In Greek mythology, the Napaeae (/nəˈpiːi/; Ancient Greek: ναπαῖαι, from νάπη, "a wooded dell") were a type of nymph that lived in wooded valleys, glens or grottoes.[1] Statius invoked them in his Thebaid, when the naiad Ismenis addresses her mortal son Krenaios:

I was held a greater goddess and the queen of Nymphae. Where alas! is that late crowd of courtiers round thy mother's halls, where are the Napaeae that prayed to serve thee? [2]


  1. ^ Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities 1898, s.v. "Napaeae".
  2. ^ Statius, Thebaid 9.385; see also Thebaid 4.259.

Aceso (Greek: Ἀκεσώ) was the Greek goddess of the healing process.


In Greek mythology, Alseids (; Ἀλσηΐδες) were the nymphs of glens and groves. Of the Classical writers, the first and perhaps only poet to reference alseids is Homer. Rather than alseid he used the spelling alsea. The three uses of alsea by Homer are as follows:

"The nymphs who live in the lovely groves (ἄλσεα - alsea), and the springs of rivers (πηγαὶ ποταμῶν - pegai potamon) and the grassy meadows (πίσεα ποιήεντα - pisea poiëenta).""They [nymphs] come from springs (krênai), they come from groves (alsea), they come from the sacred rivers (ποταμοί - potamoi) flowing seawards.""The nymphs [of Mount Ida] who haunt the pleasant woods (alsea), or of those who inhabit this lovely mountain (ὄρος - oros) and the springs of rivers (pegai potamon) and grassy meads (pisea)."


The names of different species of nymphs varied according to their natural abodes. The Auloniad (; Αὐλωνιάς from the classical Greek αὐλών "valley, ravine") was a nymph who could be found in mountain pastures and vales, often in the company of Pan, the god of nature.

Eurydice, for whom Orpheus traveled into dark Hades, was an Auloniad, and it was in the valley of the Thessalian river Pineios where she met her death, indirectly, at the hands of Aristaeus. Aristaeus, son of the god Apollo and the nymph Cyrene, desired to ravish Eurydice. Either disgust or fear made the nymph run away from him without looking where she was going. Eurydice trod on a poisonous serpent and died.


In Greek mythology, Bolbe (; Ancient Greek: Βόλβη) was an extremely beautiful lake goddess or nymph who dwelled in a Macedonian lake of the same name (modern Lake Volvi). Like other lake gods and goddesses, Bolbe's offspring were Limnades, nymphs who live in freshwater lakes. According to Athenaeus, Bolbe was the mother of Olynthus by Heracles.


In Greek mythology, the Crinaeae (; Ancient Greek: Κρηναῖαι) were a type of Naiad nymphs associated with fountains or wells.

The number of Crinaeae includes but is not limited to:


Appias (Roman mythology)

Myrtoessa (one of the nurses of infant Zeus, lived in a well in Arcadia)

The Sithnides (a group of nymphs associated with a fountain in Megara)


A dryad (; Greek: Δρυάδες, sing.: Δρυάς) is a tree nymph or tree spirit in Greek mythology. Drys signifies "oak" in Greek, and dryads are specifically the nymphs of oak trees, but the term has come to be used for all tree nymphs in general. They were normally considered to be very shy creatures except around the goddess Artemis, who was known to be a friend to most nymphs.


The Eleionomae (; Ancient Greek: Ἐλειονόμαι) or Heleionomai (Ancient Greek: Ἑλειονομοι, "marsh dwelling" derived from heleios and nomos) were the naiads of marshes and wetlands in ancient Greek mythology. Aside from living in marshy environments, the Eleionomae often misled travelers with their illusions. The illusions constituted images of a traveler's loved ones. These nymphs also lured young, virgin boys and seduced them with their beauty.


In Greek mythology, the Epimēliads or Epimēlides (Ancient Greek: Επιμηλιδες means "those who care for flocks") are dryad nymphs who are protectors of apple trees. However, the word for "apple" (μηλον) in ancient Greek texts is also the word for "sheep". This translation gives Epimeliads as protectors of sheep and goats. Their hair is white, like apple blossoms or undyed wool. They are also called Maliades or Meliades (Μηλιαδες) which means "of ships" or "of apples". Like other dryads, they can shape-shift from trees to humans. They are also known to be the guards of the tree that the Golden Fleece was kept on.


In Greek mythology, Erebus , also Erebos (Ancient Greek: Ἔρεβος, Érebos, "deep darkness, shadow" or "covered"), was often conceived as a primordial deity, representing the personification of darkness; for instance, Hesiod's Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence, born of Chaos.


A hamadryad (; Greek: Ἁμαδρυάδες, Hamadryádes) is a Greek mythological being that lives in trees. They are a particular type of dryad, which are a particular type of nymph. Hamadryads are born bonded to a certain tree. Some believe that hamadryads are the actual tree, while normal dryads are simply the entities, or spirits, of the trees. If the tree died, the hamadryad associated with it died as well. For that reason, dryads and the gods punished any mortals who harmed trees.


The Lampads or Lampades (Greek: Λαμπάδες) are the nymphs of the Underworld in Greek mythology.


In Greek Mythology, Leimakids were nymphs of meadows. They are also known as Leimoniads.

Reference: Enclopedia of Fairies in World Folklore and Mythology, page 213, under "Lemiakid"}}


In Greek mythology, the Limnads (; Ancient Greek: Λιμνάδες) or Limnatides (Ancient Greek: Λιμνατιδες) or Leimenids (; Ancient Greek: Λειμενίδες) were a type of Naiad.


In Greek mythology, Minthe (also Menthe, Mintha or Mentha; Greek: Μίνθη or Μένθη) was a naiad associated with the river Cocytus.


In Greek mythology, Nephele (; Greek: Νεφέλη, from νέφος nephos "cloud"; Latinized to Nubes) was a cloud nymph who figured prominently in the story of Phrixus and Helle.


In Greek mythology, the Nereids ( NEER-ee-idz; Greek: Νηρηΐδες Nereides, sg. Νηρηΐς Nereis) are sea nymphs (female spirits of sea waters), the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris, sisters to Nerites. They often accompany Poseidon, the god of the sea, and can be friendly and helpful to sailors, like the Argonauts in their search for the Golden Fleece.


In Greek mythology, an Oread (; Ancient Greek: Ὀρειάς, stem Ὀρειάδ- Oreas/Oread-, from ὄρος, "mountain") or Orestiad ; Όρεστιάδες, Orestiades) is a mountain nymph. They differ from each other according to their dwelling: the Idaeae were from Mount Ida, Peliades from Mount Pelion, etc. They were associated with Artemis, since the goddess, when she went out hunting, preferred mountains and rocky precipices. They were very aggressive.

The term itself appears to be Hellenistic, first attested in Bion of Smyrna's Αδὠνιδος Επιτἀφιος and thus post-Classical.


Pegasides (Greek: Πηγασίδες, singular: pegasis) were nymphs of Greek mythology connected with wells and springs, specifically those that the mythical horse Pegasus created by striking the ground with his hooves.


Potamides (; Greek: Ποταμίδες) were a type of water nymphs of Greco-Roman mythology. They were assigned as a class of nymphs of fresh water known as naiads, and as such belonged to a category that presided over rivers and streams.

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