Nanakshahi calendar

The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ, nānakashāhī) calendar is a tropical solar calendar which is used in Sikhism and is based on the 'Barah Maha' (Punjabi: ਬਾਰਹ ਮਾਹਾ). Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months". It is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year.[1] The year begins with the month of Chet, with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March. The first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev.[2]

Guru Nanak Dev by Raja Ravi Varma
Guru Nanak Dev

Etymology

The Nanakshahi Calendar is named after the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak Dev.[3]

History

Sikhs have traditionally recognised two eras and luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars closely followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi (full moon) and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi.[4] The methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was also the same as the Bikrami solar year.[5] According to Steel (2000), (since the calendar was based on the Bikrami), the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2–3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart.[6] Kay (2011) abbreviates the Khalsa Era as KE.[7]

References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents.[8] Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 C.E. after his victory in Sirhind (12 May 1710 C.E.)[9] according to which the year 1710 C.E. became Nanakshahi 241. However, Singh (2008) states the date of the victory as 14 May 1710 CE.[10] According to Dilagira (1997), Banda "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar".[11] Banda Singh Bahadur also minted new coins also called Nanakshahi.[12] Herrli (1993) states that "Banda is supposed to have dated his coins according to his new calendar. Although Banda may have proclaimed this era, it cannot be traced in contemporary documents and does not seem to have been actually used for dating".[13]According to The Panjab Past and Present (1993), it is Gian Singh who "is the first to use Nanak Shahi Samvats along with those of Bikrami Samvats" in the Twarikh Guru Khalsa.[14] According to Singha (1996), Gian Singh was a Punjabi author born in 1822.[15] Gian Singh wrote the Twarikh Guru Khalsa in 1891.[16]

The revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar.[17] The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on what is 14 March in the Gregorian Western calendar.[18] The start of each month is fixed.[19] According to Kapel (2006), the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar.[20] This is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year[21] instead of using the sidereal year which is used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars.

The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998[22] but implemented in 2003[23][24] by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. The calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership.[18] Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, and accurately fixes for all time in the future.[25]

Features of the Nanakshahi calendar (2003)

Features of the Original Nanakshahi calendar (2003 Version):[26][27]

  • Uses the accurate Tropical year (365 Days, 5 Hours, 48 Minutes, 45 Seconds) rather than the Sidereal year
  • Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak (Founder of Sikhism)
  • Year 1 is the Year of Guru Nanak's Birth (1469 CE). As an example, March 25, 2019 CE is Nanakshahi 551.
  • Is Based on Gurbani[28] – Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib[29]
  • Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days
  • Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month (Phagun) has an extra day
  • Approved by Akal Takht in 2003[30]

Months

No. Name Punjabi Days Gregorian Months Season[31]
1 Chet ਚੇਤ 31 14 March – 13 April Basant (Spring)
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ 31 14 April – 14 May Basant (Spring)
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ 31 15 May – 14 June Garikham (Summer)
4 Harh ਹਾੜ 31 15 June – 15 July Garisham (Summer)
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ 31 16 July – 15 August Rut Baras (Rainy season)
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ 30 16 August – 14 September Rut Baras (Rainy season)
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ 30 15 September – 14 October Sard (Autumn)
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ 30 15 October – 13 November Sard (Autumn)
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ 30 14 November – 13 December Sisiar (Winter)
10 Poh ਪੋਹ 30 14 December – 12 January Sisiar (Winter)
11 Magh ਮਾਘ 30 13 January – 11 February Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ 30/31 12 February – 13 March Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)

Controversy

In 2010, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee ("SGPC") modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase. This has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version, also called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar"[32] and others, the 2010 version.[33] By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the original Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted to the Bikrami calendar entirely, however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi.[34] The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the RSS and Shiromani Akali Dal.[35] There is also some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world.[27]

SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current (2010) Nanakshahi calendar.[36] The previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 23 Poh (5 January) as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied.[37] The PSGPC and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth.[35]

According to Ahaluwalia (2003), the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory. It begins with the year of birth of Guru Nanak Dev, but the first date, 1 Chet, is when Guru Har Rai was installed the seventh Guru.[38] However, the first date of the Nanakshahi calendar (1 Chet) is based upon the Barah Maha of the Guru Granth Sahib, which has Chet as the first month.[39] Pal Singh Purewal, as reported in the Edmonton Journal (March 2018) has stated that his aims in formulating the Nanakshahi calendar were, "first and foremost, it should respect sacred holy scriptures. Second, it should discard the lunar calendar and use only a solar one. Third, all the dates should be fixed and not vary from year to year."[34] In reality however, state Haar and Kalsi (2009), the introduction of the Nanakshahi calendar has resulted in many festivals being "celebrated on two dates depending on the choice of the management of the local gurdwaras."[40]

Months (2010 version)

The start date of the months in the current Nanakshahi calendar are not fixed.[3]

No. Name Punjabi Gregorian Months Season[31]
1 Chet ਚੇਤ March – April Basant (Spring)
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ April – May Basant (Spring)
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ May – June Garikham (Summer)
4 Harh ਹਾੜ June – July Garisham (Summer)
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ July – August Rut Baras (Rainy season)
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ August – September Rut Baras (Rainy season)
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ September – October Sard (Autumn)
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ October – November Sard (Autumn)
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ November – December Sisiar (Winter)
10 Poh ਪੋਹ December – January Sisiar (Winter)
11 Magh ਮਾਘ January – February Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ February – March Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)

Festivals and events (2003 version)

Dates of observance of festivals as determined by reference to the 2003 version.

Festivals and events (Original Nanakshahi calendar)[41] Nanakshahi date Gregorian date
Guru Har Rai becomes the 7th Guru
Nanakshahi New Year Commences
1 Chet 14 Mar
Guru Hargobind merges back to the Creator 6 Chet 19 Mar
The ordination of the Khalsa
Birth of Guru Nanak (Vaisakhi Date)[42]
1 Vaisakh 14 Apr
Guru Angad merges back to the Creator
Guru Amar Das becomes the 3rd Guru
Guru Harkrishan merges back to the Creator
Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes the 9th Guru
3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Birth of Guru Angad, the 2nd Guru
Birth of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the 9th Guru
5 Vaisakh 18 Apr
Birth of Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru 19 Vaisakh 2 May
Birth of Guru Amar Das, the 3rd Guru 9 Jeth 23 May
Guru Hargobind becomes the 6th Guru 28 Jeth 11 Jun
Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru, is martyred 2 Harh 16 Jun
Foundation Day of the Akaal Takht 18 Harh 16 Jun
Birth of Guru Hargobind, the 6th Guru 21 Harh 5 Jul
Miri-Piri is established by Guru Hargobind 6 Sawan 21 Jul
Birth of Guru Harkrishan, the 8th Guru 8 Sawan 23 Jul
The writing of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is completed 15 Bhadon 30 Aug
Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is installed at the Golden Temple for the first time 17 Bhadon 1 Sep
Guru Amar Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Ram Das becomes the 4th Guru
Guru Ram Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Arjan becomes the 5th Guru
2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Angad becomes the 2nd Guru 4 Assu 18 Sep
Guru Nanak merges back to the Creator 8 Assu 22 Sep
Birth of Guru Ram Das, the 4th Guru 25 Assu 9 Oct
Guru Har Rai merges back to the Creator
Guru Harkrishan becomes the 8th Guru
The Guru Granth Sahib is declared as the Guru for all times to come by Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last human Guru
6 Katak 20 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh merges back to the Creator 7 Katak 21 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh becomes the 10th Guru 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Guru Tegh Bahadur martyred in Delhi by Aurangzeb for defending the oppressed 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Ajit Singh, and Jujhar Singh, the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, martyred in the battle of Chamkaur 8 Poh 21 Dec
Zorawar Singh, and Fateh Singh, the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh, executed in Sirhind 13 Poh 26 Dec
Birth of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru 23 Poh 5 Jan
Birth of Guru Har Rai, the 7th Guru 19 Magh 31 Jan

Movable dates for Sikh Festivals in the 2003 and 2010 versions. (These change every year in line with the Lunar Phase)[43]

Year Hola Mohalla Bandi Chhor Divas Birth of Guru Nanak Dev
2003 19 Mar 25 Oct 8 Nov
2004 7 Mar 12 Nov 26 Nov
2005 26 Mar 1 Nov 15 Nov
2006 15 Mar 21 Oct 5 Nov
2007 4 Mar 9 Nov 24 Nov
2008 22 Mar 28 Oct 13 Nov
2009 11 Mar 17 Oct 2 Nov
2010 1 Mar 5 Nov 21 Nov
2011 20 Mar 26 Oct 10 Nov
2012 9 Mar 13 Nov 28 Nov
2013 28 Mar 3 Nov 17 Nov
2014 17 Mar 23 Oct 6 Nov
2015 6 Mar 11 Nov 25 Nov
2016 24 Mar 30 Oct 14 Nov
2017 13 Mar 19 Oct 4 Nov
2018 2 Mar 7 Nov 23 Nov
2019 21 Mar 27 Oct 12 Nov
2020 10 Mar 14 Nov 30 Nov

See also

References

  1. ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press.
  2. ^ Singh, Jagraj (2009). A complete guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books.
  3. ^ a b J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann (2010) Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes]. ABC-Clio [1]
  4. ^ Singh, Harbans (1998) The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism: S-Z. Publications Bureau [2]
  5. ^ Proceedings – Punjab History Conference, Volume 27, Part 1 (1996) Punjabi University [3]
  6. ^ Steel, Duncan (2000) v. Wiley
  7. ^ Kay, Michael (2011) XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 Programmer's Reference. John Wiley & Sons[4]
  8. ^ Harajindara Siṅgha Dilagīra, A. T. Kerr (1995) Akal Takht Sahib. Sikh Educational Trust in collaboration with the Sikh University Centre, Denmark [5]
  9. ^ Gandhi, Surjit Singh (1999) Sikhs in the Eighteenth Century: Their Struggle for Survival and Supremacy. Singh Bros [6]
  10. ^ Singh, Patwant (2008) Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen[7]
  11. ^ Dilagīra, Harajindara Singha (1997) The Sikh Reference Book. Sikh Educational Trust for Sikh University Centre, Denmark [8]
  12. ^ Dhillon, Harish (2013) First Raj of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Banda Singh Bahadur. Hay House [9]
  13. ^ Herrli, Hans (1993) The Coins of the SikhsIndian Coin Societ[10]
  14. ^ The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 27, Issue 1. Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University [11]
  15. ^ Siṅgha, Sukhadiāla (1996) Historical analysis of Giani Gian Singh's writings.UICS [12]
  16. ^ The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 32 (2001) Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University[13]
  17. ^ Chilana, Rajwant Singh (2006) International Bibliography of Sikh Studies. Springer Science & Business Media [14]
  18. ^ a b "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  19. ^ Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies
  20. ^ Kepel, Martin (2006) The Structure and Mathematics of the Principal Calendars of the Western World: Muslim, Gregorian, Jewish, and Other Systems. Edwin Mellen Press [15]
  21. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2011) Religious Celebrations: L-Z. ABC-Clio
  22. ^ Louis E. Fenech, W. H. McLeod (2014) Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield [16]
  23. ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2008) South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora. Routledge [17]
  24. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016) Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press [18]
  25. ^ Bodiwala, Community Contributor Suresh. "Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two -day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar". Naperville Sun. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  26. ^ Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies
  27. ^ a b "Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC". BBC. 29 July 2003. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  28. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurbani And Nanakshahi Calendar" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  29. ^ "Bara Maha – SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". www.sikhiwiki.org. sikhiwiki.org. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  30. ^ Parkash, Chander (14 March 2003). "Nanakshahi calendar out". www.tribuneindia.com. The Tribune. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  31. ^ a b Kohli, Surindar Singh (1992) A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib.Manohar Publishers & Distributors [19]
  32. ^ Chicago Tribune (18 November 2017) Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two-day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar [20]
  33. ^ Singh, Surjit( 6 March 2018) Hindustan Times) HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar [21]
  34. ^ a b Sikhs around world celebrate new year using Edmonton man's calendar (14 March 2018) Edmonton Journal by Juris Graney [22]
  35. ^ a b Singh, Surjit (6 March 2018). "HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  36. ^ Tribune India (14.03.2018) SGPC: Follow Nanakshahi calendar
  37. ^ Singh, Surjit (13 November 2017). "Guru Gobind Singh's birth anniversary: Akal Takht rejects SGPC plea to extend parkash parv date". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  38. ^ Āhalūwālīā, Jasabīra Siṅgha (2003) Liberating Sikhism from 'the Sikhs': Sikhisim's [sic] Potential for World Civilization. Unistar books [23]
  39. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Reply to Mr. Gurcharanjit Singh Lamba's criticism of Nanakshahi Calendar first implemented in 1999 CE" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  40. ^ Haar, Kristen and Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2009) Sikhism. Infobase Publishing [24]
  41. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurpurbs (Fixed Dates)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  42. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Birth Date of Guru Nanak Sahib" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  43. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Movable Dates of Gurpurbs (Change Every Year)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.

External links

Assu

Assu is the seventh month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the Sikh tradition. This month coincides with Ashvin in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and September and October in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Balwant Singh Nandgarh

Balwant Singh Nandgarh is a Sikh politician and Jathedar of Takht Sri Damdama Sahib, one of five seats of temporal authority of Sikhism.Balwant Singh was a farmer in Nandgarh, Bathinda, Punjab, India. In 1997, he became a member of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC). According to Gurcharan Singh Tohra, Nandgarh was given ticket to contest elections for SGPC because he was the only applicant to introduce himself as "Khalsa". In 2003, he was made the Jathedar of Takht Sri Damdama Sahib. In 2007, Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh, head of Dera Sacha Sauda had appeared in an advertisement dressed up as Guru Gobind Singh, 10th Sikh guru. This resulted in a widespread clashes between Dera followers and Sikhs. Nandgarh formed a Sikh group called Ek Noor Khalsa Fauj to stop the religious gathering of Dera Sacha Sauda.

Bhadon

Bhadon (Punjabi: ਭਾਦੋਂ, Bengali: ভাদ্র, Vaadro) is the sixth month of the Nanakshahi calendar and Punjabi calendar. This month coincides with Bhadra in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and August and September in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long.

Chet (month)

Chet (Punjabi: ਚੇਤ) is a first month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which govern the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with This month coincides with Chaitra in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and March and April in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long. Also during this month, the second son of Guru Gobind Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh was born on 9 April 1691.

Gurpurb

A Gurpurab ((Punjabi: ਗੁਰਪੁਰਬ)) in Sikh tradition is a celebration of an anniversary of a Guru's birth marked by the holding of a festival.

There are indications in the old chronicles that the gurus who succeeded Guru Nanak celebrated his birthday. Such importance was attached to the anniversaries that dates of the deaths of the first four gurus were recorded on a leaf in the first recension of the Scripture prepared by the Fifth Guru, Guru Arjan. The term gurpurab first appeared in the time of the gurus. It is a compound of the word purab (or parva in Sanskrit), meaning a festival or celebration, with the word guru. It occurs in at least five places in the writings of Bhai Gurdas (1551–1636), written in the time of Guru Arjan Dev Ji (5th Guru of the Sikhs).

Among the more important gurpurbs in the Nanakshahi calendar are the birth anniversaries of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh, the martyrdom days of Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur, and of the installation of the Guru Granth Sahib in the Harimandar at Amritsar. Other important gurpurbs include Baisakhi, which commemorates the creation of the Khalsa Panth, and the martyrdom days of the young sons of Guru Gobind Singh.

Gurpurabs are a mixture of the religious and the festive, the devotional and the spectacular, the personal and the communal. Over the years a standardized pattern has evolved, but this pattern has no special sanctity, and local groups may invent their own variations. During these celebrations, the Guru Granth Sahib is read through, in private homes and in the gurdwaras, in a single continuous ceremony lasting 48 hours. This reading, called Akhand Path, must be without interruption; the relay of reciters who take turns at saying the Scripture ensures that no break occurs.

Special assemblies are held in gurdwaras and discourses given on the lives and teachings of the gurus. Sikhs march in processions through towns and cities chanting the holy hymns. Special langars, or community meals, are held for the participants. Partaking of a common meal on these occasions is reckoned an act of merit. Programmes include initiating those not already initiated into the order of the Khalsa in the manner in which Guru Gobind Singh had done in 1699. Sikh journals and newspapers bring out their special numbers to mark the event. Public functions are held, besides the more literary and academic ones in schools and colleges. Gurpurbs commemorating birth anniversaries may include illuminations in gurdwaras and in residential houses. Friends and families exchange greetings. Printed cards like those used to commemorate holidays in the West are also coming into vogue.

Sikh fervour for gurpurab celebration reached new heights during the tercentenary of Guru Gobind Singh’s birth in 1967. This event evoked widespread enthusiasm and initiated long-range academic and literary programmes. It also set a new trend and format. Many subsequent gurpurbs were celebrated with similar fervor, including the fifth centennial of Guru Nanak’s birth in 1969 and the first centenary of the birth of the Singh Sabha in 1973. There is no firm evidence that centennials before the 1967 gurpurb were similarly observed. Max Arthur Macauliffe, a prominent 19th-century Sikh scholar, proposed a special celebration in 1899 for the second centennial of the Khalsa's creation, but it did not receive much popular support.

Guru Nanak Gurpurab

Guru Nanak Gurpurab, also known as Guru Nanak's Prakash Utsav and Guru Nanak Jayanti, celebrates the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak. This is one of the most sacred festivals in Sikhism, or Sikhi.The festivities in the Sikh religion revolve around the anniversaries of the 10 Sikh Gurus. These Gurus were responsible for shaping the beliefs of the Sikhs. Their birthdays, known as Gurpurab, are occasions for celebration and prayer among the Sikhs.

Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, was born on Vaisakhi Day, April 5, 1469 [O.S. March 27, 1469] (Vaisakh 1, 1526 Bikrami) in Rai-Bhoi-di Talwandi in the present Shekhupura District of Pakistan, now Nankana Sahib. It is a Gazetted holiday in India.

According to the controversial Bhai Bala Janamsakhi, it claims Guru Nanak was born on the Full Moon (Pooranmashi) of the Indian Lunar Month Katik. The Sikhs have been celebrating Guru Nanak's Gurpurab around November for this reason and has it been ingrained in Sikh Traditions.However, some scholars and organizations believe the Birthday should be celebrated on Vaisakhi, which falls on April 14 according to the original Nanakshahi Calendar passed by Sri Akal Takht in 2003. However, many people and organizations would like to keep the traditional date by celebrating on the Full Moon Day (Pooranmashi or Purnima) of the Lunar Month Kartik. The original Nanakshahi Calendar follows the tradition and celebrates it on Kartik Purnima due to demands by various Sikh Saints.

Harh

Harh (Punjabi: ਹਾੜ) is the fourth month of the Nanakshahi calendar. This month coincides with This month coincides with Ashadha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and June and July of the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days in length.

During this month, the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev was martyred by the Mughals.

Jeth

Jeth (Punjabi: ਜੇਠ) is a third month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which govern the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Jyeshtha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and May and June in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long.

Jujhar Singh

Sahibzada Jujhar Singh (14 March 1691 – 22 December 1705), the second son of Guru Gobind Singh, was born to Mata Jito at Anandpur Sahib. This event is now celebrated on April 9 each year according to the Nanakshahi Calendar).

Katak

Katak (Punjabi: ਕੱਤਕ) is the eighth month of the Nanakshahi calendar. This month coincides with Kartik in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and October and November in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Magh (Sikh calendar)

Magh (Punjabi: ਮਾਘ) is the eleventh month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Magha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and January and February in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Maghar (month)

Maghar (Punjabi: ਮੱਘਰ) is the ninth month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Agrahayana in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and November and December in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Mela Maghi

Mela Maghi, held at the holy city of Sri Muktsar Sahib each year in January, or the month of Magh according to Nanakshahi calendar is one of the most important melas (fairs) of India and the most important of all religiously significant gatherings of the Sikhs.Guru Amar Das Ji chose Maghi as one of the three festivals to be celebrated by Sikhs (the others being Baisakhi and Diwali).After the battle of Muktsar which took place on 8 May 1705, (21 Vaisakh 1762 Bikrami calendar) Maghi became to be associated with the forty Sikhs and the battle of Muktsar.

The Maghi fair is held to honour the memory of the forty Sikh warriors killed during the Battle of Muktsar in 1705. Muktsar, originally called Khidrana, was named as Muktsar ("the pool of liberation") following the battle. These forty Sikhs, led by their leader Mahan Singh, had formally deserted Sri Guru Gobind Singh in the need of hour, and signed a written memorandum to the effect. When Mai Bhago, a valiant and upright lady, heard of this cowardly act, she scolded the Singh's and inspired them refresh with spirit of bravery for which Sikhs are known. Hence, the unit went back and joined the Guru who was already engaged in action at Khidrana. All forty of them attained martyrdom. The memorandum (bedawa) was torn-down by the Guru himself just before Mahan Singh died.

People gather from all over Punjab, even other parts of India to join the festival which is in fact spread over many days. Merchants display their wares for sale, which include from trinkets to high-end electronics, the weapons Nihangs bear and especially agricultural machinery (since most around are farmers). The country's biggest circuses, Apollo and Gemini, are there as a matter of rule, merry-go-rounds and giant wheels, and the famous Well of Death (trick motorcycling inside consortium of wood planks) are the special attraction for children.

While kids enjoy the rides, there are tuck shops that are quite a find. Women buy crockery and home decor, men mostly interest in special (name embedded on rice grain) keyrings, posters. Kids have special corner for toys and other things. The shops sell out goggles, kitchen utensils, makeup, shoes and clothes, all in average quality and lowest market possible cost. You don't need big bucks to shop a lot. However, very limited use of electronic payments is done, as the end merchant is a poor villager, hardly touched by digital world.

It is also a very important occasion from the political point of view, as all the significant politicos, including the chief minister are there on the main day. All major political leaders/ parties hold separate stages to throw political dirt at one another. Such arrangement needs extremely tight police -up which is met by calling out forces, sometimes even CRPF and BSF battalions from neighboring areas.

Month

A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of Moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital period with respect to the Earth-Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.

Mool Nanakshahi Calendar

The Mool Nanakshahi Calendar is gathering momentum across the world as Sikhs yearn to follow fixed dates which are an accurate historic representation of the Sikh History. This provides the platform for Sikhs to agree on a common calendar. Sardar Pal Singh Purewal, the main architect of the calendar, has written scholarly articles on this issue and explains the difference between the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar and Bikrami Calendars. There is a difference between the Nanakshai Calendar and the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar as such as the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar fixes dates which were movable in the Nanakshahi Calendar.

Phagun

for the 1958 Bollywood film see Phagun (1958 film)Phagun (Punjabi: ਫੱਗਣ) is the twelfth and last month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Phalguna in the Hindu calendar and the Indian National calendar, and February and March of the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 or 31 days long.

Poh

Poh (Punjabi: ਪੋਹ) is the tenth month in the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Pausha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and December and January in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Sawan

Sawan (Hindi: सावन, Punjabi: ਸਾਵਣ) is a fifth month in the Hindu calendar.

It is derived from Sanskrit: श्रावण. Many Indian calendars started in different eras such as Shaka Calendar ( national calendar of India) traditional Vikrama as well as a new Nanakshahi calendar created few years ago by SGPC which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Shraavana in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and July and August in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long, like the Gregorian and Julian calendars.

This month is the most humid month of the year in south Asia.

Vaisakh

Vaisakh (Punjabi: ਵੈਸਾਖ, Hindi: वैसाख) is the second month in the Nanakshahi calendar. This month coincides with April and May in the Gregorian calendar and to Vaisakha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar; it comprises the time of crop-harvesting in the Punjab region.

Vaisakhi is the most important festival in the Sikh calendar, taking place on the first lunar month of Vaisakh, which falls on 14 April each year. On this day, the Khalsa was created and much celebration takes place in the form of Samagams, Nagar Kirtan, Gatka exhibitions, Akand Paths and so on.

On the 16th of this month, Guru Angad and Guru Har Krishan took leave for their higher abode and passed the Guruship to Guru Amar Das and Guru Tegh Bahadur respectively. Moreover, on the 18th, the Sikhs celebrate the birthday of Guru Angad Dev (the second Sikh Guru) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (the ninth Sikh Guru).

Khanda emblem.svg Nanakshahi calendar Khanda emblem.svg
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