Nanga Parbat (Urdu: نانگا پربت [naːŋɡaː pərbət̪]), locally known as Diamer (دیامر), is the ninth highest mountain in the world at 8,126 metres (26,660 ft) above sea level. Located in the Diamer District of Pakistan’s Gilgit Baltistan region, Nanga Parbat is the western anchor of the Himalayas. The name Nanga Parbat is derived from the Sanskrit words nagna and parvata which together mean "Naked Mountain". The mountain is locally known by its Tibetan name Diamer or Deo Mir, meaning "huge mountain".
Nanga Parbat is one of the eight-thousanders. An immense, dramatic peak rising far above its surrounding terrain, Nanga Parbat is also a notoriously difficult climb. Numerous mountaineering deaths in the mid and early-20th century lent it the nickname "Killer Mountain.”
Nanga Parbat, viewed here from the Fairy Meadows, is nicknamed “Killer Mountain” for its high number of climber fatalities.
|Elevation||8,126 m (26,660 ft) |
|Prominence||4,608 m (15,118 ft) |
|Isolation||189 kilometres (117 mi)|
|Native name||نانگا پربت (Urdu)|
Location of Nanga Parbat
Nanga Parbat (Pakistan)
|Location||Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan |
Nanga Parbat lies approx 27km west-southwest of Astore district, in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan 
|First ascent||July 3, 1953 by Hermann Buhl (First winter ascent 16 February 2016 by Simone Moro, Alex Txicon & Ali Sadpara)|
|Easiest route||Diamer District (West face)|
Nanga Parbat forms the western anchor of the Himalayan Range and is the westernmost eight-thousander. It lies just south of the Indus River in the Diamer District of Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan. Not far to the north is the western end of the Karakoram range.
Nanga Parbat has tremendous vertical relief over local terrain in all directions.
To the south, Nanga Parbat has what is often referred to as the highest mountain face in the world: the Rupal Face rises 4,600 m (15,090 ft) above its base. To the north, the complex, somewhat more gently sloped Rakhiot Flank rises 7,000 m (23,000 ft) from the Indus River valley to the summit in just 25 km (16 mi), one of the 10 greatest elevation gains in so short a distance on earth.
Nanga Parbat is one of only two peaks on earth that rank in the top twenty of both the highest mountains in the world, and the most prominent peaks in the world, ranking ninth and fourteenth respectively. The other is Mount Everest, which is first on both lists. It is also the second most prominent peak of the Himalayas, after Mount Everest. The key col for Nanga Parbat is Zoji La in Kashmir, which connects it to higher peaks in the remaining Himalaya-Karakoram range.
The core of Nanga Parbat is a long ridge trending southwest–northeast. The ridge is an enormous bulk of ice and rock. It has three faces, Diamir face, Rakhiot, and Rupal. The southwestern portion of this main ridge is known as the Mazeno Wall, and has a number of subsidiary peaks. In the other direction, the main ridge arcs northeast at Rakhiot Peak (7,070 m or 23,200 ft). The south/southeast side of the mountain is dominated by the Rupal Face. The north/northwest side of the mountain, leading to the Indus, is more complex. It is split into the Diamir (west) face and the Rakhiot (north) face by a long ridge. There are a number of subsidiary summits, including North Peak (7,816 m or 25,643 ft) some three kilometres (1.9 mi) north of the main summit. Near the base of the Rupal Face is a glacial lake called Latbo, above a seasonal shepherds' village of the same name.
Because of its accessibility, attempts to summit Nanga Parbat began very soon after it was discovered by Europeans. In 1895 Albert F. Mummery led an expedition to the peak, and reached almost 6,100 m (20,000 ft) on the Diamir (West) Face, but Mummery and two Gurkha companions later died reconnoitering the Rakhiot Face.
In the 1930s, Nanga Parbat became the focus of German interest in the Himalayas. The German mountaineers were unable to attempt Mount Everest, as only the British had access to Tibet. Initially German efforts focused on Kanchenjunga, to which Paul Bauer led two expeditions in 1930 and 1931, but with its long ridges and steep faces Kanchenjunga was more difficult than Everest and neither expedition made much progress. K2 was known to be harder still, and its remoteness meant that even reaching its base would be a major undertaking. Nanga Parbat was therefore the highest mountain accessible to Germans and also deemed reasonably possible by climbers at the time.
The first German expedition to Nanga Parbat was led by Willy Merkl in 1932. It is sometimes referred to as a German-American expedition, as the eight climbers included Rand Herron, an American, and Fritz Wiessner, who would become an American citizen the following year. While the team were all strong climbers, none had Himalayan experience, and poor planning (particularly an inadequate number of porters), coupled with bad weather, prevented the team progressing far beyond the Rakhiot Peak northeast of the Nanga Parbat summit, reached by Peter Aschenbrenner and Herbert Kunigk, but they did establish the feasibility of a route via Rakhiot Peak and the main ridge.
Merkl led another expedition in 1934, which was better prepared and financed with the full backing of the new Nazi government. Early in the expedition Alfred Drexel died, probably of high altitude pulmonary edema. The Tyrolean climbers Peter Aschenbrenner and Erwin Schneider reached an estimated height of 7,900 m (25,900 ft) on July 6, but were forced to return because of worsening weather. On July 7 they and 14 others were trapped by a storm at 7,480 m (24,540 ft). During the desperate retreat that followed, three famous German mountaineers, Uli Wieland, Willo Welzenbach and Merkl himself, and six Sherpas died of exhaustion, exposure and altitude sickness, and several more suffered severe frostbite. The last survivor to reach safety, Ang Tsering, did so having spent seven days battling through the storm. It has been said that the disaster, "for sheer protracted agony, has no parallel in climbing annals."
In 1937, Karl Wien led another expedition to the mountain, following the same route as Merkl's expeditions had done. Progress was made, but more slowly than before due to heavy snowfall. About 14 June seven Germans and nine Sherpas, almost the entire team, were at Camp IV below Rakhiot Peak when it was overrun by an avalanche. All sixteen men died.
The Germans returned in 1938 led by Paul Bauer, but the expedition was plagued by bad weather, and Bauer, mindful of the previous disasters, ordered the party down before the Silver Saddle, halfway between Rakhiot Peak and Nanga Parbat summit, was reached.
Heinrich Harrer, an expert alpinist, was a member of the SS Alpine unit. The unit practised on the Eiger mountain in Switzerland in 1938. When the group returned to Germany, Adolf Hitler met with them.
In May 1939, Harrer was selected by the German Himalayan Foundation to take part in a new expedition to the Nanga Parbat, under the leadership of Peter Aufschnaiter. Their goal was to scout new ways to make the ascent of the North-western face. They explored the Diamir Face with the aim of finding an easier route. They concluded that the face was a viable route, but the Second World War intervened and the four men were interned by the British in Dehradun, India. Harrer's escape and subsequent wanderings across the Tibetan Plateau became the subject of his book Seven Years in Tibet. Some evidence of this expedition is kept in the National Archives of Washington, D.C.
Nanga Parbat was first climbed, via the Rakhiot Flank (East Ridge), on July 3, 1953 by Austrian climber Hermann Buhl, a member of a German-Austrian team. The expedition was organized by the half-brother of Willy Merkl, Karl Herrligkoffer from Munich, while the expedition leader was Peter Aschenbrenner from Kufstein, who had participated in the 1932 and 1934 attempts. By the time of this expedition, 31 people had already died on the mountain.
The final push for the summit was dramatic: Buhl continued alone for the final 1,300 metres (4,300 ft), after his companions had turned back. Under the influence of the drug pervitin (based on the stimulant methamphetamine used by soldiers during World War II), padutin, and tea from coca leaves, he reached the summit dangerously late, at 7:00 p.m., the climbing harder and more time-consuming than he had anticipated. His descent was slowed when he lost a crampon. Caught by darkness, he was forced to bivouac standing upright on a narrow ledge, holding a small handhold with one hand. Exhausted, he dozed occasionally, but managed to maintain his balance. He was also very fortunate to have a calm night, so he was not subjected to wind chill. He finally reached his high camp at 7:00 p.m. the next day, 40 hours after setting out. The ascent was made without oxygen, and Buhl is the only man to have made the first ascent of an 8,000-metre (26,000 ft) peak alone.
The 1953 documentary film Nanga Parbat 1953 was filmed and directed by Hans Ertl, who participated in the expedition.
The second ascent of Nanga Parbat was via the Diamir Face, in 1962, by Germans Toni Kinshofer, Siegfried Löw, and A. Mannhardt. The route is now the "standard route" on the mountain. The Kinshofer route does not ascend the middle of the Diamir Face, which is threatened by avalanches from massive hanging glaciers. Instead it climbs a buttress on the left side of the Diamir Face.
In 1970 the brothers Günther and Reinhold Messner made the third ascent of the mountain and the first ascent of the Rupal Face. They were unable to descend by their original route, and instead descended by the Diamir Face, making the first traverse of the mountain. Günther was killed in an avalanche on the Diamir Face. In 2005 Günther's remains were found on the Diamir Face.
In 1971 Ivan Fiala and Michael Orolin summited Nanga Parbat via Buhl's 1953 route while other expedition members climbed the southeast peak (7,600 metres or 24,900 feet) above the Silbersattel and the foresummit (7,850 metres or 25,750 feet) above the Bazhin Gap.
In 1976 a team of four made the sixth summit via a new route on the Rupal Face (second ascent on this face), then named the Schell route after the Austrian team leader. The line had been plotted by Karl Herrligkoffer on a previous unsuccessful attempt.
In 1978 Reinhold Messner returned to the Diamir Face and achieved the first completely solo ascent (i.e., always solo above base camp) of an 8,000-metre (26,000 ft) peak.
In 1985, Jerzy Kukuczka, Zygmunt Heinrich, Slawomir Lobodzinski (all Polish), and Carlos Carsolio (Mexico) climbed up the Southeast Pillar (or Polish Spur) on the right-hand side of the Rupal Face, reaching the summit July 13. It was Kukuczka's ninth 8,000-metre (26,000 ft) summit.
2005 saw a resurgence of lightweight, alpine-style attempts on the Rupal Face:
The second winter ascent was made by Pole Tomasz Mackiewicz and Frenchwoman Elisabeth Revol on January 25, 2018.
On June 23, 2013, about 15 extremist militants wearing Gilgit Scouts uniforms shot to death ten foreign climbers (one Lithuanian, three Ukrainians, two Slovakians, two Chinese, one Chinese-American, and one Nepali) and one Pakistani guide at Base Camp. Another foreign victim was injured. The attack occurred at around 1 am and was claimed by a local branch of the Taliban. (Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan).
Jonathan Neale wrote a book about the 1934 climbing season on Nanga Parbat called Tigers of the Snow. He interviewed many old Sherpas, including Ang Tsering, the last man off Nanga Parbat alive in 1934. The book attempts to narrate what went wrong on the expedition, set against mountaineering history of the early twentieth century, the background of German politics in the 1930s, and the hardship and passion of life in the Sherpa valleys.
Nanga Parbat is a movie by Joseph Vilsmaier about the 1970 expedition of brothers Günther Messner and Reinhold Messner. Donald Shebib's 1986 film The Climb covers the story of Hermann Buhl making the first ascent.
The foreigners who were killed included five Ukrainians, three Chinese and one Russian, said Pakistani Interior Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan.
The 1934 Nanga Parbat climbing disaster resulted in the loss of 10 lives over the climbing season including 9 who died in what was, at the time, the largest mountaineering accident in history.
In 1934, Willy Merkl led a well financed German expedition to Nanga Parbat, with the full backing of the new Nazi government. Early in the expedition Alfred Drexel died, probably of high altitude pulmonary edema. The Tyrolean climbers Peter Aschenbrenner and Erwin Schneider reached an estimated height of (7,895 m / 25,900 ft) on July 6, but were forced to return because of worsening weather. On July 7 they and 14 others were trapped by a ferocious storm at 7,480 m (24,540 ft). During the desperate retreat that followed, three famous German mountaineers, Uli Wieland, Willo Welzenbach and Merkl himself, and six Sherpas died of exhaustion, exposure and altitude sickness, and several more suffered severe frostbite. The last survivor to reach safety, Ang Tsering, did so having spent seven days battling through the storm. It has been said that the disaster, "for sheer protracted agony, has no parallel in climbing annals."2013 Nanga Parbat massacre
On June 22, 2013, about 16 militants, reportedly dressed in Gilgit Scouts uniforms, stormed a high-altitude mountaineering base camp in Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, and killed 11 people; 10 climbers and one local guide. The climbers were from various countries, including Ukraine, China, Slovakia, Lithuania and Nepal. A Chinese citizen managed to escape the assailants, and a member of the group from Latvia happened to be outside the camp during the attack. The attack happened at the base camp on Nanga Parbat, the ninth highest mountain in the world. The mountain is popular among trekkers and mountaineers from June to August because of the moderate weather conditions.In November 2013, many of the assailants involved in the attack were arrested and tried under the Anti-Terrorist Act but most have been released in 2014 and the identity of the actual perpetrators was never confirmed. According to the Senate's Standing Committee on Foreign Relations, the original motive of the militants had not been to kill the tourists, but kidnap them for ransom.Albert F. Mummery
Albert Frederick Mummery (10 September 1855, Dover, Kent, England – 24 August 1895, Nanga Parbat), was an English mountaineer and author. Although most notable for his many and varied first ascents put up in the Alps, Mummery, along with J. Norman Collie, Hastings, and two Gurkhas are also known to have been the first men in recorded history to have attempted to summit one of the Himalayan eight-thousanders - the fourteen highest peaks in the world.Their innovative, light-weight endeavour upon Nanga Parbat in 1895 was to prove ill-fated with Mummery and both Gurkhas having perished in an avalanche whilst reconnoitering the mountain's Rakhiot Face. The mountain would go on to earn its reputation as a "man-eater," as thirty-one men would lose their lives on its slopes before the first ascent was made by the legendary Austrian Mountaineer, Hermann Buhl, in 1953. Buhl described Mummery as "One of the greatest mountaineers of all time".Amir Mehdi
Amir Mehdi (sometimes spelled Amir Mahdi, and also known as Hunza Mehdi) was a Pakistani mountaineer and porter known for being part of the team which managed the first successful ascent of Nanga Parbat in 1953, and of K2 in 1954 with an Italian expedition. He, along with the Italian mountaineer Walter Bonatti, are also known for having survived a night at the highest open bivouac - 8,100 metres (26,600 ft) - on K2 in 1954.Fairy Meadows
Fairy Meadows (Urdu: فیری میڈوز), named by German climbers (German Märchenwiese, “fairy tale meadows”) and locally known as Joot, is a grassland near one of the base camp sites of the Nanga Parbat, located in Diamer District, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. At an altitude of about 3,300 metres (10,800 ft) above the sea level, it serves as the launching point for trekkers summiting on the Rakhiot face of the Nanga Parbat. In 1995, the Government of Pakistan declared Fairy Meadows a National Park.Günther Messner
This article has been translated from German into English, from the German version of Wikipedia.Günther Messner (18 May 1946 – 29 June 1970) was an Italian mountaineer from South Tyrol and the younger brother of Reinhold Messner. Günther climbed some of the most difficult routes in the Alps during the 1960s, and joined the Nanga Parbat-Expedition in 1970 just before the beginning of the expedition due to an opening within the team.Hermann Buhl
Hermann Buhl (21 September 1924 – 27 June 1957) was an Austrian mountaineer and is considered one of the best climbers of all time. He was particularly innovative in applying Alpine style to Himalayan climbing. His accomplishments include:
1953 First ascent of Nanga Parbat, 8,126 metres (26,660 ft) (solo and without bottled oxygen). On the way back from the summit he was forced to stand erect on a rock ledge for the entire night at 8000m altitude, in order to survive until the following morning.
1957 First ascent of Broad Peak, 8,051 metres (26,414 ft).Before his successful Nanga Parbat expedition, 31 people had died trying to make the first ascent.
Buhl is the only mountaineer to have made the first ascent of an eight-thousander solo. His climbing partner, Otto Kempter, was too slow in joining the ascent, so Buhl struck off alone. He returned 41 hours later, having barely survived the arduous climb to the summit, 6.5 kilometers (4 miles) distant from, and 4,000 feet (1.2 kilometers) higher than camp V. Experienced climbers, upon hearing later of Buhl's near-death climb, faulted him for making the attempt solo. Regardless, his monumental efforts, along with spending the night untethered, on the edge of a 60-degree ice slope, standing on a tiny pedestal too small to squat upon, have become mountaineering legend.
Just a few weeks after the successful first ascent of Broad Peak (with Fritz Wintersteller and Marcus Schmuck), Buhl and Kurt Diemberger made an attempt on nearby, unclimbed Chogolisa (7665 m) in Alpine style. Buhl lost his way in an unexpected snow storm and walked over a huge cornice on the south-east ridge, near the summit of Chogolisa II (7654 m; also known as Broad Peak), subsequently triggering an avalanche that hurled him down 900 m over Chogolisa's north face. His body could not be recovered and remains in the ice.Laila Peak (Rupal Valley)
Laila Peak is a major prominence at the southwestern terminus of the Rupal Valley in Pakistan. The peak soars 5,971 metres (19,590 ft) above sea level and some 7,500 feet above the Rupal Valley floor. To its north lies the Rupal Glacier and to its east lies 5,642m Rupal Peak. To the north of the Rupal Glacier stands the Nanga Parbat massif, one of largest in the world. Nanga Parbat itself soars 8,126 m (26,660 ft) above sea level. About its flanks stand numerous notable peaks including Rakhiot Peak, Chongra Peak, Shaigiri and Mazeno Peak.List of mountains in Pakistan
Pakistan is home to 108 peaks above 7,000 metres.  and probably as many peaks above 6,000 m. There is no count of the peaks above 5,000 and 4,000 m. Five of the 14 highest independent peaks in the world (the eight-thousanders) are in Pakistan (four of which lie in the surroundings of Concordia; the confluence of Baltoro Glacier and Godwin Austen Glacier). Most of the highest peaks in Pakistan lie in the Karakoram mountain range (which lies almost entirely in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan, and is considered to be a part of the greater Himalayan range) but some peaks above 7,000 m are included in the Himalayan and Hindu Kush ranges.Mazeno Ridge
The Mazeno Ridge is an arête, a long narrow ridge, and part of the Nanga Parbat massif in Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, in the Himalayan range. The ridge is the longest of any ridge on the eight-thousand-metre peaks in the Himalayas. A series of eight subsidiary peaks form the ridge, the highest being Mareno Peak 7,120 metres (23,360 ft). All eight subsidiary peaks have been climbed, but a complete traverse of the ridge and ascent of Nanga Parbat was only successfully achieved in 2012, and as of 2019, no other expedition has reached the summit of Nanga Parbat via the Mazeno Ridge.
Not far to the north is the western end of the Karakoram range. At the southern end of the ridge, the Mazeno mountain pass is 5,358 metres (17,579 ft) high and connects the towns of Astore and Chilas.Nanga Parbat (disambiguation)
Nanga Parbat is a mountain of the Himalayas, and the ninth-highest in the world.
Nanga Parbat may also refer to:
Nanga Parbat (film), a 2010 film
Nanga Parbat Mountain (Canada), a mountain on the border of Alberta and British ColumbiaNanga Parbat (film)
Nanga Parbat is a 2010 German motion picture mountaineering movie about two brothers, Reinhold and Günther Messner, who climbed Nanga Parbat.Nanga Parbat Mountain (Canada)
Nanga Parbat Mountain is located on the border of Alberta and British Columbia. It was named in 1898 by J. Norman Collie after the Indian mountain Nanga Parbat, located in the Himalayas. Collie had climbed on Nanga Parbat in 1895.Raikot Bridge
Raikot Bridge is the gateway to Nanga Parbat Base Camp, on the Indus River in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan.Rakhiot Peak
Rakhiot Peak is a peak in the Himalayas range of the Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. It is one of the many subsidiary summits of the Nanga Parbat massif.Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Andreas Messner (German pronunciation: [ˈʁaɪ̯nhɔlt ˈmɛsnɐ]; born 17 September 1944) is an Italian mountaineer, adventurer, explorer, and author from the trilingual Italian province of South Tyrol.
He made the first solo ascent of Mount Everest, the first ascent of Everest without supplemental oxygen, along with Peter Habeler, and was the first climber to ascend all fourteen peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level. He was also the first person to cross Antarctica and Greenland with neither snowmobiles nor dog sleds. Furthermore, he crossed the Gobi Desert alone. Messner also published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and explorer. In 2018 he received jointly with Krzysztof Wielicki the Princess of Asturias Award in the category of Sports.Rupal River
The Rupal River (Urdu: دریائے روپل) is an east-west glacial stream rising from the meltwater of the Rupal Glacier in northern Pakistan. The stream flows through the Rupal Valley, south of Nanga Parbat, before turning northeast to the village of Tarashing. The Rupal drains into the Astore River, which eventually reaches the Indus near Jaglot.Tom Ballard (climber)
Tom Ballard (born 1988; died 24 February – 9 March 2019) was a British rock climber and alpinist, best known for being the first mountaineer to climb the six major alpine north faces solo in a single winter season. In February 2019, Ballard disappeared during bad weather on an expedition to Nanga Parbat, Pakistan. His body was discovered on the mountain's Mummery Spur on 9 March 2019.Tomasz Mackiewicz
Tomasz Mackiewicz alias Czapkins (January 13, 1975 – probably 26 January 2018) was a Polish high-altitude climber. He died on an eight-thousander Nanga Parbat, known as the "Killer Mountain", in Pakistan. He was the first climber in the world who climbed an eight-thousander in the alpine style in winter.