Nanded is a city in Maharashtra state, India. It is the eighth largest urban agglomeration of the state and the seventy-ninth most populous city in India. It is the second largest city in Marathwada subdivision. Nanded is the centre of governance of Nanded district. Nanded is a major destination Sikh pilgrims, because the 10th Sikh Guru (Guru Gobind Singh) made Nanded his permanent abode and passed his guruship to the Guru Granth Sahib before his death in 1708.
Sachkhand Sri Hazur Sahib Nanded
|Nickname(s): "City of Sanskrit poets", "City of Gurdwaras"|
|Named for||Sachkhand Gurdwara|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation|
|• Total||63.22 km2 (24.41 sq mi)|
|Elevation||362 m (1,188 ft)|
|• Rank||2nd(MS) 80th|
|• Density||8,700/km2 (23,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|PIN CODE||431601 to 606|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-MH|
|Vehicle registration||MH 26|
Nanded is located on the banks of Godavari river in central west India. It is closer (approximately 275 kilometres (171 mi)) to Hyderabad in the state of Telangana than it is to the capital of Maharashtra state, Mumbai. Nanded district borders Latur district and Parbhani district to the west and Yavatmal district to the north. The district is bounded by the Nizamabad, Medak and Adilabad districts of Telangana state to the east.
Nanded has two parts. Old Nanded 20.62 square kilometres (7.96 sq mi) occupies the north bank of Godavari river. New Nanded to the south of the river, 31.14 square kilometres (12.02 sq mi) encompasses Waghala and six other villages.
From a copper plate inscription found at Washim, a town approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) north of Nanded, archaeologists deduce the city was formerly known as Nanditaṭa (Marathi: नंदितट). Another name was Nandigrāma. Folklore suggests that the name "Nanded" developed from Nandi the Vahana of Shiva. Shiva was said to have performed penance on the banks (Taṭa) of the Godavari river. This "Nandi-taṭa" later became "Nanded".
In 1725, Nanded became part of Hyderabad State. It continued to be part of the Nizam of Hyderabad's dominions until 1948. After India gained independence in 1947, the Indian Armed Forces annexed Hyderabad and ended the rule of the Nizam in Operation Polo, making Nanded part of the new Hyderabad State.
Nanded remained part of the annexed Hyderabad state until 1956 when it was included in the Bombay Presidency. On 1 May 1960, Maharashtra state was created on a linguistic basis and the Marathi dominant Nanded district became part of Maharashtra.
Guru Gobind Singh (1666 – 1708 CE) arrived in Nanded with the mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I (1643 – 1712 CE) near the end of August in 1707 CE. When Bahadur moved on to Golconda Singh remained in Nanded. Singh proclaimed he was the last (tenth) living guru and established the sacred text, the Guru Granth Sahib as an eternal "living" leader. Guru Gobind Singh died without a lineal descendant due to the martyrdom of his four sons.
Nanded is the second largest city in Marathawada after Aurangabad. Its area is 63.22 square kilometres (24.41 sq mi). Regarding cities in Maharshatra state, Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Nasik, Aurangabad, Solapur and Amravati are larger.
Nanded is built on the Deccan Traps lava flows of the upper cretaceous to lower eocene eras. The lava flows are overlain by thin alluvial deposits. The lava flows are horizontal and each flow has two distinct units. The highly weathered vesicular trap and underlying weathered jointed and fractured massive trap constitutes the main water-yielding zones. The soil is mostly formed from igneous rocks and are black, medium black, shallow and calcareous types having different depths and profiles.
The city of Nanded is managed by the Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation (NWCMC). The corporation consists of 81 democratically elected members. The Municipal Commissioner is the Chief Executive of the Corporation.
As of the 2011 census, Nanded had a population of 550,564. The municipality had a gender ratio of 924 females per 1,000 males. 12.4 percent of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 87.40 percent. 81.74 percent of women were literate. Male literacy was 92.68 percent.
Nanded is a centre for governance and a market town for its surrounding agricultural region. Tourism is supported by 10 million visitors and religious pilgrims. There is some industrial development.
Crops grown around Nanded include cotton, bananas, sugarcane, mangos, soya beans, sweet limes, and sorghum (jawar). Nanded has a regional cotton research center to support the cotton-growing industry. There is an agricultural school is operational under the aegis of Krishi Vidyapeeth of Parbhani.
On 17 September 1994, the Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University was established in Nanded after a restructuring of the Marathwada University in Aurangabad. The university supervises the educational activities in senior colleges in four districts of Marathwada division.
Notable educational institutions in Nanded include the Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College and the Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Engineering and Technology; 
Nanded is an historical city in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. Vedic rituals are performed on the banks of Godavari River These include Urvashi Ghat, Ram Ghat, and Govardhan Ghat.
Nanded's Hindu temples include:
Hazur Sahib was built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It is one of the Panj Takht ( the five seats of higher authority for Sikhs. It is built at the site of cremation of Guru Gobind Singh. His remains and weapons are preserved at the site.
Nanded fort is found 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from Nanded Railway Station. The Godavari river encloses the fort on three sides. There is a garden and water works.
The falls, located at Islapur village, are a favourite destination for tourists during the monsoon and are accessible by train.
Unkeshwar village in Kinwat taluka has a famous Shiva temple. Hot water springs with containing sulphur and phosphate are believed to have medicinal properties.
National highway 61 (Kalyan-Ahmednagar-Parbhani-Nanded-Nirmal), National highway 361 (Nagpur-Wardha-Yavatmal-Nanded-Latur-Solapur-Sangli-Kolhapur-Ratnagiri) and National highway 161 (Akola-Washim-Hingoli-Nanded-Degloor-Sangareddy) pass through the city. The State Road Transport Bus service operates to Nanded.
Nanded railway station is located on the Secunderabad – Manmad section of Nanded railway division of the South Central Railway Zone (SCR). Nanded station is the biggest station in Marathwada region. Forty-eight trains arrive each day. Maltekdi Railway Station is another railway station for Nanded.
The Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji Airport is served by daily Trujet Airlines flight to Hyderabad and Mumbai. Recently Air India started its operations, connecting Nanded to Amritsar with flights on Saturday and Sunday. Air India also starting direct flight to Delhi twice a week from 19 November 2018.