Napalm is an incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical (usually gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel). The title is a portmanteau of the names of two of the constituents of the original thickening and gelling agents: co-precipitated aluminium salts of naphthenic and palmitic acids. Napalm B is the more modern version of napalm (utilizing styrene derivatives) and, although distinctly different in its chemical composition, is often referred to simply as "napalm".
Napalm was originally developed in 1942 in a secret laboratory at Harvard University, by a team led by chemist Louis Fieser under the United States Chemical Warfare Service. Of immediate first interest was its viability as an incendiary device to be used in fire bombing campaigns during World War II, but its ability to be coherently projected into a solid stream that would carry for distance (instead of the bloomy fireball of pure gasoline) resulted in widespread adoption in infantry/combat engineer flamethrowers as well.
Napalm burns at the same temperature as gasoline, and for a greater duration, as well as being more easily dispersed and sticking tenaciously to its targets; these traits make it extremely effective (and controversial) in the anti-structure and antipersonnel role. It has been widely used in both the air and ground role, with the largest used to date being via air-dropped bombs in World War II (most notably in the gruesomely effective incendiary attacks on Japanese cities in 1945), and later close air support roles in Korea and Vietnam. Napalm also has fueled most of the flamethrowers (tank, ship and infantry-based) used since World War II, giving them much greater range, and was used in this role as a common (and feared) weapon of urban combat by both the Axis and Allies in World War II. Multiple nations (including the United States, China, Russia, Iran and North Korea) maintain large stockpiles of napalm-based weapons of various types.
Napalm was used in flamethrowers, bombs and tanks in World War II. It is believed to have been formulated to burn at a specific rate and to adhere to surfaces to increase its stopping power. During combustion, napalm rapidly deoxygenates the available air and generates large amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Use of fire in warfare has a long history. Greek fire, also described as "sticky fire" (πῦρ κολλητικόν, pýr kolletikón), is believed to have had a petroleum base. The development of napalm was precipitated by the use of jellied gasoline mixtures by the Allied forces during World War II. Latex, used in these early forms of incendiary devices, became scarce, since natural rubber was almost impossible to obtain after the Japanese army captured the rubber plantations in Malaya, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand.
This shortage of natural rubber prompted chemists at US companies such as DuPont and Standard Oil, and researchers at Harvard University, to develop factory-made alternatives—artificial rubber for all uses, including vehicle tires, tank tracks, gaskets, hoses, medical supplies and rain clothing. A team of chemists led by Louis Fieser at Harvard University was the first to develop synthetic napalm, during 1942. "The production of napalm was first entrusted to Nuodex Products, and by the middle of April 1942 they had developed a brown, dry powder that was not sticky by itself, but when mixed with gasoline turned into an extremely sticky and inflammable substance." One of Fieser's colleagues suggested adding phosphorus to the mix which increased the "ability to penetrate deeply...into the musculature, where it would continue to burn day after day."
On 4 July 1942, the first test occurred on the football field near the Harvard Business School. Tests under operational conditions were carried out at Jefferson Proving Ground on condemned farm buildings, and subsequently at Dugway Proving Ground on buildings designed and constructed to represent those to be found in German and Japanese towns. This new mixture of chemicals was widely used in the Second World War in incendiary bombs and in flamethrowers.
From 1965 to 1969, the Dow Chemical Company manufactured napalm B for the American armed forces. After news reports of napalm B's deadly and disfiguring effects were published, Dow Chemical experienced boycotts of its products, and its recruiters for new chemists, chemical engineers, etc., graduating from college were subject to campus boycotts and protests. The management of the company decided that its "first obligation was the government." Meanwhile, napalm B became a symbol for the Vietnam War.
Napalm was first employed in incendiary bombs and went on to be used as fuel for flamethrowers.
The first recorded strategic use of napalm incendiary bombs occurred in an attack by the US Army Air Force on Berlin on 6 March 1944, using American AN-M76 incendiary bombs with PT-1 (Pyrogel) filler. The first known tactical use by the USAAF was by the 368th Fighter Group, 9th Air Force Northeast of Compeigne, France 27 May 1944 (368th Fighter Group AFRHA History Documents) and the British De Havilland Mosquito FB Mk.VIs of No. 140 Wing RAF, Second Tactical Air Force on 14 July 1944, which also employed the AN-M76 incendiary in a reprisal attack on the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division „Götz von Berlichingen“ in Bonneuil-Matours. Soldiers of this Waffen SS unit had captured and then killed a British SAS prisoner-of-war, Lt. Tomos Stephens, taking part in Operation Bulbasket, and seven local Resistance fighters. Although it was not known at the time of the air strike, 31 other POWs from the same SAS unit, and an American airman who had joined up with the SAS unit, had also been executed.
Further use of napalm by American forces occurred in the Pacific theater of operations, where in 1944 and 1945, napalm was used as a tactical weapon against Japanese bunkers, pillboxes, tunnels, and other fortifications, especially on Saipan, Iwo Jima, the Philippines, and Okinawa, where deeply dug-in Japanese troops refused to surrender. Napalm bombs were dropped by aviators of the U.S. Navy, the United States Army Air Forces, and the U.S. Marine Corps in support of ground troops.
Then, when the U.S. Army Air Forces on the Marianas Islands ran out of conventional thermite incendiary bombs for their B-29 Superfortresses to drop on Japanese cities, its top commanders, such as General Curtis LeMay, used napalm bombs to continue fire raids on the large Japanese cities.
In the European Theater of Operations napalm was used by American forces in the siege of La Rochelle in April 1945 against German soldiers (and inadvertently French civilians in Royan) – about two weeks before the end of the war.
Napalm was also widely used by the United States during the Korean War. These ground forces in North Korea were outnumbered at points of defense by Chinese and North Koreans, but U.S. Air Force and Navy aviators had control of the air over nearly all of the Korean Peninsula. Hence, close air support of the ground troops along the border between North Korea and South Korea was vital, and the American and other U.N. aviators used napalm B for attacks in North Korea. Napalm was used most notably during the battle "Outpost Harry" in South Korea during the night of June 10–11, 1953. Eighth Army chemical officer Donald Bode reported that on an "average good day" UN pilots used 70,000 gallons of napalm, with approximately 60,000 gallons of this thrown by US forces. In John Ford's 1951 documentary, This is Korea, footage of napalm deployment is accompanied by a voice-over by John Wayne saying, "Burn 'em out, cook 'em, fry 'em"; the New York Herald Tribune hailed "Napalm, the No. 1 Weapon in Korea". Winston Churchill, among others, criticized American use of napalm in Korea, calling it "very cruel", as the US/UN forces, he said, were "splashing it all over the civilian population", "tortur[ing] great masses of people". The American official who took this statement declined to publicize it.
Napalm became an intrinsic element of U.S. military action during the Vietnam War as forces made increasing use of it for its tactical and psychological effects. Reportedly about 388,000 tons of U.S. napalm bombs were dropped in the region between 1963 and 1973, compared to 32,357 tons used over three years in the Korean War, and 16,500 tons dropped on Japan in 1945. The U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy used napalm with great effect against all kinds of targets, such as troops, tanks, buildings, jungles, and even railroad tunnels. The effect was not always purely physical as napalm had psychological effects on the enemy as well.
A variant of napalm was produced in Rhodesia for a type of ordnance known as Frantan between 1968 and 1978 and was deployed extensively by the Rhodesian Air Force during that country's bush war. In May 1978, Herbert Ushewokunze, minister of health for the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) produced photographic evidence of purported civilian victims of Rhodesian napalm strikes, which he circulated during a tour of the US. The government of Mozambique and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also issued claims at around the same time that napalm strikes against guerrilla targets had become a common feature in Rhodesian military operations both at home and abroad.
Other instances of napalm's use include by France during the First Indochina War (1946–1954), the Algerian War (1954–1962), the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974), the Six-Day War by Israel (1967), in Nigeria (1969), India and Pakistan (1965 and 1971), Egypt (1973), by Morocco during the Western Sahara War (1975–1991), by Argentina (1982), by Iran (1980–88), by Iraq (1980–88, 1991), By IPKF (Indian Peace keeping force) in 1987 against Tamils (LTTE)in Sri Lanka, by Angola during the Angolan Civil War, and Yugoslavia (1991–1996). Recently, Turkey has been accused of using Napalm in its war against Kurdish militias over Afrin. Turkey’s General Staff, however, denies this.
When used as a part of an incendiary weapon, napalm can cause severe burns (ranging from superficial to subdermal), asphyxiation, unconsciousness, and death. In this implementation, napalm fires can create an atmosphere of greater than 20% carbon monoxide and firestorms with self-perpetuating winds of up to 70 miles per hour (110 km/h).
Napalm is effective against dug-in enemy personnel. The burning incendiary composition flows into foxholes, trenches and bunkers, and drainage and irrigation ditches and other improvised troop shelters. Even people in undamaged shelters can be killed by hyperthermia, radiant heat, dehydration, asphyxiation, smoke exposure, or carbon monoxide poisoning.
One firebomb released from a low-flying plane can damage an area of 2,500 square yards (2,100 m2).
International law does not specifically prohibit the use of napalm or other incendiaries against military targets, but use against civilian populations was banned by the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) in 1980. Protocol III of the CCW restricts the use of all incendiary weapons, but a number of countries have not acceded to all of the protocols of the CCW. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), countries are considered a party to the convention, which entered into force as international law in December 1983, as long as they ratify at least two of the five protocols. Approximately 25 years after the General Assembly adopted it, the United States signed it on January 21, 2009, President Barack Obama's first full day in office. Its ratification, however, is subject to a reservation that says that the treaty can be ignored if it would save civilian lives.
Alestorm is a multi-national pirate metal band originally from Perth, Scotland. Their music is characterised by a pirate theme, and as a result they have been dubbed a "pirate metal" band by many critics and their fanbase.
After signing to Napalm Records in 2007, their debut album Captain Morgan's Revenge, was released on 25 January 2008. Black Sails at Midnight, the band's second album, was released on 27 May 2009. The band's third album, Back Through Time, was released on 3 June 2011. The fourth album from the band, Sunset on the Golden Age, was released in August 2014. Their fifth and latest album No Grave But the Sea was released on 26 May 2017.Apocalypse Now
Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic war film about the Vietnam War, directed, produced and co-written by Francis Ford Coppola. It stars Marlon Brando, Robert Duvall, Martin Sheen, Frederic Forrest, Albert Hall, Sam Bottoms, Laurence Fishburne and Dennis Hopper. The screenplay, co-written by Coppola and John Milius (who received an Oscar nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay) and narration written by Michael Herr, is a loose adaptation of the 1899 novella Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. The setting was changed from late 19th-century Congo to the Vietnam War (1969–70), the years in which Green Beret Colonel Robert Rheault, commander of the 5th Special Forces Group, was indicted for murder and President Richard Nixon authorized the secret Cambodian Campaign. Coppola said that Rheault was an inspiration for the character of Colonel Kurtz.The voice-over narration of Captain Willard in the movie was written by war correspondent Herr, whose 1977 Vietnam memoir Dispatches brought him to the attention of Coppola. A major influence on the film was Werner Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), which also features a river journey and an insane soldier. The film is about a river journey from South Vietnam into Cambodia undertaken by Captain Benjamin L. Willard (a character based on Conrad's Marlow and played by Sheen), who is on a secret mission to assassinate Colonel Kurtz, a renegade Army officer accused of murder and who is presumed insane.
The film has been noted for the problems encountered while making it, chronicled in the documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (1991). These problems included Brando arriving on the set overweight and completely unprepared, expensive sets being destroyed by severe weather and Sheen having a breakdown and suffering a near-fatal heart attack while on location. Problems continued after production as the release was postponed several times while Coppola edited over a million feet of film.Apocalypse Now was honored with the Palme d'Or at Cannes Film Festival, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. Initial reviews were mixed; while Vittorio Storaro's cinematography was widely acclaimed, several critics found Coppola's handling of the story's major themes to be anticlimactic and intellectually disappointing. Apocalypse Now is today considered to be one of the greatest films ever made. It ranked No. 14 in Sight & Sound's greatest films poll in 2012. In 2000, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".Barney Greenway
Mark Andrew "Barney" Greenway (born 13 July 1969) is a British extreme metal vocalist, who is currently the lead vocalist of Napalm Death, and was formerly a member of Extreme Noise Terror, and Benediction.Greenway has stated his nickname "Barney" came from a time when he used to drink alcohol. He stated he would get so drunk that when he went anywhere, he would bump into everything. From this behaviour, he would be called "Rubble", which changed to "Barney Rubble" and then just "Barney".Converge / Napalm Death
Converge / Napalm Death is a split EP by American metalcore band Converge and English grindcore band Napalm Death. The album was self-released on August 1, 2012, and features artwork by Converge vocalist Jacob Bannon. It is available on 7" vinyl and as a digital download.From Enslavement to Obliteration
From Enslavement to Obliteration is the second studio album by grindcore band Napalm Death, released in 1988. It is the final studio album with vocalist Lee Dorrian and guitarist Bill Steer, and the first to feature bassist Shane Embury, the band's longest-tenured member. A remastered version was released on 2 April 2012.Grindcore
Grindcore is an extreme fusion genre of heavy metal and hardcore punk that originated in the mid-1980s, drawing inspiration from abrasive-sounding musical styles, such as: thrashcore, crust punk, hardcore punk, extreme metal, and industrial. Grindcore is characterized by a noise-filled sound that uses heavily distorted, down-tuned guitars, grinding overdriven bass, high speed tempo, blast beats, and vocals which consist of growls and high-pitched shrieks. Early groups like Napalm Death are credited with laying the groundwork for the style. It is most prevalent today in North America and Europe, with popular contributors such as Brutal Truth and Nasum. Lyrical themes range from a primary focus on social and political concerns, to gory subject matter and black humor.
A trait of grindcore is the "microsong". Several bands have produced songs that are only seconds in length. British band Napalm Death holds the Guinness World Record for shortest song ever recorded with the one-second "You Suffer" (1987). Many bands, such as Agoraphobic Nosebleed, record simple phrases that may be rhythmically sprawled out across an instrumental lasting only a couple of bars in length.
A variety of microgenres have subsequently emerged, often labeling bands according to traits that deviate from regular grindcore, including goregrind, focused on themes of gore (e.g. mutilation and pathology), and pornogrind, fixated on pornographic lyrical themes. Another offshoot is electrogrind (or cybergrind) which incorporates electronic music elements such as sampling and programmed drums. Although influential within hardcore and extreme metal, grindcore remains an underground form of music.Incendiary device
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices, incendiary munitions, or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. Though colloquially often known as bombs, they are not explosives but in fact are designed to slow the process of chemical reactions and use ignition rather than detonation to start and or maintain the reaction. Napalm for example, is petroleum especially thickened with certain chemicals into a 'gel' to slow, but not stop, combustion, releasing energy over a longer time than an explosive device. In the case of napalm, the gel adheres to surfaces and resists suppression.Jesse Pintado
Jesus "Jesse" Ernesto Pintado Andrade (July 12, 1969 – August 27, 2006) was a lead guitar player born in Mexico who at an early age moved to the US. He started in the grindcore band Terrorizer where he recorded the album World Downfall, the first album to feature Pete Sandoval who would later leave the band to join Morbid Angel. It was Jesse Pintado who coined the term "grindcore" for the first time (in 1983), to describe a musical mixture of "noise and chaos" which he was developing at that time.
He lived in Huntington Park, California (his home address was even on the booklet of the "World Downfall" CD for contacting), but moved to Birmingham, England after he joined Napalm Death, where he replaced guitarist Bill Steer immediately prior to the recording of their album Harmony Corruption.
In 2004 he officially left Napalm Death; instead of replacing him, the band has since continued as a four-piece. Pintado later revived Terrorizer, recruiting Tony Norman of Monstrosity and Anthony Rezhawk of Resistant Culture; he and Pete Sandoval were the only original members.
Besides Terrorizer and Napalm Death he also played in Lock Up and Brujeria (see discography below). Both bands also featured Napalm Death bass player Shane Embury.
His last residence was Ridderkerk in the Netherlands, and a few weeks after the release of Terrorizer's second album, he died in a hospital in the Netherlands due to liver failure after a diabetes-induced coma. His death also stemmed from excessive drinking.Justin Broadrick
Justin Karl Michael Broadrick (born 15 August 1969) is a British singer, songwriter, guitarist and drummer. He is best known as a founding member of the band Godflesh, one of the first bands to combine elements of extreme metal and industrial music. He was briefly in the English grindcore band Napalm Death when he was a teenager in the mid-1980s, writing and recording guitar for Side One of Napalm Death's debut album, Scum. Broadrick has also maintained a parallel career as a producer, producing records and remixes for groups such as Pantera, Isis, Mogwai and Hydra Head labelmates Pelican. Since 2012, he has been releasing hard techno music under the solo moniker JK Flesh. Broadrick has set up record labels such as HeadDirt, Avalanche Recordings, Post Mortem Productions (briefly renamed Uprising Productions), Lo Fibre and Heartache.Mick Harris
Mick Harris (born Michael John Harris; 12 October 1967) commonly known and credited both as Mick Harris or occasionally M.J. Harris, is an English musician.
Harris was born in Birmingham, and started out in the 1980s as a drummer working with various punk rock and grindcore bands (most notably pioneering grindcore band Napalm Death). As a drummer he is generally credited with popularising the blast beat, which has since become a key component of much of extreme metal and grindcore. Since the mid-1990s, Harris has worked primarily in electronic and ambient music, his main projects being Scorn and Lull. According to Allmusic, Harris's "genre-spanning activities have done much to jar the minds, expectations, and record collections of audiences previously kept aggressively opposed."Napalm Death
Napalm Death are a British extreme metal band formed in Meriden, West Midlands, England, in 1981. While none of its original members remain in the group since December 1986, the lineup of vocalist Mark "Barney" Greenway, bassist Shane Embury, guitarist Mitch Harris and drummer Danny Herrera has remained consistent of the band's career since 1992's Utopia Banished, although, from 1989 to 2004, Napalm Death were a five-piece band after they added Jesse Pintado as the replacement of one-time guitarist Bill Steer; following Pintado's departure, the band reverted to a four-piece rather than replace him.
The band is credited as pioneers of the grindcore genre by incorporating elements of crust punk and death metal, using a noise-filled sound that uses heavily distorted, down-tuned guitars, grinding overdrive bass, high speed tempo, blast beats, vocals which consist of incomprehensible growls or high-pitched shrieks, extremely short songs and sociopolitical lyrics. The band's debut album Scum, released in 1987 by Earache Records, proved substantially influential throughout the global metal community. According to the Guinness World Records, their song "You Suffer" is the shortest song in the world, at only 1.316 seconds long.
Napalm Death have released sixteen studio albums, and are listed by Nielsen SoundScan as the seventh best-selling death metal band in the United States.Napalm Death discography
The following is a comprehensive discography of Napalm Death, an influential English grindcore/death metal band.Napalm Records
Napalm Records is an Austrian independent record label focused on heavy metal and hard rock. Originally, Napalm focused mainly on black metal bands such as Abigor and Summoning and folk metal bands such as Falkenbach and Vintersorg. Later on, the label expanded its roster by adding gothic metal, symphonic metal, power metal, doom metal, metalcore and nu metal bands, as well as stoner rock acts Monster Magnet, Karma to Burn, and Brant Bjork. Napalm has its own publishing house named Iron Avantgarde Publishing.Napalm and Silly Putty
Napalm and Silly Putty is a 2001 book by comedian George Carlin.Nazi Punks Fuck Off
"Nazi Punks Fuck Off" was the fifth single by the Dead Kennedys. It was released in 1981 on Alternative Tentacles with "Moral Majority" as the B-side. Both are from the In God We Trust, Inc. EP, although the EP version is a different recording from the single version. The single included a free armband with a crossed-out swastika. The design was later adopted as a symbol for the anti-racist punk movement Anti-Racist Action.
The English grindcore band Napalm Death recorded a cover of "Nazi Punks Fuck Off" for their 1993 EP of the same name. American Melodic death metal band Darkest Hour recorded a cover of the song for the 2007 album Kerrang! Higher Voltage.
In the opening of the In God We Trust, Inc. version of "Nazi Punks Fuck Off", Biafra mentions English producer Martin Hannett, who had worked with Joy Division and Buzzcocks, accusing him, tongue-in-cheek, of having "overproduced" the recording. Hannett, in fact, did not work with the Dead Kennedys.
The 2015 film Green Room features the song, played in the film by fictional band Ain't Rights.Phan Thi Kim Phuc
Phan Thị Kim Phúc (Vietnamese pronunciation: [faːŋ tʰɪ̂ˀ kim fúk͡p̚], Hán tự: 潘氏金福; born April 2, 1963), referred to informally as the Napalm girl, is a South Vietnamese-born Canadian best known as the nine-year-old child depicted in the Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph taken at Trảng Bàng during the Vietnam War on June 8, 1972. The well-known photo, by AP photographer Nick Ut, shows her at nine years of age running naked on a road after being severely burned on her back by a South Vietnamese napalm attack.Scum (Napalm Death album)
Scum is the debut studio album by English grindcore band Napalm Death. It was released on 1 July 1987 through Earache Records.
Side A of Scum was originally recorded for £50.00 at Rich Bitch studio (Birmingham, England) in August 1986. It was intended to form part of a split release with English crossover thrash band Atavistic on Manic Ears (Bristol, England). After an extensive line-up change, the second half of Scum was recorded in May 1987 at Rich Bitch studio. The two sides were combined and released as a single album. Only drummer Mick Harris played on both sides of the album.The first pressing of the CD (1988) came as a 54-track CD, which included the From Enslavement to Obliteration album and four bonus tracks. In 1994, the first two albums were re-released separately. A remastered version was released on 27 January 2012. The album cover was designed by Bill Steer's Carcass bandmate Jeffrey Walker. The album covers came in varied colours: orange, gold, green, blue, and yellow. The song "You Suffer" was listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the world's shortest song; the track is precisely 1.316 seconds long.Scum is widely considered by many to be the first grindcore album released.Shane Embury
Shane Embury (born 27 November 1967) is a British bassist and, since 1987, a member of grindcore and death metal band Napalm Death.Xzibit
Alvin Nathaniel Joiner (born September 18, 1974), better known by the stage name Xzibit (pronounced "exhibit"), is a African American rapper, actor, and broadcaster.
Xzibit began his musical career after the release of his debut studio album At the Speed of Life in 1996. The album generated both critical and commercial success, peaking at number 74 on the Billboard 200. It also contained the single "Paparazzi", which peaked at number 83 on the Billboard Hot 100. This success allowed Xzibit to secure a recording contract with Loud Records later that year.
Xzibit released his second album, 40 Dayz & 40 Nightz, in August 1998, which peaked at number 53 on the Billboard 200. The album also contained the single "What U See Is What U Get", which peaked within the top 40 on the Billboard Hot 100. The album's success also caught attention from Dr. Dre, who acted as the executive producer on Xzibit's third album Restless (2000).
Restless, largely considered Xzibit's magnum opus, debuted at number 14 on the Billboard 200, and was later certified platinum in the United States. The album also contained the singles "Front 2 Back", "X", and "Get Your Walk On". His follow-up album Man vs. Machine (2002) also enjoyed similar commercial success; it debuted at number 3 on the Billboard 200, and was certified gold, while Weapons of Mass Destruction (2004) also became certified gold. After the release of Full Circle in 2006, Xzibit underwent a musical hiatus, not releasing any music until the release of his seventh studio album Napalm in 2012. However, shortly after the release of the album, Xzibit entered another period of hiatus, and has not released any further music to date.
Xzibit has also gained notoriety as an actor and television host, notably for his role as Shyne Johnson in the television series Empire, and as the host for reality television series Pimp My Ride. He has also starred in the films Gridiron Gang (2006), The X-Files: I Want to Believe (2008), and Sun Dogs (2017).