The nanny van (Chinese: 褓姆車) or school private light bus is a kind of school bus service in Hong Kong. At its peak of popularity during the 1980s, it had become a form of "illegal" public transportation. Subsequently, due to unauthorized use of the vans, the government banned them as a form of public transportation and required all existing nanny vans to register and operate on designated routes.
All nanny vans in service today are required by the government to have both the Chinese text "學校私家小巴" and the English text "SCHOOL PRIVATE LIGHT BUS" in capital letters painted on the sides of the vans. There were 1769 such buses registered with the Transport Department in 2014.
Nanny vans were originally a small van operated in Hong Kong to ferry pre-school children from their homes to their nurseries and kindergartens. Most of these vans were run by private agreement between the schools and the drivers. These original nanny vans seated four to five adults; other seats in the van were removed and replaced with a narrow sofa around the cabin. With such an arrangement, the van could transport 10-12 children.
During the 1980s, when living standards in Hong Kong were rising, some drivers wanted to earn extra income with their vans. Therefore, when it was time for secondary schools to have their lunch break, the vans started to transport the younger children back to school. Each student paid about $1–$2, which was about half the price for them to share a taxi. Most of these vans served North Point, where they either stopped at the North Point Pier or under Fortress Hill. They picked up school children until all the seats were occupied and traveled along the Cloud View Road, making stops at each school.
In the early 1990s, there was an accident in North Point involving a nanny van and its passengers were injured. The accident exposed the illegal service and the government issued a ban and required all nanny vans to run only along designated routes.
Nanny vans are still available in Hong Kong. Many schools are able to afford their own vans. Less affluent schools continue to sign agreements with van drivers. These drivers provide school bus services for the more remote areas of Hong Kong, transporting school children from rural villages to schools in urban areas. The nanny vans have grown to the size of a mini bus.
School private light buses are one of three legal classified vehicles for transport of schoolchildren. The other two are non-franchised public buses and private buses operated by schools directly.
A bus bulb, also called a bus boarder, bus border, bumpout, bus cape, or a kerb outstand is an arrangement by which a sidewalk or pavement is extended outwards for a bus stop; typically the bus bulb replaces roadway that would otherwise be part of a parking lane. With bus bulbs or boarders, a bus can stay in its traffic lane to discharge and pick up passengers, instead of having to pull over to the curb.
The term bus bulb is prevalent in North American usage, whilst bus boarder or bus border is used elsewhere.A bus bulb or boarder can be considered as a specific form of curb extension, although that term is more normally used to describe a sidewalk extension for the purposes of traffic calming or other traffic management purposes.Bus services in Hong Kong
Bus services in Hong Kong have a long history. As of 2016, five companies operate franchised public bus services. There is also a variety of non-franchised public buses services, including feeder bus services to railway stations operated by MTR, and residents' services for residential estates (particularly those in the New Territories).Circle route
A circle route or circumferential route, in a public transport network or system, is a route following a path approximating a circle, or at least a closed curve. Such a route may be operated by various forms of public transport.
The expression "circle route" may refer in particular to:
a route orbiting a central point, commonly the central business district (CBD), in a city or town;
a route running in approximately a circular path from a point near the centre of a city or town out to a peripheral point and back again;
a feeder route running from an interchange station around a neighbourhood or suburb in approximately a circle.Typically, a circle route will connect at several locations with one or more cross-city routes or radial routes offering services in a straighter line into or out of a city or town centre. When a circle route orbits a CBD in a large arc, it will often provide transverse (or lateral) links between suburbs or satellites, either on its own or in combination with other routes. Such connections assist travelers by reducing travel times, avoiding congested CBD centers, and sometimes reducing the number of transfers. Similar benefits may also be achieved by half circle routes or peripheral cross-city routes.Cross-city route
A cross-city route is a public transport route linking one suburb (or satellite) of a city or town with another, usually relatively distant, suburb (or satellite).
Such a route can be operated by various forms of public transport, including commuter rail, rapid transit, trams (streetcars), trolleybuses, or motor buses.Dolmuş
In Turkey and Northern Cyprus, dolmuş (pronounced [doɫmuʃ]) are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.Geely
Geely (officially Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co., Ltd) is a privately held global automotive group headquartered in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. The group was established in 1986 and entered the automotive industry in 1997 with its Geely Auto brand. It sells passenger vehicles under the Geely Auto, Lotus, Lynk & Co, PROTON, and Volvo personal and commercial vehicles as well as commercial only vehicles under the London EV Company and Yuan Cheng Auto brands. The group sold over 1.5 million cars in 2018.
Geely Group has been manufacturing its own cars before it owned the Swedish passenger car maker Volvo Cars since 2010, when it acquired the company from Ford. It completed the acquisition of British taxi maker The London Electric Vehicle Company in 2013, and acquired a majority stake in British sports carmaker Lotus Cars in 2017.ZGH business is divided into five sub-groups: Geely Auto Group which includes the brands Geely Auto, Lynk & Co, PROTON, and Lotus; Volvo Car Group which includes the brands Volvo Cars and Polestar; Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle Group which include the brands London Electric Vehicle Company and Yuan Cheng; Geely Group (New Business) which includes the brands Caocao, Terrafugia, Qianjiang Motorcycles, Joma, and other new businesses; and Mitime Group which includes ZGH educational institutions, motorsports business, and tourism business. ZGH has global operations spanning the automotive value chain, from research, development and design to production, sales and service.Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd (Chinese: 吉利汽车; pinyin: Jílì Qìchē) (SEHK: 175), a subsidiary of Geely, is listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. On 13 February 2017, it became a constituent of the Hang Seng Index.Headway
Headway is a measurement of the distance or time between vehicles in a transit system. The minimum headway is the shortest such distance or time achievable by a system without a reduction in the speed of vehicles. The precise definition varies depending on the application, but it is most commonly measured as the distance from the tip of one vehicle to the tip of the next one behind it. It can be expressed as the distance between vehicles, or as time it will take for the trailing vehicle to cover that distance. A "shorter" headway signifies closer spacing between the vehicles. Freight trains might have headways measured in parts of an hour, metro systems operate with headways on the order of 1 to 5 minutes, and vehicles on a freeway can have as little as 2 seconds headway between them.
Headway is a key input in calculating the overall route capacity of any transit system. A system that requires large headways has more empty space than passenger capacity, which lowers the total number of passengers or cargo quantity being transported for a given length of line (railroad or highway, for instance). In this case, the capacity has to be improved through the use of larger vehicles. On the other end of the scale, a system with short headways, like cars on a freeway, can offer relatively large capacities even though the vehicles carry few passengers.
The term is most often applied to rail transport and bus transport, where low headways are often needed to move large numbers of people in mass transit railways and bus rapid transit systems. A lower headway requires more infrastructure, making lower headways expensive to achieve. Modern large cities require passenger rail systems with tremendous capacity, and low headways allow passenger demand to be met in all but the busiest cities. Newer signalling systems and moving block controls have significantly reduced headways in modern systems compared to the same lines only a few years ago. In principle, automated personal rapid transit systems and automobile platoons could reduce headways to as little as fractions of a second.Hydrofoil
A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water. They are similar in appearance and purpose to aerofoils used by aeroplanes. Boats that use hydrofoil technology are also simply termed hydrofoils. As a hydrofoil craft gains speed, the hydrofoils lift the boat's hull out of the water, decreasing drag and allowing greater speeds.Marshrutka
Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка [mɐrˈʂrutkə], from marshrutn[oy]e taksi) or routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as share taxi which originated in the Soviet Union and is still present in Russia and other countries of CIS, in Baltic states, Bulgaria, Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine. The role of the modern marshrutka is theoretically similar to the share taxi, which uses minibuses in some other countries. The first marshrutka was introduced in Moscow, Russia in 1938.Network length (transport)
In transport terminology, network length (or, less often, system length) refers to the total length of a transport network, and commonly also refers to the length of any fixed infrastructure associated with the network.
A measurement can be made of the network length of various different modes of transport, including rail, bus, road and air. The measurement may focus on one of a number of specific characteristics, such as route length, line length or track length.Non-revenue track
Non-revenue track (or trackage), or a non-revenue route, is a section of track or transport route that is not used to carry passengers or revenue-earning freight or goods. The term is used to refer mainly to sections of track or routes in public transport systems, such as rapid transit and tramway networks, but non-revenue track or routes can also be found in other transport systems. Non-revenue tracks may be used for revenue service during temporary reroutings.Pesero
A pesero, micro or microbús is a form of public transport, most commonly seen in Mexico City. Its name derives from the fact that in the beginning of this form of transport a flat fee of one peso was charged per ride (hence the name "pesero" which could be interpreted as "peso collector").Public transport in Mumbai
Public transport in Mumbai involves the transport of millions of its citizens by train, road, and water. Over 88% of the commuters in Mumbai use public transport. Mumbai has the largest organized bus transport network among major Indian cities.
Mumbai's public transport consists primarily of rapid transit on exclusive suburban railway lines augmented by commuter rail on main lines serving outlying suburbs, the bus services of the three municipalities making up the metropolitan area, public taxis and auto rickshaws, as well as ferry services. A metro and a monorail system have recently been inaugurated. A commercial seaplane service was introduced in 2014.Radial route
A radial route is a public transport route linking a central point in a city or town, usually in the central business district (CBD), with a suburb (or satellite) of that city or town. Such a route can be operated by various forms of public transport, including commuter rail, rapid transit, trams (streetcars), trolleybuses, or motor buses.
Typically, a pair of radial routes will be combined, solely for operational reasons, into a single cross-city route, between one suburb and another suburb. A cross-city route of that type is sometimes called a through route. A public transport operator may combine radial routes into a through route because terminating a route in a city or town centre has certain disadvantages:
Vehicles can cause congestion while standing between journeys and when turning.
Valuable land is often occupied with route terminal facilities.
Time is wasted by vehicles turning round or reversing (reducing vehicle utilization and increasing costs).
Passengers wishing to travel across the city or town centre will have to change vehicles or walk for part of their journeys.On the other hand, there are certain advantages in terminating a route in a city or town centre:
Schedules are less likely to be disrupted by congestion (since there can be provision for recovery time in the city center).
Convenient interchange between routes may be provided at a common terminal.
Fare structures are less complex.In most cases, the advantages of operating routes across a city or town centre outweigh the disadvantages, but each case must be assessed on its own merits.Rail replacement bus service
A rail replacement bus service uses buses to replace a passenger train service either on a temporary or permanent basis. The train service that is replaced may be of any type such as light rail, tram, streetcar, commuter rail, regional rail or heavy rail, intercity passenger service. The rail service may be replaced if the line is closed due to rail maintenance, a breakdown of a train, a rail accident, strike action or to simply provide additional capacity, or if the rail service is not economically viable.
Terms for a rail replacement bus service include bustitution (a portmanteau of the words "bus" and "substitution", may also be bustitute) and bus bridge. Substitution of rail services by buses can be unpopular and subject to criticism, so the term bustitution is often used pejoratively.A similar concept in some ways is motorization, but that term more broadly refers to the rise of the automobile as well as bus transportation.Rapid transit
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and which is often grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways.
Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations typically using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are typically integrated with other public transport and often operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little to no use of land.The world's first rapid transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, and now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, initially a cable-hauled line using static steam engines.
China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade. The world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations (472 stations in total) is the New York City Subway. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Shenzhen Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, and the Hong Kong MTR.School bus yellow
School bus yellow is a color that was specifically formulated for use on school buses in North America in 1939. The color is now officially known in Canada and the U.S. as National School Bus Glossy Yellow and was originally called National School Bus Chrome. The pigment used for this color was, for a long time, the lead-containing chrome yellow.The color was chosen because it attracts attention and is noticed quickly in peripheral vision, faster than any other color. Scientists describe this as follows: "Lateral peripheral vision for detecting yellows is 1.24 times greater than for red."In April 1939, Dr. Frank W. Cyr, a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York organized a conference that established national school-bus construction standards for the U.S., including the standard color of yellow for the school bus. It became known officially as "National School Bus Chrome". The color was selected because black lettering on that hue was easiest to see in the semi-darkness of early morning.
The conference met for seven days and the attendees created a total of 44 standards, including specifications regarding body length, ceiling height and aisle width. Paint experts from DuPont and Pittsburgh Paints participated. Dr. Cyr's conference, funded by a $5,000 grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, was also a landmark event in as much as it included transportation officials from each of the then-48 states, as well as specialists from school bus manufacturing and paint companies. The color was adopted by the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) as Federal Standard No. 595a, Color 13432.
The conference approach to school bus safety, as well as the yellow color, have endured into the 21st century. Dr. Cyr became known as the "Father of the Yellow School Bus."Songthaew
A songthaew (Thai: สองแถว, lit. 'two rows', RTGS: songthaeo, pronounced [sɔ̌ːŋ.tʰɛ̌w]; Lao: ສອງແຖວ, [sɔ̌ːŋtʰíw]; Malay: dua baris) is a passenger vehicle in Thailand and Laos adapted from a pick-up or a larger truck and used as a share taxi or bus.Transport network
A transport network, or transportation network is a realisation of a spatial network, describing a structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity.
Examples include but are not limited to road networks, railways, air routes, pipelines, aqueducts, and power lines.