was in 2014 defined by Ryosuke Motani and colleagues as the group consisting of all ichthyosauromorphs that are more closely related to Ichthyosaurus communis than to Hupehsuchus nanchangensis. Their synapomorphies include the possession of a long nasal bone, stretching to the front beyond the nostril; large scleral rings, filling the eye sockets; a narrow snout in top view; and converging digits with little space between them.

The Ichthyosauriformes probably split off in the Early Triassic, about 250 million years ago; the last known forms lived in the middle Cretaceous. A basal ichthyosauriform is Cartorhynchus; more derived species are part of the Ichthyopterygia which again include the Ichthyosauria.

Itilochelys

Itilochelys is an extinct genus of sea turtle in the family Cheloniidae containing the single species Itilochelys rasstrigin. The species is known only from the Early Paleocene, Danian stage Rasstrigin 2 locality, Dubovsky District, Volgograd Oblast, Russia.

Kunbarrasaurus

Kunbarrasaurus is a genus of small herbivorous ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Australia.

Lateral nasal cartilage

The lateral cartilage (upper lateral cartilage, lateral process of septal nasal cartilage) is situated below the inferior margin of the nasal bone, and is flattened, and triangular in shape.

Its anterior margin is thicker than the posterior, and is continuous above with the septal nasal cartilage, but separated from it below by a narrow fissure; its superior margin is attached to the nasal bone and the frontal process of the maxilla; its inferior margin is connected by fibrous tissue with the greater alar cartilage. Where the lateral cartilage meets the greater alar cartilage, the lateral cartilage often curls up, to join with an inward curl of the greater alar cartilage. That curl of the inferior portion of the lateral cartilage is called its "scroll."

Longeing cavesson

A longeing cavesson (UK English: lungeing) is a piece of equipment used when longeing a horse. A longeing cavesson consists of a heavy, padded noseband, metal rings to attach the longe line, a throatlatch, and sometimes additional straps such as a jowl strap or a browband for added stability. It is placed on the horse's head in a manner somewhat akin to a halter, but provides significantly more control than a halter, without placing pressure on the horse's mouth as a bridle would. The noseband should be just below the cheekbone, several inches above the nostrils sitting on the nasal bone, and fitted snugly. The jowl strap should be very snug to prevent the cavesson from slipping into the horse's eye.

The key feature of a longeing cavesson is the strategic placement of rings for varying places to attach the longe line: one at the top of the nasal bone and one each side of the noseband. Many other types of headgear may be used for longeing, but the longeing cavesson is most commonly associated with dressage and related training methods and is designed to allow more subtle communication between handler and horse.

A longeing cavesson may be used with a snaffle bridle. The cavesson is put on under the bridle, with the noseband of the cavesson under the bridle cheekpieces. On some horses, the bridle cheekpieces may need to be lengthened to allow this. If the bridle also has its own cavesson, it may need to be removed to reduce bulk and avoid interference with other components.

Nasal foramina

The nasal foramina are foramina which run through the nasal bones.

Nasal fracture

A nasal fracture, commonly referred to as a broken nose, is a fracture of one of the bones of the nose. Symptoms may include bleeding, swelling, bruising, and an inability to breathe through the nose. They may be complicated by other facial fractures or a septal hematoma.The most common causes include assault, trauma during sports, falls, and motor vehicle collisions. Diagnosis is typically based on the signs and symptoms and may occasionally be confirmed by plain X-ray.Treatment is typically with pain medication and cold compresses. Reduction, if needed, can typically occur after the swelling has come down. Depending on the type of fracture reduction may be closed or open. Outcomes are generally good. Nasal fractures are common, comprising about 40% of facial fractures. Males in their 20s are most commonly affected.

Noseband

A noseband is the part of a horse's bridle that encircles the nose and jaw of the horse. In English riding, where the noseband is separately attached to its own headstall or crownpiece, held independently of the bit, it is often called a cavesson or caveson noseband. In other styles of riding, a simple noseband is sometimes attached directly to the same headstall as the bit.

Prefrontal bone

The prefrontal bone is a bone separating the lacrimal and frontal bones in many tetrapod skulls. It first evolved in the sarcopterygian clade Rhipidistia, which includes lungfish and the Tetrapodomorpha. The prefrontal is found in most modern and extinct lungfish, amphibians and reptiles. The prefrontal is lost in early mammaliaforms and so is not present in modern mammals either.

Proboscis (anomaly)

In teratology, proboscis is a blind-ended, tubelike structure, commonly located in the middle of the face.

Proboscis formation are classified in four general types: holoprosencephalic proboscis, lateral nasal proboscis, supernumerary proboscis, and disruptive proboscis.

Holoprosencephalic proboscis is found in holoprosencephaly (a condition in which the forebrain of the embryo fails to develop into two hemispheres as it should). In cyclopia or ethmocephaly, proboscis is an abnormally formed nose. In cyclopia, a single eye in the middle of the face is associated with arrhinia (absence of the nose) and usually with proboscis formation above the eye. In ethmocephaly, two separate hypoteloric eyes (eyes placed very close together) are associated with arrhinia and proboscis formation above the eye. In cebocephaly, no proboscis formation occurs, but a single-nostril nose is present.

Lateral nasal proboscis (proboscis lateralis) is a tubular proboscis-like structure and represents incomplete formation of one side of the nose; it is found instead of a nostril. The olfactory bulb is usually rudimentary on the side involved in the malformation. The tear duct, nasal bone, nasal cavity, vomer (the small thin bone separating the left and right nasal passages), maxillary sinus, ethmoidal sinuses, and another nasal structure known as the cribriform plate cells are often missing on this side as well. Ocular hypertelorism (eyes set far apart) may be present. The proboscis lateralis is a rare nasal anomaly.

Supernumerary proboscis (Accessory proboscis) is found when both nostrils are formed and there is a proboscis in addition to it. Accessory proboscis arise from a supernumerary olfactory placode.

Disruptive proboscis occur if an hamartoneoplastic lesion (benign growths such as are found in disorders like neofibromatosis and tubular sclerosis) arises in the prosencephalon (forebrain) of the embryo in its early stages of development.

Probrachylophosaurus

Probrachylophosaurus bergei is a species of large herbivorous brachylophosaurin hadrosaurid dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Campanian Judith River Formation, of Montana.

The significance of this particular hadrosaur taxon is that it is a transitional species between the genera Acristavus and Brachylophosaurus evolving from a crestless ancestor (the former genus) to its crested descendant (the latter genus) while changing the morphology of its nasal bones.

Sinusonasus

Sinusonasus is a genus of dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Period, recovered from the Yixian Formation. It lived in what is now the Liaoning Province of China. Sinusonasus was a theropod, specifically a troodontid dinosaur.

The type species, Sinusonasus magnodens, was named and described by Xu Xing and Wang Xiaolin in 2004. The generic name, derived from Latin sinus, "wave", and nasus, "nose", refers to the sinusoid form, in lateral view, of the nasals. The specific name means "big-toothed" from Latin magnus, "large" and dens, "tooth". In a later publication the species is referred to as "Sinucerasaurus" but this is a junior objective synonym.

The holotype, IVPP V 11527, was found in the Lujiatun Member of the Yixian Formation, dating from the Hauterivian. It consists of a partial skeleton including skull and lower jaw fragments and partial tail, pelvis and hindlimbs. The fossil is compressed and partially articulated.Sinusonasus is a small troodontid. In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated its length at one metre, its weight at 2.5 kilogrammes. The femur is 141 millimetres long.In 2004, several distinguishing traits were established. An interantorbital channel, connecting the antorbital fenestrae at each skull side, is lacking. The nasal bone has an undulating profile. The middle maxillary teeth are rather large. The chevrons on the rear caudal vertebrae are so long, measured from the front to the back, that they connect, forming a continuous plate at the underside of the tail. The neck of the thighbone is elongated.More generally, the head is relatively short, equalling 77% of the length of the thighbone. There are at least nineteen maxillary teeth per side. The front teeth are not serrated: those more to the rear only have denticles at the trailing edge. Five sacral vertebrae are present; the tail probably consisted of about thirty vertebrae. The pubic bone probably pointed obliquely to the front. The ischium is elongated. Sinusonasus has a long lower leg, indicating a good running capacity. The foot is "arctometatarsal", with a 'pinched' upper third metatarsal. The second metatarsal is distinctly shorter than the fourth. The second toe bears a retractable 'sickle claw'.Sinusonasus was in 2004 placed in the Troodontidae. It was presumed to have had a rather derived position, despite living in the Early Cretaceous. This was by the describing authors not interpreted as an indication for a long ghost lineage, troodontids developing earlier during the Jurassic than had been thought, but explained by rapid evolutionary change after a Cretaceous origin of the group.

Squamous part of the frontal bone

There are two surfaces of the squamous part of the frontal bone: the external surface, and the internal surface.

Tsintaosaurus

Tsintaosaurus (; meaning "Qingdao lizard", after the old transliteration "Tsingtao") is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur from China. It was about 8.3 metres (27 ft) long and weighed 2.5 tonnes. The type species is Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus, first described by Chinese paleontologist C. C. Young in 1958.

A hadrosaur, Tsintaosaurus had a characteristic 'duck bill' snout and a battery of powerful teeth which it used to chew vegetation. It usually walked on all fours, but could rear up on its hind legs to scout for predators and flee when it spotted one. Like other hadrosaurs, Tsintaosaurus probably lived in herds.

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